O heart! in this sport-exciting how long?
For the sake of every kind of delicious food a condiment mixing!

At thy door, was reared the tree of desire;
Twist its head that it may not twist thy head (in the day of want).



O heart! how long with this sport-exciting (of Time),

With both hands a colour setting up (on the cheeks, as is the custom of women)?

The second line may be:—

On every hand a deceit (to capture men) concocting.


Cut down the head of the tree at thy door, lest it cause trouble to thy head and turban,

Pure wine not drunk (carnal pleasures unenjoyed)—thou displayest the intoxication (of lust);
And if thou drinkest wine (enjoyest carnal pleasures),— thou doest the act of the idol-worshipper.

Since, without saffron (delicious viands), thou hast become affected with laughter (contemning the victuals given thee by God),
Eat (seek) not saffron that thou be not destroyed (on account of ingratitude to God, deprived of victuals).


Like kings, contract not the habit for pleasant tasting victuals;
Be afraid of the day of helplessness (the Judgment Day).

From (the hardship of) this fiery house (the sky and the earth) the hard-striver (for injury),
That one took (saved) his life who was hardship endurer.

From the hardship (of the sky and earth) one can with hardship (-enduring, or little eating) take one's chattels;
With sulphur and naphtha (soft substances, the mother of fire), no one's (fierce) fire (of desire) expired.

Of the throne years endured, the historian (Nizámí)
Draws the painting (this tale) from that blue (written record) in this way,

That—when the Khusrau (Sikandar) from Kay Khusrau's throne,
Came with swift motion towards the army,


If, in both lines, ma kun be read for kuní, the couplet will be:—

Pure wine not drunk (delicious viands unenjoyed), display not desire for it (lest in the day of want thou suffer);

And if thou drink it, display not idolatry (unthankfulness to God).

“But parastí” signifies—idol-worshipping, or being an infidel.

“Kufr” signifies—being unbelieving (an infidel); ingratitude.


One day, sitting on the throne,
He bound his chattels in thought of the march.

A footman, a hastener like the wind, entered;
Gave the ground-kiss, after the usage of footmen:

Uttered the hidden mystery (in his heart) to the world-king;
Gave him news of the known and unknown,

Saying:—“For the threshold-kiss of this court,
“I have come to the king from the throne of Istrakh (Persepolis).

“Nizhád Malik, the vice-regent of the monarch,
“Displays proof of speech like this,


“That as long as the king, over the loosening and binding (the government) that he had,
“Appointed his own vice-regent (Nizhád Malik),

“I kept the country before and after in such a way,
“That not an injury came from one to another.

“On the condition which I had in the king's treaty,
“I preserved the articles agreed to (by me).

“Praise be to God! from anything, high or low,
“No injury came to this country to the extent of a hair.

“But when the sphere began to revolve,
“It revolves with hate and love around the world.


“Time is pregnant with good and bad;
“The star is sometimes the friend, sometimes the enemy.

“A tree unsown (origin unknown) comes up from Ray;
“It lays claim (to descent) from the seed of (Kay) Ká,us and Kay (Kubád):

“A terrible 'ifrít, an injurer,
“A hastener to the destruction (of man) like the dragon:

“The shepherds who practice deer-worshipping (deer-hunting),
“All make a walking-stick of his arrow:

“Verily, the man, the delver, tool-understander,
“Considers his two-headed arrow (by reason of its great size) a great mattock:


“The neck upreared like an Ahriman,
“Great lamentation cast in every city:

“With pretension, a head and a crown uplifted;
“For (acquiring) fame, a great amount of wealth gathered:

“Has gathered together some scattered ones (rascals),
“Who bring forth the dust (of destruction even) from the water of the river.

“Has become bold by his success;
“Verily, he alone has become the ruler:

“—Gold and silver in the end depart from that slave
“Who becomes equal to his own master.—


“The people of Khurásán draw his rein (for battle with thee):
“Draw him in the midst for contest with the king (Sikandar):


The herdsmen who practise deer-tending (in place of sheep-herding),

All make a stick (for beating leaves from trees) from his arrow.


The saying is:—“If thou go alone to the judge, thou wilt return contented.”

“Ba” in ba dáwar is redundant.


The property of that slave who boasts equality with his master will go to the wind when he is summoned before the judge. For by the decree—“the property of the slave is the property of the master,” the judge will confiscate his wealth to his master.


“'Inán kashídan” signifies—itá'at kardan.

“From the boundary of Nishápúr to the dust of Balkh,
“They make him bitter in hostility to us.

“Hair bound up (ready) for the chieftainship of calamity,
“He turns his face towards the place of thy crown (thy head).

“One, a calamity like this, who has become ardent in malice,
“Consider not a small matter,—if thou consider the small.

“From small things,—many a calamity becomes great,
“When the wolf's heel (endurance-imparting) is on the courier's foot.


“If this calamity remain a long time like this,
“It will extend its hand against the work of sovereignty.

“If the king bring not his moon (his elevated form) into the cloud (of concealment),
“He will with the sword seize the throne (of Istakhr).

“When the hawk (Sikandar) looses the (foot-) strap from his nest,
“The feather and the wing of the partridge (the enemy) become broken.

“So great in strength, not mine is an army,
“By which one can make blind the evil eye (of the enemy).

“In the land (of Irán), the chiefs of the army are few;
“At the monarch's court, they are the world.


“Even so although this demon-born one employs force,
“He still is strong of hand. Be his no hand (power)!


The second line may be:—

(a) When the wolf's heel (the thorn of Mughílán) is on the foot of the arrow.

(b) When (a shred of) the wolf's heel (poison-imparting) is on the foot of the arrow.

“Save the cold boisterous wind of the king's wind-fleet steeds,
“No one can take this dust (of calamity) from the road.”

When in speech the footman displayed subtlety,
He proved truthfulness by the written words of his speech.

Of mysteries hidden (until the message was delivered) for good and bad,
That indeed was in the writing as the bringer said.

The king of lion-heart, the Khusrau, robust of body,
In that matter said to himself:—


“Here—the throne of Kay Khusrau is beneath my sway;
“There—another (the 'Ifrit), bold against my throne.

“This crown and throne (that I stole from Dárá) resemble that tale,
“Namely,—A thief took (in theft) the chattels of a thief.

“Thus it becomes proper that I should bring assault,
“For peace with the enemy is wrong.”

—Perhaps the king's army was the sky,
Since it rested not a moment in its place.—

The world-káraván,—(its) chief was the king;
In that káraván, was much baggage.


Its load fell in every corner;
Verily, work fell on its work (kept increasing).

In that work (the falling of the káraván-loads) he (Sikandar) was its only friend;
For the protection seeker, he became the grievance-redresser.


Instead of “its” one may read “his” (Sikandar's).


Of everyone whose load had fallen Sikandar was the friend in assisting him to raise it.

When fortune brings to the front (produces) a world-revolver (a traveller),
It is not possible to strike the axe on one's own foot (to desist from action).

The monarch went forth from that marching-place (near Sarír),
By the sea-shore, shore after shore.

The army took forth his (lofty) standard from the moon;
It brought forth the shaft like a mountain Besitún.


In prey-overthrowing he travelled the road;
When both the prey was good (fat) and also the hunting-scene (fresh and green).

From its great weight the ear of corn was bent down;
Of the game (on account of fatness), the fleetness had become less and the power of running.

By the many leaping torrents of that place, abounding in streams,—
The dust (of Time), scattered from the world's face.

With lightning the April cloud began to agitate,—
Thunder with harsh sound brought forth.

The vein of (growth of) vegetation became strong in the earth;
The leaves of trees began to dance (in the soft wind):


From the sweet cry of the fore-finger (the beak) of the patch-weaver (the nightingale),
The morning-wind (in ecstasy) rent the soft silken under­garment of the rose to the navel (the base of the bud).


This hunting-place was different from that near Sarír. See canto xliii. couplet 101.



The lip of the great river, with its many torrents,

Washed dust from the world's face.


The nightingale being often compared to the player of a musical instrument, its beak is compared to the fore-finger of the harper.

Proudly moving (by wind-action) on the steed of motley-coloured hoof (the rose-stem),—
The red rose,—beneath the red pomegranate:

Two first-fruits,—both the mulberry and also the mul­berry-leaf,
Profit extracted from the sweetmeat (made of the fruit) and the silk (made of the worm-eaten leaf).

Earth (with vegetation) like gold; and the water (from the reflection of the blue sky) like lapis lazuli,—
Like a piece of brocade,—half blue, half gold.

The cooing of the dove,—better than the blatant noise of music,—
Brought forth melody for the field-watchers:


The barley-stalk, the swelling (of ripeness) fixed on its loin-place,—
The blessing of harvest (had) arrived to the villager:

The deer of the plain, belly made big (with food),—
Against it, sharper made the wolf's tooth.

“Zand-báf” (zand-láf; zand áf; zand-khwán; zand wáf) signifies— the nightingale whose voice is like the gentle murmur with which fire-priests chaunt the Zand.

Intoxicated ones to the sound of sorrowful music rend their garments; and in ecstasy fix their hands on the collars of others.

If shabába (a fire-kindler, or a turtle-dove) be read for sabába, the couplet will be:—

From the sweet cry of the nightingale the fire-kindler (in man's hearts),

The morning-wind (in ecstasy) rent the soft silken garment of the rose (its own garment) to the navel.

“Shabába,e zand-báf” may signify—the nightingale, the flame of whose cry makes roast meat of man's heart.

The first line may be:—

From the sweet cry of the turtle-dove (and) the nightingale.

The foot of the wild ass (from fatness) sluggish like the (feeble) power of the ox;
The deer from the plain (through fear of their fat melting) sought the path to the (cool) mountain.

The deer pure (void of young) with the newly-born fawns,—
Each fawn (through intoxication of its dam's milk), the world (Time) caused to leap.

The world-possessor, with hunting, and with music, and wine,
Moved proudly, stage by stage.


When the rose-shaped nail of one day of the new moon
Became pledged (increased) to the anklet (round form) of one week,

He (Sikandar) raised his head out of the compass of that ring,
Which they call to-day Khalkhál-i-zar (a city between Kazvín and Gílán):

Entered Gílán (the land of infidels) in the manner of a cloud,
(Fearless) in the way that the lion enters the forest!

Every fire-temple which there came to his hand,—
Them, he made cold like ice to the fire-worshipper.


The rose (in form like an anklet) lasts five or six days on the branch.

If panj be read for mekh, the first line will be:—

When the new moon, (like) a rose of five and one (six) days.

If besides,, be read after yak roza, the couplet will be:—

Like a rose of five and one (six) days and the new moon,

He became pledged to (stayed in) the city of Khalkhál one week.

Note.—The rose and the new moon remain six days in the form of a khalkhál (an anklet).

When the moon, that is on the twenty-seventh day like the rose of six days, appeared from the circle of union with the sun, or the dark period (maháḳ) passed, Sikandar entered Gílán.

At the maháḳ, kings enter not a city.

When he broke the back of the fire-priests,
And cast out the custom of Zartusht,


He went forth from Gílán, came to Ray;
Threw out his foot for enemy-overthrowing:

Inflicted punishment on the fire-worshippers;
Brought forth the dust (of destruction) altogether from that tribe.

When the enemy obtained news that that panther (Sikandar) had come,
It went, like the lame fox, to its hole (fled).

Fled wandering to Khurásán;
And declined contest with that ruler of Ray (Sikandar).

When the Khusrau knew that his malignant one
Went flying from the pomp and crown (of the Kayán kings),


He took the track of the flying boar;
Sudden assault made, took (closed) the road against hi??.

Became swifter to such a degree that he overtook him;
Turned (cast) his head with a blow from the country (of Irán and Khurásán).

When he made the enemy stuffed in the dust (of the grave),
He made the dispersed ones (people of low degree) dis­persed (in death or in exile).


“Ḳá,im (ba ḳá,im) rekhtan.” See canto xxx. couplet 23.

The second line may be:—

(a) Of that ruler of Ray standing-power was spilt.

Here ba in ba ḳá,im is redundant.

(b) From that ruler of Ray (the enemy), notwithstanding his standing power,—went forth.

There, also, where he had slain the enemy,
Was a hillock near to the plain.

In thanks for the fortune of sound body,
He quickly laid a great foundation (of a city) on that hillock.


When he made it beautiful with the decoration of treasure,
He called it, in the Pahlavi tongue, Hirá (Hirrá; Hirát; Ray).

When he upreared the treasury of that city,
He led his army to the city of Nishápúr:

Found two parties of the world in that city;
Found one party his well-wisher.

Of it, the other party beat the drum of (friendship for) Dárá;
For him, expressed openly the breath of friendship:

A standard of Dárá, the king, they kept;
Beneath that standard, they considered the country.


For the king's fame, such a standard
They used to set up in the (extolling) place of his fame (the battle-field).

Sikandar pressed his foot much in blood;
(Yet) was unable to take away love for Dárá from any:

Saw, assuredly, the remedy in that matter,
That he should assist his own friends (the other party):

With skill and judgment,—out of his own camp,
Should there (in Nishápúr) set up another standard.

Of that standard the king's purpose was this,
That standard should be hostile to standard.


“Hirá” signifies—the scattering of gold.


When he (Sikandar) knew that this city, Dárá-adorning (Nishápúr),
Would not come, by effort, to Sikandar's grasp,

He made it a place of fighting until the blast of the trumpet (of the Judgment Day),
So that that city became far from concord.

Those hatred-bearing became low in the dust;
Still that hatred (of Sikandar) exists in that soil.

When he cast the army of the partridge (Sikandar-loving) against the pheasant (Dárá-loving),
He went from the country of Nishápúr towards Marv:

Extinguished the fire of the fire-priests house (the fire-temple);
Scattered the moth (the fire-worshipper) in the fire:


Came to Balkh; and the fire of Zardusht,
He quenched with the deluge (the assault) of the sword, (gleaming) like water.

In Balkh—was a fire-temple, heart-exhilarating,
In (envy) of which the mouth of the fresh rose was bitter.

In it, Parí-faced ones like the beautiful picture,
Idol (decorated) houses like joyous spring.

In it, dínárs and treasure limitless,
Placed in every corner without hand-toil.

The sun-worshipper struck his golden shoe (so rich was he) against the steed;
The name of that edifice (the fire-temple of Balkh) became “Ázr-Gushasp” (the fire-leaper).


Ázr Gushasp, at Balkh, was a fire-temple founded by Gushtasp (B.C. 519).


When the Khusrau obtained power over that treasure-receptacle (the fire-temple full of treasures),
He found the fire-worshippers intoxicated with the cup of wine of the fire-worshippers:

Made the paradise of the idol-house void of Húrs (lovely women);
Placed the worshipper far from hell (the place of fire).

Emptied that ancient treasury;
And from it gave a plaster to many a heart (resourceless and foodless).

Came around the whole of Khurásán;
Halted awhile at every city:

Cast agitation (threat) into the brain (the city) of Khurásán;
Rubbed the ear of (chastised) the people of Khurásán:


Despatched a mounted troop to every country;
For youthful fortune was his ally.

Khurásán, and Kirmán, and Ghuznín, and Ghúr,—
Each, he traversed with the hoof of the (war-) steed.

In every city to which he came near, with joy
They opened the city-gate to the king.

Although his world-seizing was full of pain,
All his road was treasure on treasure.

At every stage where he used to take rest,
On account of treasure, great used to be the load.


He used to store the land with a great treasure;
Used to leave (the land) and abandon (the treasure) in the soil.


Observe maḳám áwardan.

That gold which makes man fearful (of robbers),—
Whether in the back-bone of the fire, or in the belly of the dust,—what matter?

Creatures who put gold within the earth,
Establish over it a lock-fastening of iron.

When the wind (of death) comes, and snatches their dust,
The fixing of the iron lock over the gold,—what profit?

Come, cup-bearer! that melted gold (the red wine) of senselessness),
From which red sulphur (the elixir of gold) is made,


Give me, that from it I may devise a great remedying;
And make a great alchemising of my own copper (body).


“Kibrít-i-ahmar” signifies—red sulphur, or the philosopher's stone, which has been decorated with the senselessness (be khudí va mastí) of the people of God, to whose auspiciousness all benefits are due.


By casting the melted gold on the copper of my body, I may (by alchemy) make my body pure gold.