Abhar and the Daylam Country. Āvah, Rūdbār and Alamūt, Ḥasan-i-Ṣabbāḥ chief of the Assassins. Zanjān. Sāvah and the dried-up Lake, its four districts. Sujās and the Tomb of Arghūn Khān. The city of Satūrīq with its Lake and Palace. Sarjahān. The Ṭārum and Ṭāliqān districts with their villages. Kāghadh-Kunān, Paper-factory. Muzdaqān river and town. Qum and Kāshān. Jurbādaqān and Queen Humāy. Farāhān and Karaj, the pasture-lands of Kītū. Naṭanz with its towns. Great Lur and Little Lur. Hamadān with its five districts. The two Kharraqāns. Rūdrāvar. Nihā- vand and its three districts. Yazd and neighbouring towns

Abhar. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 84° 30’ and lati- tude 36° 40’. It was founded by Kay Khusraw, the son of Siyā- wush. Afterwards Darius, son of Darius the Kayānian, built here a castle of clay bricks, and his brother Alexander the Great completed the same. On this earlier castle a second was founded by Bahā-ad-Dīn Ḥaydar, of the family of Nūshtagīn Shīrgīr the Saljūq, which received the name of Ḥaydariyyah. The circuit of the city walls measures 5550 paces. The climate is cold. Its water is from a river known by the name of the Abhar (Rūd), which rises in the neighbourhood of Sulṭāniyyah, and which flows down towards Qazvīn. Corn and fruit are plentiful here and of good quality, but the bread is vile, and but little cotton is grown. Of its fruits are the Sijistānī pear, the plum known as Bū `Alī, and excellent cherries. The people are fair- skinned, and they are of the Shāfi`ite sect. In character, how- ever, they are too much given to obsequious flattery. Outside the city stands [<Arabic>] the Shrine of Shaykh Abū Bakr ibn Ṭāhir Ṭayyār of Abhar*. The district of Abhar comprises 25 villages, and the revenues of the town and district amount to the sum of 14,000 (currency) dīnārs.

Ashkūr and Daylamān. These, with the Ṭālish and Khar- raqān lands and Khastijān, are great districts lying between (Per- sian) `Irāq and Gīlān, in a rugged mountain region. Each district is under the rule of its own governor, and each governor holds himself to be an independent king. The population are warlike and brave, but when they are abroad from their own country they become very craven. Being mountaineers, they pay little heed to religious matters, but for the most part incline to the Shī`ah and Isma`īlī sects. The climate here is cold, and the water is from springs and torrents coming down from the hills. The corn crops are very rich. Cotton and fruits are less in quantity, but sheep are plentifully reared, and game is abundant. Cattle- pasture is common and nutritious.

Āvah. Of the Fourth Clime: its longitude is 85° 55’, and its latitude 34° 40’. The name of its founder is unknown, but it was built when Virgo was in the ascendant. The circuit of its walls is near 5000 paces. Its climate is temperate, and its water is from the river Gāvmāhā (or Gāvmāsā), which flows along an aqueduct. In this town they leave water to be frozen in winter time, and this on more than one occasion, so that the ice sinks deep into the water. Then in summer they let this ice melt back into water, and when this is accomplished, even as deep down as the water has been previously frozen, the water in the pits remains perfectly clear for use as in other wells. Corn and cotton grow here well; but the bread is not very good, and of fruits only figs are excellent. The population are fair-skinned. They are of the sect of the Twelve Imāms, and are exceedingly bigoted in that doctrine, being all of a mind in the matter. The revenues of this town belong to the Treasury, and they amount to 10,000 dīnārs; while from the surrounding districts, which comprise some 40 villages, the revenues come to 7000 dīnārs. Both this city and its district are counted as included in (the government of) Sāvah.

Rūdbār (the River-bed). This is the district through which the river Shāhrūd [<Arabic>] takes its course, and hence its name. The district lies about six leagues distant north of Qazvīn, and there are here some 50 impregnable and well-built castles, the strongest of which are Alamūt, Maymūn-Diz, and Lanbasar. The most famous of all, however, is Alamūt, which was the chief strong- hold of the Assassins in Persia, where for 171 years they kept their power. This castle lies in the Fourth Clime; its longitude is 85° 37’, and latitude 36° 21’. It was built by Ḥasan Ad-Dā`ī- ilā-al-Ḥaqq, son of Zayd-al-Bāqirī, in the year 246 (860), and in the year 483 (1090) Ḥasan-i-Ṣabbāḥ (the Old Man of the Mountain) gained possession of it, and here preached his esoteric doctrines. Originally the name of this castle had been Āluh Āmūt, which means (in the Ṭabaristān dialect)* ‘the Nest of the Eagle wherein she teaches her young,’ and this in time came to be cor- rupted into Alamūt. Further, (in the Abjad reckoning) the sum of the numerical values of the letters in the name Āluh Āmūt gives the year (483) in which Ḥasan-i-Ṣabbāḥ became possessed of the castle; which same is a remarkable coincidence. In the year 654 (1256), by command of Hūlāgū, the castle was razed to the ground. The Rūdbār district, although for the most part of the hot country, still has so much of its adjacent lands of the cold country, that in two places which are so near together as to be within call of each other, in one they will be reaping the barley, while at the same time in the other it will be the season of barley sowing. Their crops are excellent, giving corn and cotton, with grapes and other fruits of fine quality, and though the apple does not ripen well here, pears are not less good than in Iṣfahān Bread too is excellent. The people are in religion of the Isma`īlī persuasion, and there is a sect called the Marāghiyān who claim connection with the sect of Mazdak. The people of Rūdbār, however, all profess to be Moslems, and at the present day some part walk in the way of the faith. Its revenues amount to 8000 dīnārs.

Zanjān. Of the Fourth Clime. Its longitude is 83° 40’, and its latitude 36° 30’. It was founded by Ardashīr Bābakān, who named it Shahīn. The circuit of its walls was 10,000 paces, but they became ruined during the Mongol invasion. Its climate is cold, and its water is from the river (Zanjān Rūd), which takes its name from the city, and which rising in the neighbourhood of Sulṭāniyyah flows out into the Safīd Rūd. There is also water from underground channels. The crops are mostly [<Arabic>] corn, but in the river-bed are melon grounds, and rice also is grown. There is no fruit, however, grown in the city and its neighbourhood, this being all brought in from the district of the Two Ṭārums. The people are in religion Sunnīs, of the Shāfi`ite sect. They are ex- tremely prone to jesting and mocking; further in the Suwar-al- Aqālīm it is added that they are very careless by nature. Their speech is a pure Pahlavī (dialect). Many tombs of saints and holy men may be seen in this city, as for instance the grave of the Shaykh Akhī Faraj of Ẓanjān, and of Ustād `Abd-al-Ghaffār Sakkāk, and of `Īsā Kāshānī, with others. The revenues belong to the Treasury; they amount to 12,000 dīnārs; and from its dis- trict, which comprises about a hundred villages, the revenues are counted as 8000 dīnārs; making a total of 20,000 for both city and district.

Sāvah. This is of the Fourth Clime; its longitude is 85°, and its latitude 35°. It is a city built since Islām. Originally the site of Sāvah was a lake, but on the night of the birth of the Prophet Muḥammad the water of this lake sank down under- ground—the same being a joyful portent. In that place they built this city, and the name of its builder is unknown, but it was founded when the Gemini were in the ascendant. Of late its walls having gone to ruin, the noble Khwājah Ẓahīr-ad-Dīn `Alī, son of Malik Sharaf-ad-Dīn of Sāvah, has restored them, constructing the battlements and the face of the wall in burnt brick. The circuit of these walls is 8200 common ells. The noble Khwājah Shams-ad-Dīn, son of the above, further has founded the village of Rūdābān over against but in connection with the town, and has given it walls which enclose it within the city, the circuit of these latter being near 4000 common ells. The climate of Sāvah is rather hot but fresh; its water comes from the Muzdaqān river and from underground channels. In Sāvah too, as in Āvah, they leave water in pits to be frozen during the winter time, and then use the ice in the hot weather. The corn and cotton crops here are abundant; but the bread is not good. Of fruits figs, apples, quinces, the Murraq grapes, and the Khurramābād pomegranates all come to perfection. The population of the town is (Sunnī) of the Shāfi`ite sect, and they are very strenuous in the faith; but the people of all the other villages in the districts round—except only those of Alūsjird, who are Sunnīs—are Shī`ahs [<Arabic>] of the sect of the Twelve Imāms. The revenue of these districts goes to the Treasury, and amounts to 25,000 dīnārs.

The territory of Sāvah comprises four, districts, including a total of 125 villages. The first district is that of Sāvah (town) with 46 villages, of which the largest are Khurramābād, Sarā- shiyūn, Tīrīznāhīd, Varzanah, Anjīlāvand, and Taradjird. The second district is that of Āvah (town)*, comprising 17 villages, of which the chief are Sar, Ḥamīrqān, Qutlugh Bāligh, Nawdhar, Kuhandān, Abardiz, and Kāsvāh. The third district is that of Chahrūd, with 25 villages, of which the largest are Khīv, Dastjird and Nāmah. The fourth district is that of Būsīn with 42 villages and the chief are Rāvdān, Aznāvah, Shamīram, Murraq, Dafas, and Khījīn. The revenues of these districts amount to 45,000 dīnārs. Neither the barley nor the straw of this region will fatten cattle: so much so that the saying goes ‘the straw of Qum is better than the barley of Sāvah.’ Of famous shrines here is the tomb of Shaykh `Othmān of Sāvah, and to the north outside the city lies the tomb of Isḥāq, son of the Imām Mūsā-al-Kāẓim. Further, at a distance of four leagues to the westward of Sāvah, and in the Kharraqān district, stands the shrine, as is said, of the prophet Samuel.

Sāuj Bulāgh (Cold Spring). This is a district which in Sal- jūq times paid its revenues to Ray, but which the Mongols have separated therefrom. It has a fine climate, its water in greater part is from underground channels, fruit and corn are in abun- dance, and most of its bread is excellent. Its revenues amount to 12,000 dīnārs. Its people are mostly nomads, and as such are indifferent in religious matters. The principal villages here are Kharāv, Najmābād and Sunqurābād. In Sunqurābād many Say- yids [<Arabic>] of noble descent have their abode; but it is now gone to ruin.

Sujās and Suhravard. These of old were two towns, but they were ruined during the Mongol invasion. At the present time both are reduced to the size of villages, to which some other villages belong also, together with the districts of Jarūd and Anjarūd lying one day’s journey southward from Sulṭāniyyah. Sujās and Suhravard are of the Fourth Clime, lying in longitude 83° 20’, and in latitude 36°. Their district is of the cold region, corn and some little fruit growing here. There are more than one hundred villages round and about, for the most part settled by Mongols. The sepulchre of Arghūn Khān was made in the mountain of Sujās, and according to Mongol custom, they concealed the place, making the whole mountain an inviolable Sanctuary (Qūrugh), so that people could not without difficulty pass that way. Arghūn’s daughter, Ūljāy Khātūn, however, made manifest her father’s grave, founding a Darvīsh-house, and settling a community here. The people of Sujās and Suhravard are Sunnīs of the sect of Abū Ḥanīfah. In the Anjarūd district is a city which the Mongols call Satūrīq*: it stands on the summit of a hill and it was originally founded by King Kay Khusraw the Kayānian. In this town there is a great palace, in the court of which a spring gushes forth into a large tank, that is like a small lake for size, and no boatman has been able to plumb its depth. Two streams of water, each in power sufficient to turn a mill, continually flow away from this tank: but if they be dammed back the water in the tank no wise increases in level; and when the stoppage is removed the water again runs away as before: being at no season more or less in volume. This is a wonderful fact. This palace was restored by Abaqā Khān the Mongol, and in the neighbourhood there are excellent pasture grounds. Its revenues amount to 25,000 dīnārs.

Sarjahān. This was a castle that stood on a hill that lay over against the district of the two Ṭārums, being five leagues distant to the eastward of Sulṭāniyyah. Some 50 villages were of its dependencies, but all were ruined during the Mongol invasion. Near here also is the village of Quhūd, which the Mongols call Ṣāin Qal`ah, and which is the chief of all those neighbouring hamlets. This place, by reason of its nearness to Sulṭāniyyah, is become a flourishing country. It is of the cold region, [<Arabic>] having corn and melon grounds, and as it lies on the great highroad, and has many outgoings to pay, all revenue to the Treasury is excused to it.

The two Ṭārums. These are districts of the hot lands, lying to the north of Sulṭāniyyah, one day’s march distant. They produce excellent crops, and most of the fruit of Sulṭāniyyah comes from here. Formerly there was here a city called Fīrūzābād, which stood in Lower Ṭārum, being its capital. At the present time it is a complete ruin, and Andar in Upper Ṭārum has become the chief city of these districts. Its longitude is 84°, and its lati- tude 36° 45’. The population is Sunnī of the Shāfi`ite sect. These two regions comprise five districts. First the district of Upper Ṭārum, which is that lying round Qal`ah Tāj (the Crown Castle), and to it belong about one hundred villages; of the most im- portant are Jazlā, Shūrzad, Darām, Ḥayāt, Qalāt, Razīd and Shīd. The second district is that of Lower Ṭārum, to which appertain the lands round the castle of Shamīrān: it includes some fifty villages with their farms, and the chief among them are Alūn, Khawarnaq, Sharzūrlard and Kalach. The third district is also of Lower Ṭārum, being of the dependencies of the castle of Firdaws; it has some twenty villages, of which the chief is Sarvān. The fourth district is that belonging to the two considerable villages Nisbār and Barīdūn, with eight other hamlets belonging thereto. The fifth district is that of Lower Dizābād, with twenty-five villages, of which the chief are Gulhār, Gulchīn and Balhal. The revenues of these districts, which include the gardens of Qalāt, Arad and Haykāl*, amount to 64,000 dīnārs.

Ṭāliqān. A district of the cold region, lying to the east of Qazvīn. Its longitude is 85° 45’, and its latitude 36° 10’. It is of the mountain region, and there were many castles here, though but few villages. Its crops are corn with nuts and fruits in lesser quantity. The people declare themselves to be Sunnīs in religion, but have leanings towards the Isma`īlī doctrines. Of its districts are Sarānrūd, Jarūd, Quhpāyah, Kan and Karkh, where there are many considerable hamlets. The revenues [<Arabic>] of Ṭāliqān with its districts amount to 10,000 dīnārs.

Kāghadh-Kunān. This was a medium sized town, founded by the Amīr Mīshūd of Zanjān, who was maternal grandfather of Sharwīn. It was given at first the name of Khūnaj, but since they came to make excellent paper (Kāghadh) here, it has taken the name of Kāghadh-Kunān (the Paper-factory). It is now in ruins, being only of the size of a village. Its population are of the Shāfi`ite sect. It has a cold climate, and its water is from springs that rise in the adjacent mountains, flowing down to the river Safīd Rūd. It produces no crops but cotton: and of its de- pendencies in former days were some 35 villages. It was ruined during the Mongol invasion, and now is a Mongol settlement, where they farm the lands, and the place is therefore known as Mughūliyyah. Of its dependencies are Hardaqān and Upper Dizābād, with some 70 other places, where further both cotton and fruits are cultivated. The revenue of Kāghadh-Kunān and these dependencies amounts to 5000 dīnārs.

Muzdaqān. A medium sized town of the Fourth Clime: in longitude 84° 50’, and latitude 35°. The town is 3000 paces in circuit and its climate is rather cold. Its water is from the river which bears the same name as the town, and which flows down from the neighbourhood of Sāmān. The corn and grapes are excellent here, but other fruits are scarce. Its population are Sunnīs of the Shāfi`ite sect. The revenues of the town with its dependencies, which include 13 villages, amount to 10,000 dīnārs, and it is counted as of the Sāvah government.

Tīrak, Marjamnān, and Andijan*. Tīrak is a provincial town of the Fourth Clime, situated to the north of Abhar, with 30 villages of its dependencies. It has a cold climate, but healthy, so that most of its population are long-lived. Its water is from springs in the neighbouring mountains, which flow down to the river Safīd Rūd. Its crops are grapes, corn and fruit of the cold region. Its people are Sunnīs of the Shāfi`īte sect, and its revenues amount to 4000 dīnārs. Marjamnān and Andijan, with depen- dencies that include some 20 villages, are [<Arabic>] in climate and products similar to Tīrak; and the two places give revenues amounting to 6000 dīnārs: and of their revenues, together with those of Tīrak, one half goes to the Treasury of Qazvīn, and the other half to the Treasury of the Two Ṭārums.

Pushkil Darrah District. This lies to the east of Qazvīn, and to the south of Ṭāliqān. It comprises 40 villages. Its climate is temperate, and its streams come down from the neighbouring hills. The crops are corn, fruits and nuts, and its population is in character and creed similar to the people of Ṭāliqān. Its revenues amount to 3000 dīnārs; and formerly these were set apart for the endowment of the Mosque at Qazvīn, but at the present time the Mongols have forcibly diverted it elsewhere.

The tūmāns of Qum and Kāshān.

Qum is of the Fourth Clime, lying in longitude 85° 15’, and latitude 34° 45’. It was founded by Tahmūrath, when the Sign of Gemini was in the ascendant, and the circuit of its walls is more than 10,000 paces, being it is said 40 paces in excess of the wall of Qazvīn. Its climate is temperate, and its water is from the Jurbādaqān river. Here, as in Āvah, they leave water in winter to freeze in pits, and in the hot season make use of it. The water of its wells is found some 15 ells down, and it is apt to be brackish. Of its crops are corn and cotton in consider- able quantities, and of its fruits there are excellent pomegranates, pistachios, water-melons and red figs. In this city also the cypress tree grows exceedingly well. The population are Shī`ahs of the sect of the Twelve Imāms, being extremely bigoted. Much of the city is now in ruins, but its walls for the most part are still standing. Its revenues belong to the Treasury, and of the city with its dependencies these amount to 40,000 dīnārs.

Kāshān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 86° 40’, and latitude 34°. The town was founded by the Princess Zubaydah, wife of Hārūn-ar-Rashīd, when the Sign of Virgo was in the ascendant. Outside the town stands a castle built of clay bricks, called Fīn. The climate of Kāshān is warm, and its water is from underground channels coming down from Fīn, also from a stream that flows down from the Quhrūd district, and Niyāstar. In winter the cold is so intense that much ice is formed, and here too as in Āvah they leave water to be frozen in pits, and then make use of the ice in the hot season. Its crops are of medium quality; and of its fruits the best are grapes and water-melons. The population are of the Shī`ah [<Arabic>] sect, and most of them are philosophers by temperament and disposed to affability, so that ignorant and stupid persons are rare here. Of reptiles, scorpions are numerous, and very deadly, but they say that strangers are less likely than others to be stung. The revenues go to the Treasury. Of its dependencies are some 18 villages, mostly of considerable size. The population of this district are Sunnīs. In its dependencies in the village of Qumṣar excellent Ḥashīsh (Indian hemp) is grown. The revenues of the town with its depen- dencies amount to 117,000 dīnārs.

Ardistān. A district containing near 50 villages and similar to Kāshān in its crops. Here King Bahman son of Isfandiyār aforetimes built a Fire-temple.

Tafrish. This is a district which is so situated that from all sides you must cross passes and descend thereto. It comprises some 13 villages of which Fam and Ṭarkhūrān are the largest. Its climate is temperate, and its water is derived from springs and underground channels, which come in from the neighbouring hills. Its crops are corn, cotton and fruits, and for the most part provisions are cheap. The people are Shī`ahs of the sect of the Twelve Imāms, and its revenues amount to 6000 dīnārs.

Jurbādaqān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 85° 32’, and latitude 34° 40’. It was founded by Humāy daughter of King Bahman the Kayānian, and was named Samrah after her, for at first Humāy was called Samrah. Her daughter rebuilt the town, naming it Gūlbādagān (the Home of Roses), which same the Arabs changed into the Arabic form of Jurbādaqān. Its climate is temperate, and its water is from the river that bears the same name as this town, and which thence flows down to Qum. Of its crops corn is the best. Most of its population are of the Shāfi`ite sect. The district comprises some 50 villages, further both Dalī- jān and Nīmvar are of its dependencies. Its revenues amount to 42,000 dīnārs.

Dalījān. Formerly a medium sized town, standing in longi- tude 85° 40’, and latitude 33° 15’, but at the present day it is in ruins. It has 20 villages of its dependencies, and its crops are like those of Jurbādaqān.

Zuvārah. Of the Fourth Clime, and lying on the border of the Great Desert. [<Arabic>] It was founded by Zuvārah brother of Rustam, son of Dastān (Zāl), and 30 villages belong to it. Its revenues amount to 8000 dīnārs.

Farāhān. In this district are many notable villages, and its chief town is Dīh Sārūq, which was founded by King Ṭahmūrath: at the present time its largest villages are Zulfābād and Māsīr. It lies in longitude 84° 20’, and latitude 34° 50’; the climate is temperate and water is obtained from underground channels. The chief crops are corn, cotton and grapes, with excellent fruits which are always of cheap price in this district. The population are Shī`ahs, of the sect of the Twelve Imāms, and very bigoted. There is here a lake which the Mongols call Chaghān Nāūr (the Salt Lake): round it lie excellent hunting-grounds. The revenues of this district amount to 37,000 dīnārs.

Karaj and the Karah-Rūd District. Of the Fourth Clime, lying in longitude 84° 45’ and latitude 34°. It was founded by Abū Dulaf `Ijlī in the time of Hārūn-ar-Rashīd. To the north lies the Rāsmand mountain, and at its foot gushes forth a great spring called the spring of Kay Khusraw, round which extend broad pasture-lands, measuring six leagues by thirty leagues across, known as the Marghzār of Kītū (or Kīsū). Here near by stands a strong castle, known as the Qal`ah Farzīn. The revenues of the district amount to 11,000 dīnārs.

Naṭanz. This is of the Fourth Clime. It is a medium sized town, with about 30 villages of its dependencies. Its revenues amount to 12,500 dīnārs.

Namīsvar. Of the Fourth Clime. King Jamshīd the Pīsh- dādian founded it, and he built for himself here a lofty palace, the remains and ruins of which may still be seen. Further King Gushtāsp erected here a Fire-temple. Its climate is good and temperate, and in products and crops it resembles Naṭanz.

Marāvdīn. A district with some 20 villages of its depen- dencies. Its revenues amount to 3200 dīnārs.

Washāq*. This castle stands in the district of [<Arabic>] Naṭanz. Originally it was known by the name of Kamart; but when a certain Washāq became governor thereof, it took his name, and thus was called Washāq. The poet Najīb-ad-Dīn of Jurbādaqān in reference to this has written the following couplet:

But why so obstinate? when every morn, at time of sun-rise,
The sun’s foot strikes against a stone that is in Kamart!

Great Lur. This tūmān is a considerable district to which also belong certain towns of the Shūlistān district of Fārs, also Kardārkān with Quhpāyah of Almastān are of its dependencies. Its revenues go to the Atabeg, and it is said that they amount to over a million dīnārs. What the Atabeg however pays over to the Mongol Treasury is only 91,000 dīnārs, and it is unknown what may be the sum derived by him from each particular district.

Īdaj. Of the Fourth Clime, and a small town of the hot country. Its climate is unhealthy, for it is shut in from the north, but its water is wholesome and good, for it is only four leagues distant from the Kúh-i-Barf (Snow mountain).

`Arūj (or `Arūh). It is also known as Jābaliq, which is the city of Sūs. This is a small town occupying both banks of the river, and having many gardens where oranges, citrons and lemons grow, also the trees of the hot lands in great abundance.

Lurdagān. A small town, with a bad climate, and its water too is unwholesome. It produces fine crops of grapes.

Little Lur. This tūmān is a considerable district, the revenues of which are paid to the Atabeg, and are said to amount to a million dīnārs: of this sum only 91,000 dinars are paid over to the Mongol Treasury, as inscribed in the Registers.

Burūjird. Of the Fourth Clime; a large and spacious city, with two mosques, the old and the new. Its climate is moderately good, and its wine is excellent. Much saffron is grown here.

Khurramābād. This was a fine town that is now in ruins. Dates grow here abundantly.

Samsā*. A district that is counted as belonging to Māyirūd. It has 30 villages, and there is [<Arabic>] here a castle named Diz-i- Siyāh (Black Fort).

Ṣaymarah. This was a fine town but it is now in ruins, and in all this mountain region it is only here that dates grow.

Girdlākh. These are the winter quarters of Shujā`-ad-Dīn Khurshīd.

Kūrisht. This was formerly a large town, but it is now in ruins.

The tūmān of Hamadān comprises five cities.

Hamadān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 83°, and in latitude 35° 10’. It was founded by King Jamshīd the Pīshdādian, when the Sign of the Ram was in the ascendant. There is here a fortress of unburnt bricks; it stands in the midst of the city, and is known as the Shahristān; it was built by King Darius, but for the most part it is now in ruins. Hamadān of old was a mighty city; and in the Kitāb-i-Ṭabaqāt* it is even stated to have been two leagues across in the length. The Goldsmiths’ market stands on the site of what was an ancient village, which having gone to ruin Jamshīd the Pīshdādian rebuilt, giving its walls 12,000 paces in the circuit. The climate here is cold, the water is wholesome, and comes down from Mount Alvand. In the middle of the city too there are many springs, and in the Ṭabaqāt already mentioned it is asserted that there are 1600 and odd springs that flow down from the hills and into the city limits. The gardens are numerous, and fruit is extremely cheap here. Corn grows abundantly, but the bread is not good. Most of the people are Mu`tazalites or Anthropomorphists. There are here many blessed shrines as for instance the tomb of Khājah Ḥāfiẓ Abū-l-`Alā of Hamadān, and of Bābā Ṭāhir the Ecstatic, also of Shaykh `Ayn-al-Quḍāt and many others*. Its revenues go to the Treasury, and they amount to 105,000 dīnārs. Hamadān has five districts. The first is Farīvār, which lies about the town [<Arabic>] for two leagues round, and it includes 75 villages; of which the principal are Shahristān, Lābjīn, Fakhrābād, Qāsimābād and Kūshkbāgh*. Further the district of Māshānrūd, which is the equal of paradise, and the cynosure of the Chinese picture- palaces, is counted as part of Farīvār, and it has 9 villages form- ing the like of but one garden, for it is impossible to say definitely which land belongs to which village, for all their gardens adjoin one to the other, and by reason of the thickness of the trees the sun cannot penetrate through them. This district of Māshānrūd is two leagues in the length and half a league across, and it lies over against the city (of Hamadān). In the village of Māshān itself is the tomb of Abū Dajānah the Anṣārī, one of the Com- panions of the Prophet. The second district is that of Azmāvīn, with 41 villages, of which the principal are Dīh Darūdā, Āqā- ābād, Tab`ābād, Girdābād, Māramhān and Fāmītī. The third district is that of Sharāhīn, with 40 villages, of which the chief are Avarhan, Fāmarah, Kūmjān, Mīlādjird, Asṭah and Ashūd. The fourth district is that of A`lam, with 35 villages, of which the largest are Ashvand, Admān, Astavzan, Navār and Farūkah. The fifth district is that of (the rivers) Sardrūd and Barhandrūd, which district has 21 villages, of which the principal are Kurka- hīrīyah and Pīrūz. The revenues of these five districts at the present day amount to 136,000 dīnārs.

Asadābād. Of the Fourth Clime; a small town with tem- perate climate. Its water is from Mount Alvand and from underground channels. It produces corn, cotton, grapes and other fruits. The population is fair-skinned. Its revenues amount to 15,000 [<Arabic>] dīnārs, and its district comprises 35 villages.

Māja`lū and Tamsār*. These are places that have pasture- lands and excellent hunting-grounds.

The two Kharraqāns. These are two districts which com- prise 40 villages, lying in the Fourth Clime. The climate here is rather cold. The water is from springs rising in the neighbouring mountains; corn and fruits are grown here, but there is little cotton. The principal villages are Abah, Ardān, Alīshār, Gulchīn, Ṭabashkarī, Tabarak, Alvīr and Sayfābād. The revenues amount to 9500 dīnārs.

Darguzīn. This formerly was merely a village of the A`lam district, but it has now become a provincial capital, and some other places are counted as of its dependencies. Its lands are fruitful. It has many gardens; corn, cotton, grapes and other fruits grow here excellently. The population are Sunnīs of the Shāfi`ite sect, and very religious, being followers of the Shaykh-al-Islām Sharaf-ad-Dīn of Darguzīn—may God grant him length of life for the sake of all true Moslems. The revenues of Darguzīn amount to 12,000 dīnārs.

Rūdrāvar. A provincial town, which, with others, namely Sakān, Tuvī and Dīh Sarkān, together with 70 villages, occupy five districts. Some other places are also counted as of the same, namely Hindrūd, Sarkānrūd, Karzānrūd, Lāmjānrūd and Barzamhīn. The climate is temperate, its waters come down from Mount Alvand. The lands are very fertile and much saffron is cultivated here, wherefrom the place is also known as Za`farānī (Saffron-country). Its revenues amount to 23,500 dīnārs.

Sāmān. A large village in the district of the Two Khar- raqāns. The climate is rather cold. Its river is from the moun- tain of the same name, and after it has joined the Muzdaqān river this flows down to Sāvah. The crops are corn, grapes and some little fruit. Its revenues amount to 12,000 dīnārs. [<Arabic>]

Shabdabhar and Fūlā*. These are districts with some vil- lages belonging thereto.

Nihāvand. Of the Fourth Clime; in longitude 83° 15’, and latitude 34° 20’. A medium sized town, with temperate climate, its water coming from Mount Alvand. There are here many gardens, and the land is fertile. The people for the most part are Kurds, being Shī`ahs of the sect of the Twelve Imāms. Corn and grapes are excellent, and some cotton grows here, and there are near 100 villages in the country round, which are comprised in the three districts of Malāir, Isfīdhān and Jahūq. Its revenues amount to 37,000 dīnārs. There are here many nomads of the Kurdish horsemen, and these yearly pay 12,000 sheep as their contribution for revenue.

Yazd. This tūmān consists of three cities, and Yazd, accord- ing to the books of old times, was at first included in the Iṣṭakhr district of the province of Fārs. Yazd is of the Third Clime, lying in longitude 89°, and latitude 32°. Its climate is temperate, and its water is from underground channels, which go to the farms and pass in great numbers through the town. Beside these channels the people have constructed many cellars, and tank- houses, to which you must descend in order to enter. Most of the buildings in Yazd are, even on the outside face, constructed of unburnt brick, for rain is rare here, and the clay lasting. It is a fine city, clean and well laid out. Cotton, corn and fruits are all grown here; also silk is produced: but the food crops are not sufficient for the population, and much has to be imported from neighbouring districts. Pomegranates however here are excellent. The population are for the most part of the Shāfi`ite sect. The craftsmen of Yazd are excellent and honest workmen, but the behaviour of servants is mostly very arrogant, conceited, greedy and mischievous. The inhabitants are credited with weakness of character. The revenues of Yazd go to the Treasury, and from the city, together with its dependencies, the amount is 251,000 dīnārs.

Maybud. A small town which, in climate and products, re- sembles Yazd.

Nāyīn. A small town of the Third Clime. The walls of its citadel measure 4000 paces in circuit, and its revenues amount to 20,200 dīnārs. [<Arabic>]