Burda'! O happy country (in) whose confines,—
Neither the spring month (sun in Taurus) nor the winter month (sun in Capricorn)—is flowerless.

The summer (the sun in Cancer) gives it the mountain-rose;
The winter gives the spring breeze:


Paradise, a word of Zand origin adopted by the Jews, appeared for the first time in the Song of Solomon, iv. 13, as pardés.

Xenophon found the word pairidaêza (a piece of ground enclosed by a high wall; a park or a garden) used in Persia; afterwards it appears in LXX., and was thus transferred into ecclesiastical Greek and Latin, and into all the languages of modern Europe.

The word is dih (or dhih), for Sanscrit h=Zand z, and means—to knead, to squeeze together. From it we have in Sanscrit, dehî, and in Greek, , a wall; in Latin the root is changed into fig, giving— figulus, a potter, figura form, and fingere; in Gothic it appears as deigan, to knead; hence, daigs (dough).—“The Indian Antiquary,” December, 1874.

The forest round about it a paradise become;
Besides, a (mountain-stream) Kúsar on its skirt estab­lished,—

Its environs, from the profuseness of verdure and the musk-willow,
Like the garden of Irám,—“the khassa bágh-i-safaid.”


Of quail and woodcock, and partridge and pheasant,
Thou wilt not find the willow and cypress-shade void.

Its soil to ease inclined;
Its dust from pollution washed:

Its odoriferous herbs every year fresh of branch;
In it, ever grace and abundant ease.

Of birds of this country ('Irák), it is the feeding place;
If bird's milk (a rarity) be needful to thee—'tis there.

They have washed its soil with gold-water;
Thou wouldest say:—“In it, they have sown gold and saffron.”


The proud mover over the verdure of that land
Beholds no form save joyousness.


In Burda' was a garden encircled with a white plastered wall, called— kháșșa bágh-i-safaid, the royal white garden.

Irám. See canto xii. couplet 2.


Gold and saffron are joy-exciting.

Now, the throne of that court has become shattered;
The wind has carried its damask silk and brocade:

Those fresh roses have poured (fallen) down from (their) grandeur;
And from that pomegranate and narcissus, the dust (of desolation) has come forth:

Save dry fuel and the watery torrent,
No other thing thou seest in that forest.

Verily, those luxuriant productions
Spring not from the grain (the seed), but from the skirt of justice.


If to-day it again obtain that nurturing care (of justice),
Better than that, would be the decoration of the sleeve.

Yes; if leisure were the king's,
He would give a new adornment to that place.

In the beginning of occupation, its name was Harúm;
Now, the teacher calls it Burda'.

In that prosperous soil (now desolate) the place of the great,
Time has much secret (buried) treasure.

With this gladness,—where is a rose-garden?
With this fulness,—where is a treasure-holder?


Still in that territory the treasure-searchers
Find treasure,—if they tear up the soil.

The treasure-possess or of speech (the historian) thus spoke,
Saying:—The chief of that old treasure-place (Burda')


In the season of prosperity men decorate their garments.

Is a woman, a ruler, name—Núshába;
Every year, in pleasure and sweetness and the wine-cup,

Like the male pea-fowl, charming in goodness (of beauty);
Like the female deer,—being void of defect.

Strong of judgment, luminous of heart (kind), sweet of speech (not foolish),
Angel in disposition (free from lust),—nay, sage in temperament (the leader of others to goodness).


In her ante-chamber a thousand virgin women,
In service loin-girt, each one like the moon (in splendour).

Besides damsels,—skilful in riding,
Slaves, swordsmen,—thirty thousand.

None of the men (the slaves) used to wander about her door,
Although he might be near to her.

Save woman, no one was her work-performer (or agreeable to her);
Of seeing men, no need was hers.

From not having (a husband),—in the house (she was) councillor;
By being a house-lady, free from a house-master (a husband).


The (sword-drawing) slaves hastened to their own land (property),
The dwelling-place for themselves prepared (and came not near Núshába).


Save by God's order, angels interfere not with the affairs of man; but the sages and prophets constantly show men the path of goodness.


“Berún” signifies — siwá,e.


“Dígar chand” signifies—har chand.


The first line may be:—

She used to keep women as councillors in the house.

On account of her great majesty, none of the slaves
Had looked within the gate of her city.

In every place where she ordered them to fight,
For them, that (fighting) was the most indispensable duty.

When Sikandar led the army to the plain (of Burda'),
He exalted his pavilion to the Pleiades (pitched loftily his tent).

In that joyous place of heaven-like nature,
He remained astounded at the plenteousness of water and (at the extent) of sown field.


He asked, saying:—“Whose is this happy land?
“Over it, which of the great rulers is king?”

They declared, saying:—“This beauteous land (full of water and verdure),
“With this wealth, is a woman's.

“A woman more skilful than many men;
“In essence, more pure than the river:

“Strong of judgment, luminous of mind, and exalted of head (in action),
“Peasant-cherishing at the time of distress.

“She wears a girdle on the waist in manliness;
“Boasts of the lineage of Kayán kings.


“She capless,—(yet) cap-possessing (sovereignty) is hers;
“Army-possessor,—yet no army sees her.

“Has many manly slaves;
“But none (of them) sees her face.


Being a sovereign she possesses the cap of sovereignty; being a woman she wears the sheet (chádar), or the coif of fine linen two cubits long (Miḳna'). She wears not the cap that appertains solely to man.

“Women of lily bosom and slender leg
“Show compliance with her in every work.

“All of pomegranate-breast, and tall like the arrow;
“From the breast of each,—the milk, sugar devoured.

“Everywhere is soft, an ermine-skin or a piece of silk,—
“Yet they trembled with shame in comparison with (their) soft limbs.


“The angel (free from lust) looks not boldly at them;
“And if he glance (being enamoured), he falls (powerless) from heaven to earth.

“Gleaming in the garden-halls, each one
“Like the sun in the day, and the lamp (the moon) in the night.

“On account of their splendour (of beauty), vision had not that power
“That it might look at them from near or far.

“When their voice comes to a person's ear,
“He places his own head (sacrifices life) in the desire of (hearing) their note.

“The neck and ear replete with ruby and pearl;
“The lip, with the ruby of the mine; and the teeth, with pearl.


“I know not what sorcery (effective against lust) they have invoked,
“That they are careless of the tumult of passion.


So sweet was their milk that sugar (the sweetest of known things) devoured it.


The second line may be:—

Yet they trembled from shame on the limbs of men (wearing furs and silken garments).


If the ascetic of angel-nature glance at them, he falls from the lofti­ness of his chastity and becomes enslaved.

“Beneath the azure sphere, they have not
“A companion (a man) save the wine-cup and the sound of music.

“A woman (Núshába), pure (kind) to kindred, mandate-issuer,
“Keeps passion fettered against them.

“Has (her own) idol (pictured)-houses (in the fashion) of palace and villa,
“For those beauties, doors made wide (opened).

“Although she keeps sitting behind the screen,
“She is, all day, edifice-worshipping (laying foundations of buildings).


“Has a lofty royal pavilion;
“Within it, a valuable carpet spread:

“A throne of crystal upreared;
“On it, jewels in ass-loads strewed (studded).

“From many night-lamps (jewels), that precious place (the throne)
“Is at night the resplendent moon, lamp-like.

“She sits every morning on that throne;
“Makes mention of thanks to the Creator.

“She, placed like a bride, on the throne—
“Other brides in service on foot.


“With the wine-cup and the sound of music night and day,
“Enjoyment-making (sporting with one another) beneath the blue sphere,

“Each one left off the worship of the Omnipotent;
“They have no occupation save sleeping and eating.


“Șanam” signifies—an idol; meta., a lovely woman.

“Lu'batán” signifies—dolls; meta., lovely women.


The first line may be:—

Besides the worshipping of the Omnipotent.

“A woman, work-understanding, possessed of all mines and treasures;
“She inflicts, for devotion-sake, toil on her own body.

“Through the asceticism which her nature possesses,
“She sleeps not in that paradise-like abode.

“Has another house of marble-stone;
“There, at night the moon (Núshába) alone, proudly moving, goes.


“In that house, that candle (Núshába), world-illuminating,
“Performs God-worshipping until the day:

“Brings her head to sleep (only) to that extent,
“That a (water-) bird (after diving) lowers his head into the water (to dive again).

“Again (after devotions), with those Parí-forms,
“She drinks wine to the voice of (women-) minstrels:

“Holds the rein (of power) night and day in this way,—
“By day, in this way; when night comes, in that way.

“Neither is the night free from the worship (of God);
“Nor the day from amusement, soul-cherishing.


“For her sake and her friends (the damsels),—suffer
“Her work-performers (the slaves) the toil of her work.”

The king held approved this tale (of Núshába);
He held (in his heart) a desire for that unseen painting (Núshába):


If berún, followed by az, be read for farúd, followed by ba, the second line will be:—

That a bird (after drinking) raises his head from the water (to allow the water to run down his throat).


The Parí-forms are those of couplet 43.


The agent to the verb “suffer” is—work-performers.

Beheld a halting-place with water and grass;
In essence more precious than the philosopher's stone.

In that place, tranquil with music and the wine-cup,
He rested; and became for a while joyous.

When Núshába knew that the king's throne
Had come in happy omen from the path (of journeying),


She prepared the work of paying homage,
In accordance with the monarch's dignity:

Sent food worthy of his (acceptance);
Bound her loins in the service of his work (the sending of the present).

Besides many selected four-footed animals,
Whether for the kitchen, or for the saddle—what matter?

The best things which sprang from that soil,
In colour and splendour, heart-entangling and excelling:

Royal victuals, musk-scented;
Trays (full) of perfumed substances for hand-washing (after eating):


Other kinds of fruits of many sorts,
Also of honey and sugar, some ass-loads:

Wine and sweetmeats and flowers assembly-exhilarating,—
Presents of this sort, some days they placed (before Sikandar).

Also for the chiefs, separately,
A valuable present she sent every day.

From the great excellencies which that woman showed,
Every one, tongue within tongue (incessantly) praised her.


“Berún” signifies—siwá,e.


The second line may be:—

With these delights they passed some days.

In respect to beholding that heart-ravishing one, of the king
The need (desire) time to time became greater:


That he might obtain news of her secret (hidden circum­stances);
Might behold her administration in that kingdom:

Might view how much her merit is;
Whether the tale is false or true.