For (making) the (great) feast of Firídún and the (great) Nau-roz of Jamshíd,
When joy abolished the name of sorrow from the world.


Jamshíd (B.C. 800) instituted the nau-roz; and Firídún (Arbaces, B.C. 748) the feast (jashan).

The Jamshíd-i-nau-roz is known as—'ídd-i-sulání; 'ídd-i-ḳadím; 'ídd-i-Jamshíd; 'ídd-i-bahár; 'ídd-i-nau-roz.

The day of the new year (observed by Muslims, Pársís, and Armenians) is the day on which the sun enters Aries (the first house). The Jews, with a view to preserving a difference, observe New Year's Day ten days later.

The “Burhán-i-Ḳái',” “Farhang-i-Jahángírí,” “Anjuman-i-Ará,” and others, are of opinion that the New Year began on Ormuzd-roz, the first day of Furvurdin (March).

From the first to the sixth day was called—Nau-roz-i-kúchak; from the seventh to the twelfth day was called—Nau-roz-i-buzurg.

The feast of Firídún in the month Mihrgán (September) was of two kinds:—

(a) Mihrgán-i-khașșa (or buzurg) on the day Mihr (), or the six­teenth day of the month Mihr (), when the sun is in Libra. Since the name of the day agrees with that of the month, the Persians call that day an 'ídd, and the feast itself mihra (), or finally in the plural, mihrgán ().

(b) Mihrgán-i-'ámma (or khurd) is the twenty-first day of the month Mihr. On which day Firídún captured uhhák.

From Mihrgán-i-khașșa to Mihrgán-i-'ámma (a period of sixty days) the Persians enjoy themselves.

For further information, see Richardson's Dictionary, mihr under the máh; Malcolm's “History of Persia,” vol. i. p. 11; ii. 404.

The world-possessor (Sikandar) sate on his own throne;
Head-lowered the kings sate around him;

The attendants (cup-bearers and musicians) with wine, and music, and wine-cup;
The equipage of the assembly completely arranged:

Pleasant wine and Núshába like sugar,
Around her, brides closely crowded.


With all his virility, Sikandar, (son) of Faylikús,
Glanced not at these many brides.

One reason, that he was indeed continent:
The other—one cannot hunt (women) in the sacred enclosure (of the ka'ba).

One by one, all the army, from shame of him,
Wandered not a moment from his manner (of regarding the damsels).


Núshába was, like Shakar, a name of Shírín, the mistress of Khusrau Parvíz (A.D. 591).

The air, cold; but the court of the sun (Sikandar), warm (with hospitality);
The earth, withered (frozen, flowerless); but the pillow-place of Jamshíd (Sikandar), soft (joyous) and luxurious).

From the well (the mansion) of Aquarius, the sun went forth,
For fish-seizing, towards the fountain (the mansion) of Pisces.


The purse (the pool) of the mountain and the hard ground (on the mountain-slope) diram on diram (wave on wave),
Knotted with ice like the (scaly) back of the fish:

The cold, the breath-seizer (of man), like the wolf's eye (with which sorcerers render men speechless);
(Through cold), the work of the fur-stitchers become great:

The thighs of the deer and the buttocks of the wild ass
Displayed force (crowded for warmth) against the flanks of lions:

Snow falling from the cloud
Scattered the salt (of envy) on the liver (the heart) of the water.



The air, cold; but the court of the sun (the fourth heaven), warm;

The earth, frozen (hard); but the pillow-place of Jamshíd (Sikandar), soft.


The house of Aquarius is the second house of autumn; and the house of Pisces, the third.


The first line may be:—

The bellows (at the time of use) its own breath-seizer, like the eye of the wolf (the sun of the deceitful sky).

In winter the sun has little warmth.


From the severity of the cold none discerned foe from friend. Hence, the deer and the ass lay down with the lion.

If bar áwarda be read for dar áwarda, the second line will be:—

Became superior (greater in leanness) to the (lean) flanks of lions.


According to ancient writers and Richardson's Persian Dictionary:—

“Kabáb-i-tar” signifies—snow.

“Áhú,e tar” signifies—a black and white cloud.

“Namak dar jigar rekhtan” signifies—to torment.

In the second line, rekhta may be used intransitively.

Otherwise, reading nar for tar:—

(a) The juicy (soft) roast meat of the deer's thigh Scattered salt (of envy) in the liver (heart) of the (soft) water.

Remembering that the male deer is not so lean as the female, we have:—

(b) Of the thigh of the (lean) male deer, the wet (lean) roast meat (Was only) salt strewn in the liver (heart) of the water.

(c) Of the thigh of the (lean) male deer, the wet (lean) roast meat Strewed the salt (of envy) in the liver (heart) of the water.

From the raining (snowing) of the cloud, snow-bearing,
The jessamine (the snow-flake)—from the hands (the leaves) of the plane-tree sprung.


The violet,—the sharp head of the bud unformed;
The sky,—like the (falling) spring leaf, snow shedding.

From the fertilizing (early spring) wind, the rose-tree,—
Belly filled with young (shoots) fit for escaping:

The lip of the water-pool,—mouth unopened (frozen, or empty from want of rain),
So that the smell of milk (water) might come to the lip of verdure (yet a child):


The leaf of the plane-tree is like the hand of man. It is said that (from the ardent nature of the tree) snow-flakes quickly melt and fall from the leaves.


The second line gives the cause of the first.

The spring-leaf comes forth in spring, and then falls to the ground.

The violet that blossoms in early spring has a sharp-pointed bud.


“Bád-i-ábistání” signifies—a wind at the end of winter in the month Isfandár (?) which possesses a potentiality of producing.


If, in the second line, ámad be read for áyad, the couplet will be:—

The lip of the water-pool (at the time of snowing) mouth opened (to ask for beauty from verdure);

For the smell of milk (indicative of infancy) came (belonged) to the lip of verdure.

Note.—It is foolish to ask a child for help.

Of the nightingales, the drum (voice) rent (silenced) by the (autumn) wind;
From the strangers (the crows, kites), the rose (was) face-concealed:

The nightingale of the assembly, became the wine-flagon,
Like the mountain - partridge,—loud chuckling in the throat:


From the cheek of the wine-bibbers, the (reflected) ruddy colour of the wine
Brought forth the sweat (of envy) of the rose in every corner (of the assembly):

In excuse for (the insufficiency of the fire of) yesternight, the monarch ordered
That they should kindle the fire in the banquet-place.

With decoration, and gold, and ornament,—was pre­pared
The heart-fascinating assembly like the garden of Iram.

In it (the assembly), a fire kindled like the rose;
With envy of that rose-garden (the assembly),—the rose, scorched.



The nightingales, drum rent (disgraced) by the zephyr (blowing unseasonably in the autumn);

The rose, face-concealed from strangers (crows, kites, and wintry winds).

The zephyr, blowing in season, brings forth the rose-bud, the joy of the nightingale; but when it blows unseasonably the expectant night­ingale is disappointed, for the rose blossoms not.



From the cheek of the wine-bibbers, the (reflected) colour of the wine (such, that you may say)

The rose brought forth sweat (rose-water) in every corner of the assembly.


“Bar árástan” may be used transitively.

The (small) thorn—by reason of the fire (kindled in it), like (red, burnished) gold, you may say the rose (is) in its hand;
Not like the (fuel-) thorn (saturated with musk and ambergris) of Zardusht the fire-worshipper:


In the black (dead) coal, the fire of red colour
Fell, like the reflection of the (ruddy) jewel on the (hard, black) stone.

On the fire, that cemented heap of black (dead fuel)
Was like the black snake over the mine of the treasure (the stove).

From the mercilessness of the old fire-worshipper (the fire-kindler),—given,
The black country of Ethiopia (the heap of black coal) to the plunder of Russia (red fire):

From Hindústán (the country of magic) a barley-caster (a magician), come;
With every barley-grain (live fuel) that he cast,—a harvest (a heap of dead fuel) consumed;


At kings' banquets they feed the fire with small thorns, not with thick billets that cause smoke. The thorn was kindled for warmth, not for worship.

According to the Zhand (the commentary of the Pázhand), fire-worshippers fashion branches of gold; affix roses of gold to their points; plant these branches, which they call the húm (a tree like the tamarisk), in the ground; and set fire to the golden branches and roses. This form of fire-worshipping is much approved. See Pahlaví texts, translated by E. W. West, 1880.


“Zugál” signifies—ankisht; fahm. Properly charcoal, it is here rendered—coal.


“Jau-zan” (barley-caster) is a kind of sorcerer, who colours with saffron a grain of barley, or of wheat, and breathes on it an enchantment.

When he wishes to enchant a person, he casts the grain at him and obtains his desire. When he wishes to burn his harvest, he breathes another kind of enchantment, casts the grain at him, and consumes his harvest.


From Hindústán (the black stove) a barley-caster (a magician or a fire-kindler) was come:

With every barley-grain (spark of fire) that he cast,—a harvest (of dead coal), consumed.

“Hindústán” may signify—the magazine of dead black coal.

A fire-worshipper (a fire-kindler) planted the red tree (of fire) in the barley-place (fire-place);
Reaped violet (blue ashes) at the time of harvest (when the fire-expired).


A black one (the fire-kindler) took musk (dead coal) to Mazandarán (the kindled red fire);
(And) exchanged it for a mass of pure gold (fire).

A man of Sikláb (a heap of dead coal) went to Chín (red fire);
(And) exchanged a black fur garment (a piece of dead coal) for a red garment (a piece of live coal).

From casting the Hindú (dead coal into the stove), the house (the stove) became full of blood (red);
All its ebony (dead coal) became the red willow (red fire).


Fire-worshippers, at the time of worshipping fire, cast barley on the fire-stove.


The fire-kindler was either one made black with the heat of the fire, or a black native of India.

The men of Mazandarán are here supposed to be of red colour.


The men of Chín and Má Chín are said to be of red colour.

The first line may be:—

The man of Saḳláb (a piece of live fuel) suddenly went to Chín (the fire-stove).

If az parás be read for ba parás, the couplet will be:—

A man of Siḳláb (red fire) suddenly went to Chín (the stove);

Took off a black garment (a piece of dead fuel) from (the back of) a man of Parás (a piece of live fuel).

“Siḳláb” may signify—a province in Turkistán.

“Purás” may signify—a city in the confines of Russia.


The first line may be:—

Through a Hindú magician (dead black coal) the house (the stove) became full of blood (red fire).

A (black mu,azzin) Bilál (a piece of dead coal) brought forth the pleasant sound (of kindling fire);
He, in Abyssinia (the dead coal in its blackness) called Rúm (fire).

At his (Bilál's) voice, a Zangí of pitch colour (another piece of dead coal)
Let loose courage (showed heat of ignition) from the heart; and blood (red fire) from the eye.


A (black-clad, ink-stained) secretary (a heap of dead coal), reeds (long flames) sprung from his (its) back;
In his finger, pens (long dead coals) with which he wrote (fiery red letters).

Seated—the generous one (the kindled coal), the red satin-seller (the fire-kindler);
Formed of a mean (white) ash, the old coif-wearing woman

Twisted yarn (pieces of consumed coal) for (making) a coarse grey woollen stuff;
(But) received (from the generous one) a piece of red satin (a kindled coal).


“Rúm” may signify—the kindled side of a piece of coal.

Habsh” may signify—the unkindled side of a piece of coal.

The second line will then be:—

He in Habsh (the unkindled coal) called Rúm (the kindled coal), saying:—Come to me that I may burn!

Bilál, an Abyssinian, was the mu,azzin at the masjid of Muhammad at Madína.


The reed (ḳalam) has a red (fiery) leaf.

The back of a brazier is that part turned towards the earth; the face that on which the fire is laid.

The first line may be:—

(a) A secretary (a brazier), handles springing from its back.

(b) A secretary (a brazier), supports springing from its back.


Khákistar” may signify—a fine veil of ash that comes over a piece of kindled coal when it falls from the brazier. The kindled fuel, in gathering together its own grey woollen stuff, had woven ropes out of the fine black lines that appeared on it from the fine veil of ash. When men poke a fire that is low, these black lines depart and the fuel becomes fiery red.

As couplets 36 and 37 stand, the agent to the verb twisted is the old coif-wearing woman; but the agent may be the “generous one,” thus:—

Seated—the generous one (the kindled coal), red satin (live coal of which fire is the red satin)-selling,

—The old woman (fire of ancient origin), wearing armour formed of a (fine veil of) ash,—

Twisted yarn (fine black lines) for the sake of making a coarse grey woollen stuff;

(But), in place of the woollen stuff, gained a piece of red satin (kindled fuel).

Couplet 36 may be:—

(a) Seated—the generous one (the stove), red satin (fire-flame)-selling, Wearing armour formed of a (thin veil of) ash of the old woman (the brazier).

(b) Seated—the generous one (the stove), red satin (fire)-selling, Wearing armour formed of a mean ash of the old woman (the feeble fire in the winter-season).

Couplet 37 may be:—

(The generous one) wove rope (twisting, whirling smoke) for the sake of (making) a grey woollen garment;

But, in place of the grey woollen garment, gained a piece of red satin (kindled fuel).

A satin-seller requires a piece of coarse woollen stuff to sit on.

When into the stove the man-alchemist (the fire-kindler)
Cast iron (dead fuel),—he brought forth (red) gold (live fuel).

Through the alchemy of the alchemist,—the fire-spark made gold (made red)
Cast gold (delight) from every side (of the stove) upon the skirt (of the people of the assembly).


Vapour (smoke) over the fiery flame,
Like a blue silk garment over the red rose (of fire):


The alchemist, casting iron into his crucible, brings forth gold.


Just so, the gold of the benefactor falls into the skirt of the poor.

A piece of earthenware (a stove) decorated with the (red) rose (of fire),
With the redness (of kindled fuel) sprung from the forests.

Not (simply) fire,—(nay) the rose of the garden of Jamshíd it was;
The cake-cooker (by reason of its great heat) of the sun's tray:

(It was) the illuminator (the displayer) of the jewel (essence of man)—good or bad;
The friend of the fire-worshipper, and the companion of the fire-priest:

A blossomed rose,—its food (fuel) the thorn-bush;
In appearance, fresh; in origin, ancient:


The song-singer of those void of capital (the poor);
The message-bringer (the informer) of the (cooking of the) neighbour's pots.


“Rihání” may signify—redness; for rihán sometimes means ruddy wine.


A piece of earthen stuff (a heap of dead coal) decorated with the red rose (of fire);

With a red rose (small fuel) sprung from the forests.

If na rihání be read for ba rihání, the second line will be:—

Not a rose sprung from the forests (nay, a rose of fire that appears in the earthen stove at Sikandar's feast).


The sun is called—abbákh-i-falak, the cook of the sky.


The good people sat with dignity near the fire; the bad and the lustful were in play and pastime.

In the “Nineteenth Century,” March, 1881, Monier-Williams says:—

Pársís call—the religious instructor, Herbad; the priest-class, Mubed; and the people, Behadín (or Behdín). The priest-class is divided into Dastúr and Mubed (corrupted from Maga pati, Magian lord).

Surábjí Kavasjí Khambata, in the “Indian Antiquary,” July, 1878, says:—

Herbad is a generic term for Dastúr and Mubed; Herbad is one who has passed the Návar ceremony; Ustá is a non-herbad.


By the smell of the food and the light and sound of the fire (food-cook­ing) in the houses of their neighbours,—the poor become hopeful of food.

The murmuring sound that its instrument (the live fuel of the fire) expressed,
Its sound,—better than the (sound of reading the) Zhand of Zartusht.

With this luminosity,—the fire, Zhand (the infidel)-consuming,
The world-illuminating king enkindled,

Like the red rose leaf on the cypress-branch (the fiery flame on the heap of dead coal);
On it (the fiery flame), sometimes the (roasting) wood-cock, sometimes the pheasant.

Of red coral (lambent flame) a plane-tree uplifted;
On it, the (roasting) partridge like the ring-dove lamenting.


If the plane-tree (the lambent flame) bring the duck's foot to its top,—
On it, the duck's breast expresses a very sorrowful lament.


Jerdon's “Book of Birds,” vol. ii. says:—

The whistling teal, spread throughout India and Burma, breeds in the drier patches of grass on the ground, and occasionally in the hollows of trees (p. 780).

I have seen a pair of the white-bodied goose-teal fly off a tree on which they had a nest (p. 788).

Allan Hume's rough draft of Indian Birds, part 31, 1875, says:—

The black-backed goose generally builds its nest in a mango grove near a swamp, placing it either in some large hole in the bank, or in a depression between three or four great arms, where the main stem divides, at a height of six to ten feet.

The “History of British Birds,” by W. Yarrell, 1856, vol. iii. p. 271, says:—

The wild duck has taken possession of a hawk's nest in a large oak; one deposited her eggs in the principal fork of an elm tree, and brought her young safely down; another deposited her eggs in the old nest of a crow, thirty feet from the ground. She presumably carried her young in her bill, a mode of conveyance frequently adopted by the eider duck. Young ducks cannot fly for eight or ten weeks.

See also “A History of the Birds of Europe,” by R. Sharpe and H. Dresser, April, 1873, part xvii. p. 7.

The duck's body is fit for the water-pool;
When thou bringest it to the fire (to roast), it brings forth a lament.

In that garden (of fire), the (roasting) birds came into tumult;
From each one a different note (of roasting) issued.

The guitar-player (the roasting bird) brought forth the sound of music,—
Music of new order, fresher than a hundred benedictions.

Livers (of animals fit for food) salted in (their own) blood;
In envy (at their extreme saltiness), the liver (the heart) of the salt writhed.


The sugar-lump, (talking) in secret (of its sweetness) to the point of the teeth (of its devourer),
Made long the teeth (of desire) of the sugar-devourer (Sikandar):

Juicy roast meat, perfumed, dry (well cooked);
Spoon-meats fed (prepared) with musk (fragrant) smell.

Of pickles whatever is nice;
The orange, and the quince, and the pomegranate, and also the citron:

A singer,—in music like Venus;
A flagon,—gleaming like Jupiter.


“Shakar pára” (where pára may be replaced by—para, parak, púra, purak, ḳalam) signifies—a sweetmeat made of sugar and ground almonds and pistachio nuts, somewhat like the Turkish “lumps of delight.”

“Ba ráz búdan” hints at the low sound emitted in eating the sugar-lump.


“Bú,e afzár” may signify—dárú,e garm, lawábil; or any condiments, such as clove (ḳaranfil), cinnamon (dár-chíní), and cummin seed (zírah).

With a rose-coloured draught, most heart-fascinating,
Time assuaged the head-ache of the people of the world (the large assembly).


The friends were all quite mature (joyful),
Save the wine, which in the midst was immature (pure).

All the musical instruments of notes expressing bass (brain-soothing),
Save the wine, whose note was treble (brain-exciting).

Through intoxication, Sikandar became half asleep;
The harp moving like water (in the swiftness of its notes) in the hand of the harper.

Wine and (roast) fowl and odoriferous herbs (agreeable fire) and the sound of the harp;
A mistress (Núshába), eyes closed in the tight embrace.

—That one, to whom this (pleasurable) end is attainable,
If his be not (the rank of) Jamshíd, 'tis that of Sikandar!—


The agent to the verb (assuaged) may be the word “flagon” in couplet 58.

“Guláb-i-gulgún” may signify—a perfumed red wine; or the red-coloured rose-water (of Sipahán and of 'Adn). Both are used for assuaging headache after a carouse.


The second line should be:—

The stringed instrument that gives a note soft like water is—the ribáb.


“Tang-chashm” is an epithet applied to a lovely woman, who, through pride of loveliness, looks at none, as is the habit of the Húrís; or to one who is modest and keeps her glance on him lawful to her (the husband).

It is said in couplet 5 that Sikandar looked not at Núshába, and here that he held her in his embrace. There are three explanations:—

(a) It is possible that Sikandar took her in his embrace; and, as she was not married, it was lawful for him so to do in marriage.

(b) Núshába, from womanly modesty, remained seated closely in her corner, and looked at none.

(c) A mistress (Núshába), eyes closed (in modesty), near (almost)—in his embrace!

Further, it is possible that the mistress was one other than Núshába.


In memory of the (half-intoxicated) king (Sikandar), those Jupiter-forms (the damsels)
Drew (drank) large cups of wine, like Zuhra (the singer and drinker).

When a half of the resplendent day passed (in enjoyment),
(And) the sky travelled a half of the road of the earth,

The king ordered that the keepers of the treasure
Should draw for the guest's (Núshába's) sake the (reward due to) foot-toil:

Should bring ass-loads of gold and jewels;
Camel-loads of silken stuffs of great value, and satin:

A damsel or two of the race of Abyssinia,—
In appearance pleasing, in stature tall:


Many bladders of musk, and handsome brocades,
From which sense and brain become increased:

Emerald seal-rings with water (lustre) and colour,
The pearl, and the ruby, and the turquoise,—without computing and weighing:

A golden crown, emerald begemmed;
With royal pearls bestudded:

A piece of silk crowned with cornelians and pearls;
Every selvage beperfumed with musk and camphor:

A camel-litter and camel with housings of gold;
Of camel-litter bearers (camel-leaders) a crowd golden-belted.


“Pá,e ranj” signifies—pá,e muzhd, a reward for foot-toil; or peshkash-i-mihmán, the present given to a guest in return for—tasdí' kashídan, trouble-enduring; ḳadam ranja farmúdan, the troubling of the foot (in travelling to visit).


They sprinkle camphor-dust on the hems and selvages of garments, that they may be soft and fragrant.


Such beautiful ornaments, jewel-scattering,—
To Núshába the jewel-bearers gave.

Núshába put on the king's dress of honour (given by) the king,
As the gleaming moon,—the dress of honour (of lumi­nosity) of the sun.

Separately for each Parí-form,
He ordered them to prepare a jewelled dress.

According to each one's worth, he gave something (a dress of honour);
Clothed them; gave them also something (valuable) to take away.

The Parí-faced one (Núshába), with those Parí-forms (the damsels),
Became heavy with much treasure and jewels.


They kissed the ground in thanks to the king;
Took the way (to their house) with heart-joyfulness:

Came jewel-possessing from that mine (Sikandar's court);
Returned like Kárún's treasure to their place.


“Poshídan” here signifies—poshánídan.


Kárún (Korah), the son of Yeshar (or Izhar), the uncle of Moses, was the most beautiful and opulent of the Israelites. He had a large palace, overlaid with gold, with doors of massive gold. One day, when Moses declared to the people that adulterers should be stoned, he asked:— “What if he should be found guilty of the same crime?”

Moses replied that he would suffer the same punishment. Thereupon Kárún produced a harlot, who charged him publicly. Moses adjuring her to speak the truth, she at length confessed that she had been suborned by Kárún.

God then directed Moses to command the earth what he pleased and it should obey him. Whereupon he said:—“O earth, swallow them up!” Immediately the earth opened and swallowed Kárún, his con­federates, his palace, and all his riches.

As Kárún sank into the ground, he cried out four times:—“O Moses, have mercy on me!” But Moses kept saying:—“O earth, swallow them up!”

God then said to Moses:—“Thou hadst no mercy on Kárún, though he asked pardon of thee four times; but I would have had compassion on him if he had asked pardon of Me but once.”

Come, cup-bearer! that milk of vermilion colour (the ruddy wine of senselessness),
Whose reflection brings blood (red colour and vigour) to mercury (the palsied one),

Give me; for I am like mercury (palsied) at beholding God's majesty;
I am in perturbation like the torn finger-nail (bound up with thread).


If the second line be—ba símáb khurdan chú khún gashta,am, the reading will be:—

By suffering restlessness I am become like blood (poured out).

If the second line be—ba símáb khún nákhun rashta,am—the reading will be:—

With blood flowing like mercury (restlessly) I have tinged the finger-nail.

The explanation is—that in old age the hand and foot tremble, and from palsy the blood descends into the finger-tips and colours them.

The rendering of the last two couplets may be:—

Come, cup-bearer! that milk of vermilion colour (ruddy wine), Whose reflection brings blood (ruddiness) to mercury (the crystal cup),

Give me; for (from the draught of old age) I am become like mercury (powerless and restless);

With blood flowing restlessly like mercury I have (through the palsy of old age) tinged my finger-nail.