O world Khusrau! beneath the seven skies
Thou art, without doubt, the fifth prince.


The seven climes of the world are subject to the seven planets of the Heavens.

There had passed away four kings, of whom two (Nimrúd and Bakhtu­n-nașr, or the father of Belshazzar) were infidels, and two (Sikandar and Sulaimán) of true faith. Hence, the poet calls both the king Nașratu-d-dín and the planet Mars, whose mansion is in the fifth Heaven—the fifth Prince.

Bakhtu-n-nașr is said to have been the title of Gúdarz—a Persian chief in the time of Luhrasp, the successor of Kay-Khusrau (Cyrus, B.C. 558)—who is supposed to be Nabu-kudur-uzur (Nebuchadnezzar). But, this is doubtful.

Mars (like the king, Nașratu-d-dín) is called—“The Lord of Turki-stán.” It is said that, through the effects of Mars (whose name is Bahrám), they called Nașratu-d-dín, whose justice made all Turkistán prosperous—Bahrám.

With (notwithstanding) the order of (over) so many cities (the six remaining climes)—for the world,
The pillar of thy door (court) is the master of pillars (the garden of Iram).

All night the moon,—that makes (her) circuit of the sphere,
Increases (replenishes as a servant) the oil of thy lamp (of life).

All day the sun with the collar of gold
Binds his loins (as a servant) at the foot of thy throne.


The Entruster of Royalty to thee (God)
Entrusted to thee whatever of the world thou desirest.


“Zátu-l-'Umád” (signifying—Șáhib-i-banáhá,e buland) here means —the garden of Iram made by Shadád, the son of 'A'd, as related in the Ḳurán. Of this garden God said:—

“Iram is possessed of pillars, like to which nothing was made in cities.”

See canto viii. couplet 64.

The meaning of the passage is:—

Notwithstanding that they behold the lordship and justice of the kings of the six remaining regions of the world (exclusive of Turki-stán)—for the people of the world, the pillar of thy door (court) is Paradise.

The moon is impetuous in thy service; she is oil-caster and light-maker for thee.


This work, which the poet invites the sensible king to peruse—is the rule for sovereignty, conquest, and administration.

He gave thee country for that reason that thou mightest exercise sovereignty (world-guarding),
When thou becomest ruler, thou mightest exercise justice-seeking (of the oppressed).

Neither displays a hawk violence against a gnat;
Nor plants an elephant (the oppressor) his foot on the back of the ant (the oppressed one).

Thanks to the Lord, World-Shelter (God),
That the king's justice is more than this (my) precept (of guidance to justice).

I have an eye to (I hope for) the king's justice,
That he may, a little while, look into this tale (of the Sikandar-Náma).


If he consider the tale far from the path (of reason),
Let him cast on it neither shadow nor splendour.

But, if he behold in it wave on wave of pearl (of verse),
He may bring the head of the chaunter to the zenith!

In this treasure-book of the (world's) mystery,
I have concealed the key of much treasure (of philosophy).

That one who brings to his hand the key of gold (of philo­sophy),
Knows how to shatter the tilism of many a treasure (so that he may acquire it).


“ilism” (talisman) was a form placed over buried treasure for the purpose of guarding it.

See the following works in Persian, printed at the press of Munshí Newul Kishor, Lucknow, East India:—

(1) “Majmú 'at-i-ilism-i-Iskandar zú-l-ḳarnin mushtamil bar fanún­i-panjgána,” by Maulaví Muhammad 'Usman Sháhid.

(2) “Suráju-r-raml,” by Maulaví Roshan 'Alí.

(3) “Misdáḳu-r-raml,” by Muhammad 'Iár Mál Lahúrí.

Also “Lilly's Astrology,” Bohn's series, 1729.

And if he bring not forth (acquire not) the hidden treasure (of mysteries),
He becomes joyous, in the end, with the golden key (of knowledge).


Thou knowest—this jewel (the Sikandar-Náma) half-pierced (unfinished),
What (keys of) treasures (of subtleties) it has in conceal­ment.

My jewel-piercing (versifying) has joy from (praise of) thee,
My praise-uttering is worthy of thee.

Wisdom—that makes the sky, earth—
Utters praise on this my praise (of thee).

When from the monarch came the command like this:—
“In (to) my name, depict (dedicate) this picture (of the Sikandar-Náma)!”

I will make my brain fresh (concentrate thought) by the king's word;
I will remain silent (thought-collecting) by the people's word:


“Gauhar” relates to—the Sikandar-Náma,e bara'. At this time Niámí had not written the Sikandar-Náma,e bahrí; hence, the jewel is said to be half-pierced.


Wisdom, whose head is on the sky, obtains power over the mysteries of the sky, and utters praise on my praise; because I have chosen the praising of a king like thyself.


“Maghz dar sar kardan” signifies—be parwâ-í va ighmáz búdan; khámosh shudan.

Having folded up other speech, I will make my brain fresh with the memory of the king.

The second line should precede the first, which the poet, out of respect for the king has put first.

By the word of men, who have brought the king's command, I collect together the power of speech-uttering and the force of my brain; and, by the king's order, I make my brain fresh.

The second line will read, if az guft be written for ba guft:—

I will remain silent as to speech (praise) of the people.


I will send to that banquet a bride (the Sikandar-Náma),
By whom the king's banquet may become eye-illumined (joyous).

May such a bride be the king's slave!
May the male of the world (the king) be happy with her!

To the degree that near (quickly, in the present), and far (slowly, in the future)
Light is (belongs) to the lamp, world-illuminating (the sun),

May the rose of the king's garden be world-illuminating (with its blossom)!
May the lamp of his night be the torch of the day (the sun)!

His slanderer,—mouth rent (gaping) like the crow!
His enemy,—tongue burnt (silent) like the lamp!


Nizami—like wealth (ever existing) in his palace—
May he be night and day his praise-utterer!

Come cup-bearer! that ease-exciter of the soul (wine)
Give, so that in the morning-time I may take a precious morning draught.

A morning draught (of senselessness), that from the stream of Kausar I drink,
Is lawful, (even) if till the day of assembling I drink.


“Fahl” signifies—a male of perfect body.


“Kausar” is the name of a nectar-flowing river in Paradise; it here means—joy on beholding God's majesty.