O happy indeed the time that a person has,
Whose market of avarice is not brisk!

To the extent of sufficiency, opulence (of mind) is his;
He performs the work (of religion) if he be a man (capable) of work:

Causes the world (time) to pass by living well (in con­tentment);
Keeps within limit the gallop of the steed (of expenditure).

Neither profuseness (in alms), that brings a deluge upon wealth;
Nor niggardliness, that brings hardship to the state (of the body).


Every hardship is consequent on tightness (of resource);
When thou breakest the door (squanderest), the house is full of fuel (void of wealth).

So live that from that living
May be—profit to thee, loss to none.

The narrator (Nizámí) of the folded record, folded (and written) by the villager (the historian),
Made mention of the past ones (Faylikús and Sikandar) thus,


The terminal alif signifies—in kushá, excess; and in rosgárá, praise.


“Basand” signifies—kifáyat.

“Yasar” signifies—sarwat.


This may be rendered:—

When thou breakest the door, the house is full of the fuel of the wood of that broken door.


“Guzárandagán” may signify—sharh-kunándagán; ráwiyán.

“Dihḳán-naward” signifies—nawardída, edihkán mu,arrikh.

Saying:—When the King of Greece, King Faylikús,
Adorned the country of the world like a bride,

He became exalted by the wise son (Sikandar):
For the precious jewel is auspicious.


When (from the horoscope) he found his son wise,
He became happy that he had found the worthy son.

—The father has nothing more worthy,
More deserving (precious) than the deserving son.—

He placed him for learning;
For the (black) stone by the kindling (of the sun) becomes the jewel.

Lukúmájish (Lysimachus), who was wise,
Whose son was Aristo,

Took pains with him in teaching;
Taught him what one cannot reckon:—


Kingly manners; wonderful arts,
That are the strength of the heart and the light of the brain.

With every knowledge—which is in the imagination,
And from which reflection becomes truth-recognising,—

He adorned that pure jewel,
As the stars that adorn the heavens.

He gave him information of whatever was hidden (mys­terious),
—One has seldom reared such a son.—

Every year the prince of quick understanding
Used to admit to his ear science only (far from sport and play).


This couplet is uttered by Niámí.


“Lukúmájish” signifies—Naḳumájish; Laḳúmáj.


When he hastened to a subtle matter,
He would discover (display) subtle words.

Aristo, who was the prince's fellow-student,
Had given his heart in service to him.

Whatever capital (of wisdom) he used to gather from his father,
He would, explanation-making, teach him.

When the wise teacher (Lukúmájish),—by (his own) skill and judgment,
Beheld the prince foot on the (master of) treasure,

He endured greater trial in instructing him;
For treasure-guarding makes the man happy of heart.


When he related before him (Sikandar) the decree of his fortune,
He inscribed within it the lettering (the fortune) of his own son.

In that day, when fortune was the accepter (of deeds and words),
(And) the seal-ring of speech was the seal-accepter (became decorated).

He consigned the son (Aristotle) to the prince (Sikandar);
He added an oath to the agreement,

Saying:—“When thou bringest forth thy head (in exalta­tion) to the lofty sphere;
“Causest the dun steed (of empire) to leap from the school to the plain (of battle);


When Sikandar was eight years of age, Lysimachus (an Acarnanian) was his tutor; and, at the age of fifteen years (B.C. 342), Aristotle, who left him not till the invasion of Asia (B.C. 334) occurred.


“Manshúr-i-iḳbál” here signifies—zaycha, a horoscope.

When, before Sikandar, Lukúmájish read the horoscope of his fortune, he wrote in it the name of his own son (Aristotle), with the title of— Sikandar's Attendant, Counsellor, and Minister.

“Bringest the head of enemies to the earth;
“Bringest the world (in submission) beneath the seal of the seal-ring;


“Makest the throne auspicious beneath thy crown,
“(And) they send thee tribute from the seven climes (of the world);

“Exercisest sovereignty over the horizons (of the world);
“Displayest world within world (mighty) royal sway,—

“(Then) thou wilt bring to mind this (my) teaching and instructing;
“Wilt not adore gold and silver (as is the wont of the kings of the time);

“Wilt not withhold thy regard from my son (Aristotle);
“Wilt perform the right due to my son;

“Wilt become, by his ministership, experienced in affairs;
“—For the wise minister is better than property (the Amír's) and treasure (the official's).


“Thine ally is fortune; his, skill:
“The skilful one is necessary for the master of fortune.

“Wherever skill found its full value,
“It brought forth renown for the lord of wealth.

“Verily, the lord of wealth, who realised preciousness,
“Obtained loftiness from the judgment of the lofty ones.

“When thou wishest that thou mayst cause thy throne to reach the moon,
“Of this ladder (Aristotle's aid), no help is thine.”


“Paiwand” signifies—nisbat.


See canto xv. couplet 2.


“Daulat-khudá,í” signifies—mard-i-daulatí.


Skill and wealth are helpers of each other.

The prince (Sikandar) gave his hand to him:
In accepting he bound a compact with him,


Saying:—“When royalty makes work straight for me,
“He shall be my minister. God is witness against me.

“Neither will I turn my head from his judgment or order;
“Nor will I gird my loins, save at his command.”

In the end, when fortune assisted,
The king displayed firmness as to that compact.

When the teacher (Lukúmájish) knew that that wise child
Would take away the ball (of superiority) from the arro­gant ones (potentates),

He drew a diagram of that arithmetical character (the Abjad),
In which the conquered and the conqueror appeared.


“Paíraftgárí” signifies—paziraftan.


Whoever calls God witness to a lie becomes an infidel. In the opinion of the sect of the Șanaví (the two principles), I'zd is the creator of light­ness and goodness; and Ahriman of darkness and badness.


This couplet is a parenthesis.


They make a diagram (as below) in four compartments, which they fill with the letters of the Abjad. Beneath every letter of the names of the two persons whose lot is thus to be decided they write the numbers of those letters of the Abjad, and from the total reject the nines (this seems unintelligible); then victory will be as follows:—

Both odd; more or less (unequal) Both even; less or more (unequal)
The less (in number) conquers The less (in number) conquers
Both equal One even; one odd
The less (in age) conquers The greater (in number) conquers


With one similar (both odd or even), it is pleasant to be less;

With one diverse (one odd, the other even), it is pleasant to be great.

If in reckoning both be equal,

He whose age is less is conqueror.

On this subject see “Suráju-r-raml,” by Maulaví Roshan 'Alí; “Mișdáḳu-r-raml,” by Muhammad 'Iár Mál Láhúrí, in Persian, which can be obtained from Munshí Newul Kishore, Lucknow, East India.

Haraf-i-hindisí” signifies—the writing of numbers according to the Abjad.


And gave it to him, saying:—“At the time of action (battle) this letter (the reckoning of the conquered and the conqueror)
“Calculate in the name of thyself and of thy enemy.

“If thy name be the conqueror of the circle (the diagram of the Abjad),
“The reckoning of victory is within thy accomplishment.

“And if of this (thou knowest) that thou art not con­queror in the reckoning (of the Abjad),
“Fear (be cautious of) the conqueror greater than thy­self.”

The king (Sikandar) took that diagram from the old wise man;
That judging (of the conquered and the conqueror) became in his opinion heart-pleasing.

When, at times, he used to inscribe that diagram,
He used to gather intelligence of his own triumph.


In this way he continued living possessed of judgment and sense,
A cauldron of every art brought to boiling (ready for use).

He both possessed the spirit, keenly reflecting;
And also kept before himself the reflection of the wise (his followers).

He acted according to the order of those acquainted with affairs,
And by this intelligence made fortune vigilant.


With his own name and the name of his adversary.


By the boiling of the cauldron they know that the food within is cooked and ready to be eaten.

Of the teacher (Lukúmájish) the skiiful son (Aristotle)
—Who was fellow-student and equal of age—

Was wonderfully (very) kind to the Lord of the Marches (Sikandar);
And the heart of the Lord of the Marches was gracious to him.


He (Sikandar) used not to put on the roasting spit (of action) even a bird (a light matter),
In respect to which Aristo used not to be opinion-expresser (counsellor).

He sought not distance (separation) from his (Aristotle's) judgment;
He sought leave from him for everything.

When from over mountain and plain, the compass of the sphere
Wandered some time on this circle (of revolution of the sky),

King Faylikús took his chattels from the world (died);
He entrusted the world to the new monarch (Sikandar).

What is the world? Pass beyond its sorcery;
Bring within thy grasp escape from its enchantment.


It (the world) is a tree of six sides (of great bole) and of four roots (of firm foundation);
Some persons (in the bond of its lust) bound to four pegs (at its root).


“Bán” signifies—

șáhib as mihr-bán or șáhib-mihr
gíranda as báj-bán or báj-gíranda
háfi as marz-bán or háfi-marz

This couplet is uttered by Niámí.


This answers couplet 59.

“Chár-mekh” signifies—a cross or gallows; and also a form of torture (used in the time of Pharaoh) in which the hands and feet of the victim (cast on his face) were fastened to four pegs widely apart.

The second line may mean:—

Some persons (leaves) bound in four pegs (firmly).

One by one our leaves from this tree
Fall beneath it when the wind (of vicissitude) is strong.

Thou beholdest none resident in this garden (of the world);
Each one sports (for the space of) one breath.

Every moment a fruit (one newly born) arrives afresh within it (the garden);
One departs, another arrives.

Willingly or unwillingly, thou wilt resign the world;
Why is it necessary to press the foot (urge) in self-interestedness?


Within these four directions (the world) is no crowd,
Where the man purse-cutting (death) is not self-seeking.

Thou, by reason of its loan (worldly affections) art in the world's snare;
Give back its loan. Thou mayst escape from its snare.

One night,—a shoe-fastener (farrier) and a pack-saddler
Demanded their rights (the shoes and saddle) from an ass.

The ass, from his foot distressed (with the shoe) and back (galled with the saddle),
Cast before them the shoes and pack-saddle.

When the ass became free from the borrowing (of the shoes and saddle),
He rested and became pleased with himself (forgetting his sore foot and galled back).


Khud-kámagí” signifies—khud gharází.


“Char sú” signifies—the market-place (the intersection of four streets) where the punishment of malefactors is carried out.


O one dusty become (care-stained) with the (vile) dust (of the body)! do thou also
Give (back) the loan (of worldly affections); and leap out of the snare of the dust (of the world).

Come, cup-bearer! give me release from myself (sense­lessness and rapturous delight at beholding God's majesty);
Give me luminosity (of brain) from the gleaming wine (of senselessness).

That wine which gives release from the trouble (of the world),
Gives to those wearied the preserving substance (the soundness of state of the lovers of God).


The first line may mean:—

O one dusty become (in the world's contempt) with the (vile) dust (of wife, and son, and worldly goods)!


Self-worshipping (cherishing) is darkness; the wine of senselessness is the bestower of lightness.