“After the name of the Holder of the sun and moon (God),
“Towards whom is no way for reflection,

“The lord of command and of those order-bearing;
“The sender of the revelation of (to) the prophets.

“—By His order, beneath the blue sphere,
“To those of good name may many blessings be!”—

Then he (Sikandar) urged speech, saying:—“O warrior!
“May thy back be strong and throne youthful!


“My judgment on that matter was, that I resolved
“I would contend with the mace with the elephant (Kaid):

“Would show a victory to the world (of Hindústán);
“For by my steel the mountain becomes shattered.

“Would set fire to Hindústán;
“Would not leave in that land a neck-extender (chief);


This couplet is uttered by Niámí.

“Would cast the noose over the head of the terrible elephant;
“Would bring forth from the blood the red madder-root from the (jar of) indigo:

“Would moisten with blood all its soil;
“Would put dust upon the source of all its water.


“Since thou heldest thy face towards amity,
“I turned not the rein from rectitude.

“By thy sweet words, life-cherishing,
“I was thy lord; I became thy servant (agreeable to peace).

“In seeking protection, thou levelledst the path to my heart;
“With the magic (of kind words) of the tongue thou fastenedst a knot (on my tongue so that I can utter only kind words).

“Do so, as this covenant, good-displaying,
“May it remain in place (firm) among our descendants!

“If thou send those four jewels to me,
“I will in this (thy) assembly make a treaty with thee,


“That, if seven territories be full of troops,
“A hair of thy land shall not be injured.

“I will make alliance for good or bad with thee;
“Will exercise firmness in respect to these words.”

The sent one (Balínás), when he read out the letter to Kaid,
Caused the sender's blessing to reach him.


In India, the land of magic, magicians are wont to utter incantations over a piece of thread. See Sale's Ḳurán, chap. cxiv.


The covenant refers to the giving of his daughter to Sikander. See canto xlv. couplet 67.

Of tales and fables, heart-enchanting,
He opened to him the door of incantations (flatteries).

From his magic art and sorcery
Kaid became wholly his slave.


—I have heard that there are many Hindú magicians;
I read not that anyone was a magician of (over) a Hindú.—

When for a while in his own place he urged speech,
He presented the present brought.

The heart of Kaid, the Hindú, came from its place (void of fear);
Of the world-seeker (Sikandar), he became an adorer:

Uttered many praises on the monarch,
Saying:—Be not the lofty sky without him!

He cherished the sent one (Balínás) work-knowing;
Asked respite one week, until he executed the task (of delivering the gifts).


When the week passed, and the task was done,
Disengaged from the work,—he prepared (to send the gifts):

Performed homage to the king in order-obeying;
Entrusted the (four) things agreed upon to the messenger:

Besides these four precious ornaments,
Other valuable articles, heart-pleasing,—

Of treasure, and gold, and jewels, and of the ruby, and the pearl,—
Of elephants many a back full of (laden with) treasure,


Note that the word kaid signifies—the rája Kaid, and deceit; ḳaid signifies—bonds.

Of steel of Hindústán many loads:
Of aloe (-wood) and of amber in ass-loads:


Like moving mountains, forty large elephants,
Beyond whose navel the river Nile passed not.

For the king's throne, three white elephants,
At which (in envy) the enemy's face became black.

To Balínás,—also treasure complete,
Both of musk matured (dried in the bladder of the deer) and of aloe raw (pure):

In a couch of aloe-wood, the Parí-girl,
To whom the cradle of the sky kept performing homage,—

He despatched with treasures like these;
The world (the burden-bearers) suffered toils in (delivering) each (to Sikandar).


Balínás—gold and jewellery of this kind,
Which were each better than a territory,

Took to his own world-possessor (Sikandar).
—Behold how he (Sikandar, without trouble) brought to the front (concluded) his world-sovereignty!—

When the king beheld the treasure sent,
Such a desired object, God-given (without toil),

He became so pleased with that treasure,
That the treasury of Rúm passed from his recollection.

He applied the proof to those four things;
So it was as he (Kaid) said; than that, also more.


“Parí-dukhtar” signifies:—

(a) A girl, Parí-like.

(b) The daughter of a Parí.


The second line may be:—

When he (Balínás) brought the treasure before (Sikandar),—behold the sovereignty of the world (so great was the treasure)!


When he looked into the water of the cup, world-gleaming,
He beheld the people (of the assembly) satiated with one draught (cupful) of it.

When with the philosopher he came into conversation,
He obtained information (even) of the old work (of the world).

When he expressed breath, the auspicious physician
Took sickness (agitation before examination) from the body; sense (of examination) from the heart.

When the turn came to that hidden treasure (the damsel),
One of Chín appeared from Hindústán.

He considered her more beautiful than that one,
Whose qualities the appraiser makes (considers) heart-pleasing.


He beheld—a rose, fragrant of smell, unseen of dust;
A spring-time, uninjured by the cold wind (of autumn):

A Parí-form, like the adorned rose;
A Parí and an idol sprung from the Hindús:

The mouth small, and the head round, and the eye-brow open;
A face like the red rose on the verdant bough,

In sweetness, more luscious than rose-conserve;
In softness, more tender of bosom than the rose:

The fold of her tress like the noose, whorl within whorl,
—All the Chínís (lovely women) slaves to her (tress-) fold.—


In most copies, the first line is:—

The mouth small, and the head about the eye-brow,—open.


Was musk perfumed like the deer of Chín;
She had devoured cloves in Hindústán (and perfumed her mouth).

Not a tress, but a chain of pure musk,
Let fall like a cloud on the sun (the ruddy cheek)!

On account of that fresh musk (the tress) rose-water besprinkled,
The moon (its lover, coming forth) from Virgo clung to the perfume (the tress, more resplendent than Virgo).

With that kind of beauty—her complexion, wheaten (fair);
The mole,—its size a barley-corn, black like musk.

From the wheat (her fair complexion), musk-diffusing, she displayed (black) barley (the black mole);
Not like the barley-sellers, wheat-displaying.


A moon of soldier-cheek, of Hind-nature;
From (black) Hindústán, Paradise given to the king. (What a wonder!)

Not a Hindú; but in name a soldier of Khatay;
For heart-ravishing, perfect, like the Hindú (the notorious thief):

With her Rúmish (ruddy) face and the Hindú ball (the black mole),
The king of the people of Rúm became her slave (adorer).



(The tress) in its fold was musk-perfumed like the deer (of Chín);

It had devoured cloves (perfumes) in Hindústán.


The second line may be:—

The moon (her face coming forth) from Virgo (sweat-drops like ears of corn) suspended spikenard (her perfumed tress).


The first line may be:—

(a) With that kind of beauty,—(on) her wheaten (fair) complexion.

(b) On that kind of wheaten (fair) complexion of hers.


She was not like those women whose beauty is borrowed from paint and dress.

One of sweet laughter, straight like the sugar-cane,
Witty, and pleasant, and fresh, and sweet, and joyous:

A painting,—with this beauty and heart-attraction;
With the jewel both (of the purity) of water, and also (of the splendour) of fire.


When the king beheld he came before her;
The bride, so heart-enchanting, came to him.

By the custom of Ishák (Isaac) of happy origin,
By which (religion), wisdom's eye obtained collyrium (luminosity),—

The king fastened on her the bridal ornament;
And, after that, gave way to his desire for her:

For a present to the army-holder of Hindústán (Kaid),
He arranged—a carpet like the flower-garden:

Jewels in ass-loads, and brocade, and chattels;
The tent of panther-coloured silk and the golden throne (chest):


With the crown begemmed with cornelian and ruby;
With fiery Arab horses of steel-hoof:

With cups of emerald; with trays of cornelian;
Each one of them immersed in (encrusted with) jewels:


The second line may be:—

(a) With the nature both of water (softness) and of fire (sauciness).

(b) With the jewel both of water (the pearl) and of fire (the ruby, the ruddiness of the body).



She came before him (the king).


The presents were to be presented on the carpet.

In the following couplets “of” may be substituted for “with.”

With Chinese slaves, ring (of pearl and gold) in the ear;
With Rúmish damsels, gold-woven stuff wearing,—

More than that which one may bring into conception,
He sent; and Kaid became the accepter of obligation.

The world-king, Sikandar, (son) of Faylikús,
By reason of conjunction with that bride of moon-form,


Rested; for verily she was a lovely idol;
Was all kernel and the purified part of the kernel.

* * * * *
* * * * *

A pearl unpierced; a rose unblossomed,
The Humá (Sikandar) passed over her like a nightingale.

The rose laughed with the bud, and the pearl became pierced,
—Consider the speech, how covertly it was uttered!—

The world-possessor, when he obtained his desire from the world (of Hindústán),
Found ease from empire in that motion of travelling.


He sent one of his learned ones;
Much injunction passed as to his proceeding quickly to Istarakh.

He wrote those words whose purport was
Of the conquest of the land of musky blackness (Hindú-stán),

Saying:—“In Hindústán my work was such,
“As is the object of the heart of friends.


Observe—jahán khusrau signifies—the world-king; khusrau-i-jahán, the king of the world.


“Pálúda-maghz” signifies—a substance made of white sugar, almonds, pistachio nuts, fir cones, and the cocoa-nut; or being clear-headed.


In some copies, kard occurs in place of shud.

“I disengaged myself from malice-seeking towards Kaid;
“When he became friendly I became concordant with the friend (Kaid).

“I desire to go to Kannauj towards Fúr (Fúrán, Porus);
“Be God my friend in this long journey!


“There, I will see what happens to me;
“To me, work may perhaps come according to my desire.

“Thou art our regent (at Persepolis) in every land and clime,
“From the sea of Chín to the confines of Rúm.

“Give news to the world (Irán) of our victory (over Hindústán);
“Give out joyful tidings of us.

“The soldiers, and the citizens, and the youths, and the old men,
“Who are from our country—of them without fail,

“The heart of each one make joyous (with wealth) for our sake;
“Invoke blessing, and give instruction, and exercise justice!”


A letter like this on every matter (contained in the letter to the Viceroy of Persepolis) he wrote;
(And) sent a foot-messenger to every territory:

Also the affair (of journeying) of the precious bride (Kaid's daughter),
He arranged so that she went to the Greek-land:


“Kár bar árástan” signifies—sar-i-anjám dádan-i-sámán-i-safr.

Gave her the escort of his own trusty ones (“the com­panions”),
Verily, made injunction (regarding her safety) beyond limit:

Behind (along with) that litter laden with decoration,
He sent some camel-loads of treasure:

Made a place within the earth for the other treasure;
Kept its mark (tilism) with the guide (the treasure-guard):


Wrote a letter to the sage minister,
Whose nature was endowed with knowledge and equity;

Gave him information of all good and bad;
Of the victory of his own well-wishers (his upright nobles).

When with a free heart the king reposed (after subduing Kaid),
He pitched the door of the court towards the people of (King) Fúr (of the city Kannauj):

Renewed the royal usage and custom, in such a way
That he made Hindústán full of renown:

On the world (Hindústán) he pressed his foot with (was firm in) justice and liberality;
By this power he took power from the world;


He drank sweet wine to the memory of Kay Khusrau,
As kings of this time drink in memory of him (Sikandar).

Come, cup-bearer! that water (ruddy) like the arghaván tree,
From which the worn-out old man becomes young,


The temperament (abí'at) is produced by the mixing (imtizáj) of four humours (khil); hence, they call the temperament abí'at, and the mixture, sirisht.

Give me, that by it I may practise youthfulness (do as a young man);
(And) may make the yellow rose (the face yellow with age) ruddy in colour.