At the time of mid-winter,—how happy that one who
Places before himself—fire and roast fowl and wine!


“Dí” signifies—the time of the sun's remaining in the mansion of Capricorn; the month is the first of the winter-season.

Brings to his hand an idol (a lovely, virgin woman) of pomegranate bosom,
That brings defeat (of shame) to the pomegranate of the garden.

From that tall, shady pomegranate-tree (the lovely one), to the time of spring,
He desires — sometimes the pomegranate (the bosom); sometimes the water (the wine) of the pomegranate (the luscious lip).

Forth he brings his hand from the corner of the building (of the women-folk) at that time,
When the blossom (of spring) appears from the bough:


(When) the world becomes fresh, like the joyous spring;
The desert becomes pleasant, and the retired place unpleasant.

He takes the ringlet-tip of that heart-ravishing one;
Moves proudly from the house to the garden:

Makes the sugar-fountain (the lip and the mouth of the lovely one) rosy (with ruddy wine):
Passes some moments (of the spring) in gladsomeness.

The representer of the book of kings
Moved the cradle of representation thus—

That, when in Sipáhán the king, girdle-bound,
Caused the crown to reach the revolving sphere,


Sometimes he places his hand on her bosom; sometimes he kisses her lip—or takes luscious wine from her hand.



Makes (his own) sugar-fountain (mouth) rosy (with kissing the rosy lip of the lovely one).


The book of kings signifies—the Sháh-Náma, by Firdausí; or any other book in which the histories of kings are given.


He rested two days in sport and pastime;
Sought out news of Dárá's women-folk:

Opened the doors of the seven treasuries;
Prepared a dress of honour according to the custom of the Kayán kings:

Of Egyptian, and Chíní, and Rúmish silken cloths (for the house),
Prepared a costly present:—

Royal costly garments (for apparel),
Which gave treasure to the heart, and freshness to the soul:

Fine cloths, gold-woven, and soft silks (for drawers),
Which make the love of the wearers ardent.


Of jewels, many a decorated chaplet,
In it, many a rarity studded.

Many a bladder of musk, unopened (freshly cut from the musk deer);
Many a garment of the belly-skin, heart-cherishing,

He sent at once to the women-folk of the king (Dárá);
He exchanged the black colour (of mourning) for the ruddiness (of happiness):


“Mushkúya” (mushk-kúya) signifies—khána,e mushk; haram-khána; khána.

“Mush” means—coming together.


The kings of Persia had seven treasuries; those of Khusrau Parvíz are celebrated.

The seven treasures are—gold, silver, iron, tin, copper, lead, and brass.

“Haft ganjína” may signify—the chair of Suláns adorned with the treasures of seven climes.


Dárá's family was in mourning for Dárá's death.

Removed dust from the blue (mourning garments) with coral (red, joyous garments):
Cast a (red) gold (joyous) wash on the lapis lazuli (mourning garments):

Rubbed the red gold (of joyousness) on the black stone (of mourning);
Proved, perhaps, the gold (Dárá's women-folk) on the touchstone (of kindness):


Washed Dárá's bed-chamber of mourning;
In place of the violet (of mourning), the red rose (of joy) sprang up.

When he had (by these joyous gifts) adorned that charming garden (Dárá's women-folk),
He made resplendent the face of the hearts' ease (Roshanak).

Exercised patience three or four days,
Until the rose-bud (of joy of the women-folk) of (like) the fresh spring blossomed.

The brides (the damsels) display love for ornament-dis­playing;
Make head and hair-parting trim and pleasant.

Bring into the brain the desire for the rose (the adorning of the body, and the perfuming of the apparel);
Bring the glance toward the luminous lamp (the sun).


The garments of mourning of Dárá's family were changed for those of feasting.


He proved whether Dárá's women-folk, who were like precious gold,— would be pleased by these rarities or not.


They apply oil to the ringlet-tip, make it fragrant, and comb it.

“Sar va farḳ” signifies—one and the same thing.

“Fark” is used as padding to the metre, but may signify—khae ki miyán-i-sar dar múhá uftad.


In Persia, while mourning, they used, for a period of forty days, neither to look at the sun nor to smell a flower.


When Sikandar knew that of mourning no trace remained,
He cast out the sleeve of decoration (abandoned present-giving) for apology.

To his minister (Aristotle) of eloquent tongue he said:— “Arise!
“Expand quickly both thy tongue and thy pace.

“Go to Dárá's seraglio; say, for me,
“That here I have wandered, peace-seeking, for that purpose

“That the face of the moon-faced one (Roshanak), of the lineage of Dárá,
“I may behold;—May the beholding of her be auspicious!—

“(That) I may establish a citadel in his (Dárá's) bed­chamber (for its protection);
“May bring forth loftily the head of his (Dárá's) dependants (the daughter and her attendants).


“A golden litter (for women), pearl-studded,
“All its form replete with ruby and turquoise,—

“Take, so that the lovely one may sit on it;
“May move proudly from sky to earth.


“Astín afshándan” signifies—berún afgandan; tark kardan.

Formerly people kept ready money in the sleeve. When the sleeve was expanded the money fell out. Thus they say:—“Money in the sleeve is better than father and mother.”

When Sikandar knew that no effect of mourning remained, and that the custom of wearing of ornaments and handsome garments had returned, he made excuses before them (for the crime of slaying Dárá), and scattered his sleeve (cast down the skirt of excuse), and the women­folk pardoned his crime.


“Zer-dastán” may signify—Roshanak's attendants.

“Dukhtar” is commonly called—'ájiza.


“Mahd” signifies—maháfa.

On first asking in marriage, they send a bejewelled litter to the house of the father of the bride. If they accept the litter, they keep it in the house and send the bride, in proper season, in it.


If asmán be read for az asmán, the second line will be:—

The sky (the lovely one) may move proudly to the earth (Sikandar's dwelling).

“Moreover steeds, wind-fleet, with saddles of gold,
“Take, for the sake of her attendants.”

When the wise minister experienced (heard) an order like this,
He bound his loins, and performed the order:

Took the path to Dárá's private house;
Took (fascinated) the whole of the household, by his courtesy (praise).


Entered the seraglio of musk nature,
Like the running water which enters Paradise:

Beheld a paradise full of beautiful húrs (houris);
Became fascinated when he beheld the fascinator (the lovely women).

With those of apple-cheek, man-fascinating,
He continued to sport (in gallantry) like a man with the apple.

The first word that fell,—
He gave, on the king's part, to the veiled ones, salu­tation,


The second line may be rendered:—

Began praise of the whole household (of Dárá).


The running water of Paradise signifies—slowly, gravely.


The first farebanda signifies—fareb khwanda, or fareb dihanda.

The second farebanda signifies—fareb kunanda; dil-i-nairán rá . rabáyanda.

The second line may be rendered:—

Became the fascinator (the woman-killer, by his gallantry) when he beheld the fascinator (the heart-ravishing women).

The custom of a gallant man is this—When a heart-enchanting mistress comes into his sight, it comes to his heart to wish to make her, by his gallantry and address, subject to himself, so that she may incline (in love) to him.

Saying:—“The splendour (of joy) be from the king (Sikandar) to the king's (Dárá's) women-folk!
“Duality (alienation) be far from your midst!


“If the revolving sphere committed a crime,
“(And) displayed hand-essaying (treachery) towards this house,

“The king (Sikandar)—of all those losses that chanced (to Dárá)—
“Has no crime in respect to those losses that passed.

“In the end (by Dárá's dying wishes), my hope became such,
“That the hopeless one (Sikandar) may become hopeful of it (Dárá's house);

“May bring his judgment to the prosperity of this house;
“May exercise his own lordly rights (by becoming Dárá's son-in-law).

“By Dárá's command (as to marrying Roshanak), and the good breeding of relations,
“He (Sikandar) advances the foot for the work of alliance.


May God Most High make both families (Dárá's and Sikandar's) one!


Dárá himself was army-leader against Sikandar, and fell by the hand of his own officers.


The second line may be:—

(a) The hopeless one (of the men of Irán) may become hopeful of favour of him (Sikandar).

(b) That the hopeless one (Roshanak) may become hopeful of him (Sikandar).

(c) That the hopeful one (other than Sikandar) may become hopeless of (marrying) her (Roshanak).


As to Sikandar, I am hopeful that, although before this he was hopeless, he may now, seated on Dárá's throne, be hopeful of his house.


At the time of dying Dárá had desired Sikandar to marry Roshanak.

“Farhang-i-khwesh” signifies—respect to the offspring of kings, whose daughters are married to their relations and to none else.


“The desire of the world-king is of this sort,
“—From the honourable house (of Dárá) of such honour­able fame,—

“That his (fair) face (by joy) may become resplendent;
“That Roshanak may become the inestimable pearl of his crown:

“That he may illumine his eye with her resplendent countenance;
“May make his house the rose-garden by that red rose.

“Thus, he accepted the treaty (of marriage) from Dárá,
“For moon (Roshanak of moon-face)-taking,—behold he has sent the litter!

“The world-possessor, who here (in Sipáhán) let go his rein (rested),
“Prepared for the desire of this matter (alliance with Roshanak):


“Closed the tongue of persons with this speech (of alliance);
“Came, in this search, on his own feet.

“Bring ye forth the Parí-faced one to the litter;
“Exercise ye effort for the arrangement of this matter (of travelling)!”

To the councillor (Aristotle), thus spoke the interpreter (a woman of the bed-chamber),
Saying:—“In the king's shadow remain perpetually!

“The person (lady) of the house is even one house-born (pure):
“The one wind-come (dissolute) also goes to the wind.


“'Ișmat sará,e” signifies—a house, the people of which are free from crime.


The face is likened to white ivory. Orientals take fairness of face to betoken happiness; and swarthiness, unhappiness.


“Kas-i-khána” signifies:—

(1) “Bánú,e va șáhib-i-khána, mistress or master of the house.

(2) One whose lineage is known.

(3) “Shoe zan,” the husband of the woman; because (meta.) they call the married woman the house (khána).

Khána-zád” signifies—așl va ham jins; șáhib-i-khána, a son or a son-in-law; one born in the house and nurtured in innocence.

“Ba bád ámada” signifies—the opposite to kas-i-khána; or one houseless and whose lineage is unknown; a dissolute woman.

“In golden water it is proper to inscribe this saying:—
—“The camel-driver reaped what the ass-owner sowed.—


“The knob of the corner of his (Sikandar's) litter is our crown;
“The ground-kiss to that cradle our ladder of ascent.

“If he (Sikandar) take (Roshanak) captive, we are head-lowered (in respect);
“And if he make alliance (of marriage), verily, we are slaves (order-accepters).

“It is not proper to draw the head from his order;
“Where his judgment,—there is the golden key.


There were two brothers, of whom one was an ass-owner and the other a camel-owner.

Each by himself gained his livelihood.

The ass-owner one day sowed a piece of land in a torrent-bed, and went on a journey, from which he returned not at the time of reaping.

The camel-owner reaped the crop and took it to his own house.

The magistrate of the city asked, saying:—“That sown by the ass-owner, who reaped?”

They replied, saying:—“The camel-driver reaped what the ass-owner sowed.”

And this is now a proverb.

The ass-owner is often a husbandman; the camel-driver, a soldier.


Of kings' litters the sides are raised to prevent the falling out of the bedding and the pillows. They call that litter eight gosha when it rises at each of the four feet and twice in each of the sides.


The golden key may signify Sikandar's existence, and the iron lock, Roshanak's.

The couplet may mean:—

Sikandar's judgment is like the golden key (the sun); whatever comes into his reason is the essence of truth.

Wherever his thought is—there is the golden key—in his order is no mistake,—the good opener and the perfect finder of truth.

“If the king bring his head (incline) to this matter (of marriage),
“He will cause Roshanak's head to reach the moon!

“We have agreed to the (royal) dowry of the Khusrau,
“For we are born of the seed of Khusraus.


“When the monarch gives the order,—on the day
“That for alliance is good,

“We will proudly move to the Khusrau's court;
“Will display joy according to the usage of homage.”

When the learned minister heard this answer,
He went to the king; he uttered whatever he had wit­nessed.

From joy the king's countenance kindled;
For man is the prey of (fascinated by) a pleasant reply.

That answer which gathers dust (vexation) in the ear,
Brings the hearer's heart to sorrow.


On the day when fortune was auspicious,—
The aspects (of the stars) were favourable for con­junction,

The world-seeker, according to the custom of his own ancestor (Ibráhím),
Made the Parí-born one (Roshanak) equal to himself (his spouse by marriage):


“Sar dar áwardan” signifies—ráí shudan va tawajjuh kardan.


That day was good for the zifáf.


“Naar” signifies—the conjunction of two stars in one mansion, and the aspects of the constellations.


According to the rites of Islám, and according to the law of Ibráhím, Sikandar established the marriage-bond.

Took the covenant also according to the custom of Kayán kings;
Took fidelity into his heart, and loyalty (as to the covenant) into his soul:

In that contract (of marriage), for the sake of her rank,
Fixed her dowry to the extent of the country of Persia:

Ordered that the office-holders (or the people of trade) of the time
Should bring the market and the city into adornment:


With the embroidered cloth of Khwárazm and the brocade of Rúm,
Should make fresh all that land and clime.

In that way that they desired,—(the city of) Sipahán,
They arrayed in brocade and (cloth studded with) jewels:

Arrayed, on the border of street and roof,
Carpets (embroidered with forms) of tulips of amber colour (red and white):

Upreared the standards to the sphere;
Made the world newly adorned.


In marrying he performed the Kayán rites for preserving the heart of Dárá's veiled ones and the honour of Roshanak.


In that covenant-making Sikandar was not forced. He brought that loyalty willingly, not forcibly, into his heart; for force in such a matter is abhorrent.

“Mihr” signifies—pure inclination to loyalty as to the covenant.


“Muarrá” signifies—árásta.


“urrah” signifies—something on the roof for catching rain-water— bárán-gír; or the border of anything.

This couplet describes the decoration (á,ina-bandí) of a city at the time of nuptials of kings, or after returning from the performance of important matters.

The street and the market became crowded with tent-roofs;
The impress of affairs became of another kind.


In every street, they appointed—a musician;
A song-singer, and a harp-player.

(From) the sugar - scattering (melodiousness) of that enkindled lute,—
The enemy (the envious one), consumed like aloe-wood and sugar.

From the quarter of Khazrán (in Turkistán) to the brink of the river Zinda,
The earth became alive from the new mode of music.

From the many torrents that came from wine,
The lip of the (intoxicated) minstrels bit (kissed) the (musical) strings.


“Killah” signifies—a screen or a canopy of canvas, called (in India) shámiyána, set up on poles, sides open. These were pitched in the open parts of the city.

“Sikka” here signifies—rawáj va raunak.


“Aghání” (sing. aghniya) signifies—songs sung without the playing of an instrument.


“U'd afrokhta” signifies—a musical instrument, by the flame of the voice of which the hearer's heart becomes roast meat.

The burning of aloes and sugar describes the custom of the country.

Those envious of the king became consumed like sugar and aloes, saying:—“How joyful are these nuptials!”

On the nuptial night, to give pleasure to the ear by its crepitating sound, they burn sugar and aloes. The couplet may refer to the scattering that they make on the bride and the son-in-law.


They take to Khazrán parrots, and from it, excellent honey.

The Zinda-river signifies—the rúd-khána,e siyáhán, the water of which is very clear and sweet.


The second line may signify:—

(a) (In place of sweetmeats after wine) the minstrels bit (with the teeth and the lips) those musical strings.

(b) The lip of the minstrels sucked up the torrent (of wine).

The rose-water of Isfahán and the musk of Tiráz (in Turkistán),—
The head (the mouth) of the musk-bladder and the rose­water flagon—opened.


The crepuscule, in joy for the king, put on the red rose (the ruddy garment of joy);
The sun and the moon made a tray full of sugar (the ruddy crepuscule and scattered it).

The heavens prepared a palace of the (scattered) sugar (the ruddy crepuscule);
Upreared another vault (the sky) with the (strewn) roses.

All countries and territories in tumult through joy;
The minstrels in all quarters shout bringing forth.

When (the bride of) night displayed splendour with (her) black silk (of darkness),
She adorned her cheek and ringlet with the musk (of darkness) and the moon.

Thou wouldst have said:—“Perhaps the (half) moon of the sphere is the shell;
“(And) in it, the perfumer of Kirkh (the sky) has rubbed ambergris (lumière cendrée).”


For the sake of the monarch, that moon of musky noose (Roshanak)
Made almond of her eye, sugar of her mouth.


Celebrated are the rose-water of Sipáhán and the musk of iráz.

The men of Sipáhán scattered musk and rose-water.


“Súr” may signify—jashan, a bauquet; or díwár, a wall.

In the latter case:—

On the king's walls the crepuscule (in joy) fastened the red rose.

If rekht be read for bast:—

The crepuscule scattered the red rose on the king's walls;
The sun and moon, filling a tray with sugar, scattered it.


Kirkh, the glory of Baghdád, is famous for its ambergris.

On the nuptial night they send ambergris (a black perfume), rubbed in a shell, to the house of the bride.


There are many interpretations:—

(a) Roshanak, having prepared some almonds and sugar, sent them to Sikandar; for musk and the moon (the darkness and the splendour of night) are a bride worthy of the king.

(b) Though they had prepared other things for the people generally, Roshanak (for the purpose of calling to the king's remembrance her own eye and mouth) made ready, that night, some almonds and sugar, and sent them to the king's seraglio. This proceeding may mean—perfumes and a mistress are fit for the private rooms of a king.

(c) For the monarch's sake, that moon of musky noose (the bride of night) made almond of its eye (the stars) and sugar of its mouth (the moon).

(d) The bride of night (by order of the sky, intent upon congratulating Sikandar on his joy) adorned itself with the musk of darkness, the almond of the eye, and the sugar of the mouth, in honour of the king's nuptials.

She sent both to the king's seraglio;
For the musk (darkness of night) and the moon (light) are (a bride) worthy of the royal haram.

The next day, when the lofty sun
Drew forth its head, bride-like, from the (black) silk (of night).

The heart of that monarch of Rúm, on account of that bride (Roshanak),
Fell into tumult like the Russian camel-bell.

He prepared a banquet with music and wine,
From envy of which Paradise brought forth the sweat (of vexation):


(The perfumer of Kirkh, or the sky) sent both (the ambergris and the musky noose, that is the bride of night of black tress) to the king's (Sikandar's) bed-chamber.

For they are fit for the royal chamber.

When night came and the moon came forth, that moon of musky noose (Roshanak) prepared (as a present to Sikandar) from its own eye and mouth almond and sugar, and sent them both to the king's bed­chamber.

For musk (the black tress) and the moon (the mouth) are fit for the king's bed-chamber.


Kh'ay bar áwardan” signifies—'araḳ bar áwardan; khajal shudan.


Sported with wine with the chiefs;
His head and the cup (presented to others) both heavy with wine:

Gave that day treasure to such a degree,
That in bearing it the earth was distressed.

When (the thief) night shattered the jewelled (threaded) rays of the sun,
(Of those rays) a ruddy cornelian (ruddiness) came to the hand of the crepuscule.

It (the crepuscule) gave the (ruddy) cornelian in ex­change for the turquoise of Bushák (the darkness of night);
—Behold how my speech fell upon the men of Bushák!—

For his heart's desire (the bringing of Roshanak to his own dwelling), the king discovered power;
He sent (at night) a person to the musky (fragrant) seraglio (of Dárá),


The effect of wine-drinking is generosity.


“'Aḳd-i-khurshed” may signify—the sun's revolution from east to west.

shab may mean mușíbat.
'aḳd may mean sulanat.
khurshed may mean Dárá.
'aḳíḳ may mean Roshanak.
shafḳ may mean Roshanak's mother.
pirúza,e busáḳí may mean Sikandar.

When night (the vicissitudes of Time) shattered the jewelled rays (of the kingdom) of the sun (Dárá)—a cornelian (out of those jewelled rays, Roshanak) came into the hand of the crepuscule (Roshanak's mother).


The second line is uttered by Niámí.

The people of Busháḳ (near Nishápúr), proverbial for villainy, were at enmity with Nașratu-d-Dín, in whose cities none mentioned them without saying:—

“God preserve me! Why spoke I of them?”

The turquoise of Busháḳ is famed.


That Roshanak, like the luminous lamp,
They should bring to the garden (Sikandar's house) with the garden-cherisher (Roshanak's mother).

To Roshanak, thus her mother spoke
—Of her king, Sikandar, of illumined soul,—

Saying:—“The unparalleled Sikandrian ruby (Sikandar),
“When it becomes co-equal with (the spouse) the pearl (Roshanak) in essence (unity),

“We may exercise in this matter (of espousing Sikandar) empire-protecting;
“May practise the same nobility and royalty (as in Dárá's time).

“It is not proper to turn the head from his order (as regards marriage),
“For one can obtain none better than him.


“Make thy ringlet-tip the girdle of his service;
“For his happiness (by thy devotion) is auspicious to thee.

“Save him (Sikandar), whoever strikes his head (desires propinquity) with thee,
“Strikes his head, like thy ringlet, on the girdle (or mountain).



They should bring to the garden-cherisher (Sikandar) in the garden (his own dwelling).


“Ḳamar” signifies—band-i-kamar.


Save him (Sikandar) whoever strikes his head with (desires) thee.

Strikes, like thy ringlet, his head on the mountain-slope (does a mad act).

When warriors sever the head of a renowned one, they attach it by the hair to the waist.

The hair of lovely ones is long and beats against the waist; so will the head of the presumptuous one beat against the girdle of his slayer.

“Ba kase sar zadan” signifies—ḳurb-i-kase khwástan; am'-i-kase kardan.

“If in thy ear be the gold ring,
“When it is without him it is (only) the door ring.

“Do him courtesy, for he is our lord;
“Dárá-like, his heart is intent on favour to us.”

The girl, heart-cherishing, accepted from her,
With coyness and bashfulness, (the counsel) very worthy of acceptance.


At the king's banquet, the Parí-born one,
They placed in a golden couch, like the moon (in the golden cradle of the sky).

Hastened her to the private chamber of the Khusrau;
Made the chamber (of Sikandar) void of spectators.

Then at that place where were the magnificent (marriage) presents,
Which kindled the brain of spectators,

The gentle mother gently took her hand;
She consigned the precious pearl-shell (Roshanak) to the sea (Sikandar),

Saying:—“Of the seed of (Kayán) kings, neck-exalting,
“This one straight cypress (only) has remained a token.


“I say not—a jewel, most precious,
“I entrust to a husband most renowned;

“(But) one father-slain, left fatherless,
“An orphan of a dispersed empire (given to plunder),

“I entrust to the care of a Sikandar!
“Thou knowest, and the Judgment Day, and that judg­ment.”


The second line may be:—

Accepting much with coyness and bashfulness.


To the sea she consigned the shell that it might become pearl-producing.

The monarch accepted her from the mother;
He placed the diadem of equality on her head.

They gave the box-tree (Roshanak, of lofty stature) to the lily (Sikandar, soft of tongue and very kind);
—The parterre (Sikandar's dwelling) became the ground of the noble cypress.—


The king, on account of the beauty of that royal jewel (Roshanak),
Entered upon the work of jewel-purchasing.

He beheld such a Parí that, from heart-ravishingness,
The Parí became the attendant of her person.

A proudly-moving cypress, its fruit the date (sweet speech);
Sugar, the sweetness-seizer of her speech!

An eye,—the fascinator, violently passion-seeking;
The remedy-giver to the sick (with love), and to the sick riser (the convalescent).

The tongue short (little given to talking), and the ringlet and the neck long;
The lip like sugar—the mole (on the lip) talking in secret with it.


The chin smooth; the throat full;
The waist slim; and the bosom high.

One cherished like the liver with pure blood;
One brought forth like vision from the eye (of her parents).


The second line is uttered by Niámí.


This is the wonder—that the fruitless cypress bore the date-fruit.

The date signifies—sweet speech, not the luscious lip.


Roshanak was cherished like the liver whose freshness is in blood; and so graceful and tender of body that you might say she was cherished in the eye (of her parents and nurses), like a vision.


She appeared like vision (glances issuing) from the eyes of men.

That is:—

From great love men held her dear like the man (pupil) of the eye; or she lodged in their eye-house (the eye).


Khún-i-jigar” signifies—pára,e jigar, liver-fragment, a son.

Khún-náb” signifies—ashk-i-khún, blood-tears.

Having slain through passion of love a world of lovers, Roshanak found nourishment from their blood.

In every tumult (of saucy speech, love-stirring) that she used to excite with her lip,
She used to strew the salt (of passion) upon those heart­broken:

With every laugh which from her lip she made sugar-scattering,
She made the temperament of the one of sugar laughter (the lover) more ardent:

A ringlet,—curl-taking (curly),—of pure musk (the tress),
Cast shade on the sun's fountain (the lustrous cheek):


A face like the rose; and (on it), expressed the water of the rose (lustre),
A rose-water from every (lustrous) fountain (cheek),— excited.

Sikandar, who beheld that fountain (the cheek) and shadow (the tress),
Became comforted when he reached the stage (of obtaining Roshanak).


See canto x. couplet 26.


Rose-water is bitter. Roshanak, by her beauty, brought a world to tears.

The second line may be:—

(a.) A rose-water (of bitter tears, through love) from every eye (lover),—excited.

(b.) A rose-water (a lustre) from both her eyes,—excited.


Whenever the traveller finds water and shade, verily, he alights and rests.

To his eye of fidelity she became agreeable;
She took his heart when she entered his embrace.

For his heart's desire he took her tightly into his embrace;
And plucked his heart's desire from that heart's desire (Roshanak),

His life gladdened become by Roshanak;
His palace, more resplendent than the garden of Paradise.


The king always called her—“Jahán-Bánú” (the world-lady),
He preserved towards her the custom of state.

For she was vigilant, and endowed with modesty and grace;
Was tongue-bound as to (foolish) words unfit to be uttered.

The key (of power) of all the royalty which he possessed,
He gave to her, and exalted her crown beyond the sphere.

Of seeing her face,—one moment,
He was not patient so long as he went not towards her.

With gladsomeness in that country (Isfáhán), Paradise-like,
He reposed with that Paradise-creature (the húrí).


According to the Shar' (the precepts of Muhammad), the lords of religion preserved respect for their women-folk.


Note the idiom in the Persian text.


Malcolm, in his “History of Persia,” states:—

Isfáhán (population 200,000; latitude 32° 40' N., longitude 50° E.), once the capital and still the principal city of Persia, has the happiest temperature. Excepting during a few weeks, the sky is unclouded and serene; the rains are never heavy and snow seldom lies on the ground; the air is so pure and dry that the brightest polished metal may be exposed to it without being corṛoded.

In spring no spot in the world has a more lovely garb; the cleanness of the streets, the shade of the lofty avenues, the fragrant luxuriance of the gardens, and the verdant beauty of the wide-spreading fields, com­bine with the finest climate to render it delightful.

The loity palaces and the domes of the numerous masjids and colleges derive additional beauty from being half-veiled by shady avenues and luxurious gardens.

The fine bridges over the Zinda-rúd are in good repair. No buildings can be more striking than some of the palaces.

Every principal market is covered with an arched roof; the principal káraván sará,es are excellent solid buildings; many of the public baths are splendid, of great size, paved with marble.

In its prosperous days its walls were twenty miles in circumference.

For a detailed description see “A General Collection of the Most Interesting Travels in Various Parts of Asia,” by John Pinkerton, 1819, vol. iii. p. 188.


When the morning lifted the veil from the face of day,
Khutan (the brightness of day) placed the mark of capita­tion tax (sovereignty) on Ethiopia (the darkness of night).

The noise (in delivering wine) of the long-necked flask came into agitation;
The cock (of the morning) from the pot-cover (the sky, or God's throne) kept saying:—“Drink!”

From the throat of wine-vessels of the form of the cock with peacock-tail (peacock mouth),
Pure blood (red wine) poured out into the goblets.

The wine and the king's assembly, to the sound of the harp,
Brought colour into the cheek of the world.

The king of seven regions, according to the custom of Kayán kings,
—On his waist the girdle decorated with seven jewels,—


For the most part, the people of Khutan (in the east) are Muslims, fair of face; and those of Habsh (in the west) infidels, dark of face.


“á,us dum” may signify—that either the mouth or the belly of the wine-vessel was like the peacock's tail.


“Haft chashma kamar” signifies—a girdle on which are fixed seven jewels, signifying the seven planets. The custom of wearing such a girdle belonged to the Kayán kings.


Ascended the throne, like the sun,
The sky (in pleasure) girdle made tight in attendance (on him);

(And) an assembly adorned with both reed and wine;
With an elegance which took sense from the beholder.

By the foot (of Sikandar's throne) they placed those qualified to sit;
Each one sought a place according to the degree of his power (rank).

The musician scattered sugar in melodiousness;
The cup-bearer bound his loins for soul-cherishing (with wine).

From the freshness (of the melody) that passed—the musical and stringed instruments,
Took away the sense (of the hearer) like the water of the river.


Sikandar began to exercise munificence;
He opened the door of the Sikandrian treasure.

From much treasure-giving to the army of Irán,
The jewel-wave from the skirt struck upon the cap.

With the decoration of freshness, the world (the army of Irán)
He adorned with a royal dress of honour.

A lofty sun that becomes light-giving,—
By giving light, becomes not empty like the lightning.


“Tarrí” signifies—ser-ábí, moisture; or jaldí, quickness.

They call the musician—tar-dast, the moist (fresh) handed one.

From the freshness that the instruments scattered, the musician took away desire, so that desire remained to the heart of none.


The soldiers were immersed in jewels from foot to head.


The lightning in one flash exhausts its luminous powers.

The world-possessor should be the bestower, not the miser.
This is the nature of world-possessing,—and this only.


Come, cup-bearer! that night-lamp (the wine of senseless­ness) of the wine-cellar
Bring me; raise not a cry.

A lamp, from which the eyes are luminous,—
From it, is the oil for the lamp of my (luminous) body.


Give to me that wine quietly, in such a way that none of the mean folk may know, as is the fashion of wine drinkers.

As from a lamp there is light; even so from wine the soul becomes illuminated and ease, augmented.

The sages have likened—the body to a lamp, reason to a wick, and the darling passion to oil.