Neighbouring Lands, and Cities. Pekin. The Wall of Gog and Magog: account of Sallām the Interpreter. Samarqand. Siyāvukhsh-Gird. Farghā- nah. Kang Diz. Alexandria, with the Pharos and other remains. Damascus, and the garden of Iram. Raḥbah. Ṭarsūs. Acre. `Ayn Zarbah. Cairo and Egypt: the Fayyūm and Aylah. Hārūniyyah. Al-Muthaqqab. Bāzār Ardashīr. Khaṭṭ Island. Rām Fīrūz. Zīb Khusraw. Sindūsān. Peshavur. Ṣadwah. Aden. Bāb-al-Abwāb. Balanjar. Samandar. Ṣughdabīl. Con- stantinople

BOOK III. Containing a description of cities which, though not within the borders of Īrān, yet, having some of them been built by the rulers of Īrān, and in accordance with the proverb The builder hath length of days, are for the most part without doubt places to be considered worthy of a lasting remembrance. So too it has been spoken in the words of the eloquent,—Verily these buildings declare the intention of the builder, and as a poet has written:

These are our works, and they declare us;
Wherefore, after we are gone, look at our works.

And again it has been said,—The pride of all men is in their buildings and in their sons; and a man’s chief care comes from his house and his neighbour. Wherefore, as a memorial of those noble and great men, and in illustration of the buildings that they have left, I have set out in this present book whatsoever has been gathered from ancient works concerning the four out- lying quarters of Īrān. This being done in trust that the spirits and souls of those great builders, also of those historians, may— if it please God Who alone is excellent—come to take comfort in the sympathy of those who read and hear of these things.

The Eastern Quarter, in which are seven places. [<Arabic>]

Pekin (Bakin)*. In the land of China, founded by Alexander the Greek, or as some say by Kay Khusraw, for Alexander did naught in the world but make ruin. It is of the Third Clime, and is a great and mighty town. Its climate is good, being rather cold. It is very populous and produces all kinds of cereals in great excellence.

Wall of Gog and Magog*. Of the Seventh Clime, in longi- tude 109° 30', and latitude 73°. It was built by Dhū-l-Qarnayn (Him of the Two Horns), and it is so recorded for a witness in the Qurān (ch. XVIII. v. 93) as had been already mentioned. By some accounts the builder was Dhū-l-Qarnayn the Great, that is to say Dhū-l-Qarnayn son of Rūmī son of Lanṭī son of Yūnān son of Tārakh son of Japheth son of the Prophet Noah—on whom be peace; but according to another account this Dhū-l-Qarnayn was Alexander son of Darius son of Artaxerxes son of Bahman son of Isfandiyār. Ibn Khurdādbih, when giving a description of the Wall, states that the Abbasid Caliph Wāthiq, having seen in a dream that the Wall had been burst through, despatched in the year 228 (843) Sallām the Interpreter, with fifty men, provisioned and mounted, in order to investigate the condition of things. From Sāmarrah he travelled forth and first presented himself before the governor of Armenia and Abkhāz, from whence he passed on to Fīlān Shāh the ruler of Shīrvān, and then on to the king of Alān, and thence to the Chief of Sarīr who is king of Bāb-al-Abwāb (Darband), from whom he passed on to Ṭarkhān Malik king of the Khazar. This Ṭarkhān then sent guides with them, and after travelling twenty-six days they came to a country where there was an evil smell, and going on ten days further they came to a city and a country which had been of old the dwelling place of Gog and Magog, but it was now gone to ruin. Through this land they travelled for twenty-seven days more, coming finally to several castles near a mountain, across the gorges of which is the Wall. The men in these castles spoke both the Persian and Arabic languages, and professed Islam, but they knew nothing concerning the Caliphate, and were much astonished that there was any Caliph living. They conducted Sallām the Interpreter before the Wall, and he saw here a mountain, bare and precipitous, which overhung a river gorge, and upon that mountain no plant grew. [<Arabic>] The gorge was 150 ells across, and at the mouth of the gorge were set two towers, built of iron bricks jointed with lead, and each tower was 25 ells square. The Wall went from the summit of these towers, and water flowing from the spring head, above the gorge, entered and passed down and out between them. As to the towers, from the water level to the crown of the arch was nearly ten ells of height, and more than this in depth was covered by the water. Joining the summits of the towers, by means of an arch, they had made a gangway five ells broad, going along the front of the Wall, and the face of the Wall was so high that from below a man upon its battlements appeared but as a five or six year old child. The line of the face of the Wall goes up above the towers for near 300 ells in length; and there where there be battlements it is double. Over the mountain from the summit of the battlements it goes down as straight as a plumb line, so that in no wise is it possible to climb it. The breadth of the Wall behind the battlements is such that five or six men abreast can pass along. In the midst of the Wall is a gateway, fashioned with double iron gates, 25 ells across, near 50 ells in height, and 2 ells in thickness. On this gate when closed are set, in their proper place, padlocks, each padlock 7 ells long, with the middle thickness thereof 2 ells; further there is a key with twelve teeth, each like the pestle of a mortar, and the length of the key is 4 ells. It is hung from a ring 25 ells away from the gate. The Wall too, like the towers, is built of bricks of iron jointed with lead and brass, all made as in a piece, and each of those bricks measures an ell and a half, by an ell and a half, and a span in thickness. Further many more of the bricks and the furnaces for making them are still to be seen lying about there. Every Friday the governor of the district comes forth with ten men, each man bearing in hand a battle-axe of 20 Mann- weight, and when they come to the gateway each man strikes three blows with all his strength on the gate, in order that the people of Gog and Magog may know that the watchmen of the Wall are alert. In the neighbourhood of the Wall is a fortified castle, and the dwelling-places of the guards of the Wall have each some cultivated ground round about, with gardens, and the living of the people there is derived from their produce. Then the governor of the country provided Sallām the Interpreter with [<Arabic>] guides and provisions and beasts of burden, sending him on his way; whereby, as on the outward journey, in the course of two months going seven leagues a day, he reached Samarqand and inhabited country; whence, by the Khurāsān road he came again to Sāmarrah and gave his account of the Wall to the Caliph Wāthiq. The full time that Sallām the Interpreter was absent on this journey was two years and four months.

Samarqand. Of the Fifth Clime: in longitude 89° 30', and latitude 37° 30'. Ibn Khurdādbih asserts that it is the most beautiful and pleasant country of all the earth, and Al Ḥudayn ibn al-Mundhir ar-Raqāshī when describing this city writes: She is like heaven for greenness, her palaces are like the stars for grandeur, her river is like the Milky Way for breadth, her wall is like the path of the sun (in the ediptic). Samarqand occupies a plain, in which stand the city and the citadel and a number of villages; and this plain formerly was enclosed by a wall 50,000 paces in circumference, some part of this wall still existing down to the present day. In ancient times a mighty castle had been built in the lands of this plain, but it fell to ruin. Then at the time when that world-famed hero Karshāsf came hither, a part of the ruins of this castle was thrown down by an earthquake and a treasure was discovered. Karshāsf with that treasure re- built the castle in good condition, but after a time it again fell to ruin. Then Gushtāsf son of Luhrāsf the Kayānian restored its buildings, giving the castle strong fortifications and a mightily deep ditch: and he built a wall to stand between Turkistān and the plains of that country, as a barrier between Īrān and Tūrān, the length of which was 20 leagues. Next Alexander the Great founded in this plain a mighty city whose circumference was 12,000 paces. After his days, in the times of the Kings of the Tribes (the Parthians) one Samar by name, who was of the race of the Tubba`s of Yaman, by reason of his enmity against the people of that land, laid this city in ruins, and razed it (bi-kand) to the ground level so that no building remained standing; hence they called it Samar-kand (Samar hath razed it), which the Arabs in Arabic wrote as Samarqand. The climate of this country is cold. Its waters come from the river Būy and from the Barash and Bārmash channels; [<Arabic>] and great canals traverse the plain all round and about the city, along which numerous gardens have been laid out. Sughd of Samarqand, which (as already said) is one of the most famous pleasure grounds of the world, lies along this river, whose stream in springtime carries many boats. The produce of the land is corn and much fruit, of its fruits being grapes, apples and melons, all of excellent quality. The popu- lation are of the sects of the Ḥanafites and Shāfi`ites. Among celebrated tombs in Sughd is that of (the Traditionist) Abu `Abd Allah Muḥammad al-Bukhārī, the author of the Ṣaḥīḥ; also the tomb of Saqīm (or Hayḍam) son of `Abbās uncle of the Prophet Muḥammad; and Muḥammad ibn Faḍl Balkhī also lies buried in Samarqand. On the outskirts of Samarqand is a tomb which is called Dasht Qaṭawān, and Yāqūt concerning this states that the Prophet said,—Beyond Samarqand is a village that is called Qaṭawān; from here 70,000 martyrs will go forth, each of whom will make intercession for 70,000 of the members of his kith and kin. Now since this country in those former times was in the land of the Infidels, people wondered much as to the true meaning of this Tradition. Until at length, in the days of Sulṭān Sanjar the Saljūq, a battle took place at this spot between the army of Islam and the Infidels of the Qarā Khitāy, when a great multitude of Moslems was martyred; and then again during the irruption of the Mongols an equally great multitude of the people of Islam attained here to the rank of martyrdom: whereby men were enlightened as to the true mean- ing of the Tradition.

Siyāvukhsh-Gird. This was built by Siyāvukhsh son of Kay-Kāūs the Kayānian, when being angry against his father he went into Turkistān and made a pact with Afrāsiyāb*. The latter then gave the land here in fief to Siyāvukhsh, who built this city.

Farghānah. A province of the Fifth Clime. It was first settled by Anūshirvān the Just: now in that land he took a man from ‘each house’ (har khānah), wherefore he called the place Harkhānah, which name in course of time came to be pronounced Farghānah. At the present day the capital is Andigān, which was founded by Qaydū son of Qāshī son of Ogotāy Qaān, and by Davā son of Burāq son of Yasūn son of Mātakān son of Chaghatāy Khān. In former times the chief cities of Farghānah were Kāt*, Kāsān and Akhsīkath, [<Arabic>] and the poet Athīr-ad- Dīn Akhsīkathī was from this last. Others of its towns are Uzkand and Qubā; and the province has many districts with numerous well cultivated lands.

Kang Diz. In the far east and of the Second Clime. It was built by Zuhāk (Ḍaḥḥāk) the son of `Alwān.

Now the Pillars which mark the frontier of Īrān and Tūrān were set up by king Bahrām Gūr*.

The Western Quarter: in which are seven places.

Alexandria. Of the Third Clime: in longitude 51° 20', latitude 30° 32'. It was built by Alexander son of Dārāb son of Bahman son of Isfandiyār, and lies on the coast of the Medi- terranean. It is a frontier city between the people of Islam and the Franks. There are many Traditions (of the Prophet) con- cerning the excellencies of this place. Its climate is somewhat hot; its water is taken from the river Nile and from underground channels, and the air of the place is so consonant with the water that, if any of this last be set aside in store and stands for even two or three years, it will not become corrupt. They are of great fame here for their woven stuffs, and Alexandrian cloths are exported thence to all lands. The people for the most part are of the Shāfi`ite sect. Beside the city, but four leagues distant from it, is a strong castle, set on a hillock, which overlooks the sea: and by reason of its height it is known* as the Minār (Minaret or Tower) of Alexandria. This is one of the most famous buildings of the world. In certain books it is stated that the space on its summit sufficed to support more than 500 houses, and in some other works it is stated that the number reached to near a thousand. The height of its wall from foot to summit was 600 ells: and above this was built a square tower to a height of 90 ells, on the top of which was a round tower 30 ells high. The philosopher Apollonius (of Tyana), by command of Alexander, constructed a mirror seven ells in diameter, which was set up on the round tower, being thus elevated far above all other buildings; and by virtue of a talisman when any one gazed into this mirror he could perceive all that was going on in Constantinople, although between Alexandria and Constantinople lies the Mediterranean Sea and a distance of near 300 leagues divides the two cities. Now from this, much disquietude resulted to the people of the Franks; wherefore they despatched certain persons who came to Alexandria in the guise of mendicants, obtaining thus a favour- able reception. [<Arabic>] These men then put it in the general mouth that Alexander had laid a mighty treasure under the tower behind the mirror, and of this the mirror was the sign. `Amr son of `Ās, who was at that time Governor, in spite of his well-known ex- ceeding cunning and excessive caution, was befooled by this stratagem, and in avarice to get the treasure broke into the place, but found nothing. As regards him these verses are to the point:

Said a certain man of sense: ‘In the confines of Urganj,
A certain fool craved for a treasure,
So he took a mattock and cleft the ground:
But when he got down ten ells deep then he found naught.’

Afterwards the mirror was put back in place, but it had lost its miraculous power. Then they sought for those mendicants, but found that they had fled, and it came to be known that they had done this through deceitful malice. Thus through inauspicious avarice and greed, a mighty work of art was brought to naught: and rightly has it been said:

Greed dishonours the face of dignity,
For the sake of two loaves of bread a skirt full of pearls is often scattered.

In the History of Maghrib it is reported that in order to go from Alexandria to this Tower an underground passage had been cut through the rock, 20 ells in height by 8 ells in width. This led to that side of the castle which more particularly was called the Minār, and here outside the castle stood a great building, known as the Mosque of Solomon—upon whom be peace. Of old this building had 300 marble columns, and at its gate stood four stone pillars on the summit of which a kiosk had been con- structed. At the present day only one of these pillars is standing, and the three which have fallen down have been broken. This standing pillar has been made into a throne, four square and in stages, each side measuring six ells, by ten ells in the height, and on its summit rises a round column, 8 ells in circumference and near to 30 ells in height. There is also another throne, with a block of stone, all in one piece, set over it like a roof, being supported by four columns. Upon this stone they have built a kiosk, in such fashion that the floor of the kiosk lies 50 ells above the ground, and this building they call `Amūd-i-Ṣawārim (the Columns of the Swords*). It is built of marble, red in colour with black marks like onyx, but more beautiful. The magni- ficence (in ancient days) of the other buildings in Alexandria may be imagined from what has been left. It is related that when [<Arabic>] Alexander founded this city he said: I have founded this city humbly dependent on God, but independent of men. Now Alexander had a boastful brother called Faramā, and Faramā in emulation of his brother founded another city, larger and finer than Alexandria, to which he gave his own name, to wit Faramā. Then he said, I have founded this city inde- pendent (as a challenge) to God, but dependent on men. Ob- serve therefore that the place which Alexander built is still populous in the extreme, being one of the greatest and most famous of cities and a benefit to all the world; while the town of Faramā in its neighbourhood is become a ruin, where now the more building that is done the more does decay increase; and therefore let us seek refuge with God from all wonder and vain hope.

Damascus. Of the Fourth Clime: in longitude 60° and in latitude 38° 30'. In the beginning of time Iram son of Shem son of Noah—on whom be peace—planted here a garden, which was called the Garden of Iram, and the fame thereof was celebrated throughout the world, for its excellence became a proverb. Then afterwards Shaddād son of `Ād in that same place raised immense buildings, even like unto heaven and hell, which same together were called Iram of the Pillars: in reference to which the verse of the Qurān (LXXXIX. 6 and 7) may be quoted:—Iram of the pillars whose like hath not been reared in these lands. After this again Tāraḥ (Terah), who is otherwise called Ādhar, the father of Abraham the Friend of God—upon whom be peace—and who was the Vazīr of Nimrod, in these same boundaries founded the city of Damascus, the buildings of which when these had fallen to ruin Alexander son of Darius restored. In the times (of Islam) the Omayyad Caliphs erected here immense buildings, and round the city lies the (Garden Land of the) Ghawṭah. Its climate is temperate but rather hot, and with a tendency to damp. Its water is from the river Baradā, which comes from near Ba`albak, and is so large a stream that in springtime it is with difficulty to be forded. From its source to Damascus is 18 leagues, and for the most part it flows under the shade of trees, being for this reason unwholesome to drink. The gardens of the Ghawṭah are along its banks, and they are of the pleasant places of the world. In the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm it is stated that the Ghawṭah extends for a length of two days’ march, being one day’s march across. In blame of Damascus it has been said:—Its waters are choked with mud, its air bestinks, and here the sincere friend urges to crime. In the Mosque of Damascus are the tombs of many prophets, and on the threshold of its gate, which is called the Bāb Jīrūn, the prophet John (the Baptist) was slain, and his head set up there. [<Arabic>] In the days of the Caliph Yazīd—a curse be upon him—the head of the Commander of the Faithful Ḥusayn —on whom be blessing—was likewise set on a stake here. In later times the Caliph Walīd made magnificent buildings in this mosque, such as never before had been built for grandeur, and in the History of Syria it is reported that six million dīnārs, of red gold pieces, were spent on these constructions. Verily if a writer of books wrote continually for one month about the same, he would not be able to describe and explain them all. At the gate of Damascus the Caliph Walīd also founded a House of Healing and a Hostelry for Guests, such as before his day never had been built; and in the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm it is stated that on these buildings there was spent the revenue for five years of the whole of Syria. The produce of the city of Damascus is corn and cotton, also fruits of all kinds of excellent quality. Outside Damascus stands the hill of Qāsiyūn overhanging the city, and upon that hill are the tombs of prophets and holy men, also many caves. Among the rest is the cave where it is said Cain slew Abel, and the mark of his blood is still visible there. Then there is the Cave of Hunger, where it is said that forty prophets died of famine. The town of Qālūn* lies 4 leagues distant from Damascus. (Along the post-road) the distances from Damascus to Cairo are after this wise: from Damascus to Ṭabarīyah (Tiberias) 22 leagues; thence to Ramlah the capital of Filasṭīn (Palestine) 20 leagues; thence to Ghazzah 11 leagues, and here is the tomb of Hāshim son of `Abd Manāf, and this town was the birth place of the Imām Shāfi`ī; then from Ghazzah to Cairo it is 73 leagues across the desert: and this makes a total of 126 leagues.

Raḥbah. Of the Third Clime, and counted as of Syria. Yāqūt asserts that this place is called Qubbat-al-Kūfah* (the Dome of Kūfah). In the Diary of Malik-Shāh it is described as lying east of the Euphrates, 2000 paces distant from the river bank, the circumference of the city being 5500 paces. It has many fine gardens, the same extending for 4 leagues in length by one league across. Of their fruits are quinces, apples, pears and grapes of good quality; and it is said that many of the fruit trees here will bear twice in one year, but they will not do so the third year.

Ṭarsūs. Of the Third Clime, and counted as of Syria. It was built by the Caliph `Omar II, son of `Abd-al-`Azīz, [<Arabic>] and when it fell to ruin Hārūn-ar-Rashīd restored its buildings, sur- rounding it with a wall. Its climate is temperate, inclining to heat, and its lands produce corn and fruit.

`Akkah (Acre). Of the Third Clime, and in the bounds of Syria. It was built by King Sapor II.

`Ayn Zarbah. Of the Third Clime, and counted as of Syria. A small town, which, according to the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm, the Eunuch Waṣīf built in the days of the Abbasid Caliph Mu`taṣim.

Miṣr (Cairo and Egypt). The city is of the Third Clime, in longitude 58° 50', latitude 30° 55'. It is stated in the Ṣuwar-al- Aqālīm that before the time of Islam this country was taken to be an integral province (of the Roman Empire), but after the days of Islam it became a kingdom by itself. From the History of Maghrib it would appear that the capital city here, from the age of Abraham to the time of Joseph—upon both of whom be peace —lay on the western side of the Nile, 1 league distant from the river bank: and it had mighty buildings which the prophet Joseph and the Governor of Egypt and other rulers of the land had raised. The place of this city is now hidden in the sand, though some of its buildings may be seen among the sands, and at the present time this is known as Old Miṣr. In the time of Moses—peace be upon him—the Pharaoh of his day, Walīd ibn Muṣ`ab by name, caused the river Nile to flow nearer to this city, and he built high palaces, facing their walls with iron and brass, thus to make these buildings most excellent. Also he made for himself a kiosk to sit in, and underground from the Nile he brought four channels thereto of running water. In one of these the basket cradle of Moses—on whom be peace—was found by the maidens of Āsiyah the wife of Pharaoh. Now these buildings of Pharaonic times for the greater part were still standing in the last days of the Fatimid Caliphs, and the author of the History of Maghrib states that in the year 512 (1118), when he was in Egypt, he saw there a house all of carved marble, with the drawings of the spheres and the stars, and all the Climes, and the likenesses of animals were to be seen thereon as though in motion, a wonder to the mind, so that you would have said they lived. Then in the days of Islam, during the Governorship of `Amr son of `Āṣ, the capital called Fusṭāṭ was built on the eastern bank of the Nile. This was of about half the area of Baghdād, but the number of the inhabitants here was greater than in Baghdād, for in the capital of Egypt the houses were built of many storeys, with people living on each storey. `Amr also erected mighty buildings in Fusṭāṭ, among the rest the Friday Mosque built of marble, with its shrine (Maqṣūrah) formed of white marble, [<Arabic>] round which the whole of the Qurān in alternating verses was cut as an inscription. At 4000 places in the Mosque there were set lamps and candles. The Omayyad Caliph Walīd afterwards raised numerous and mighty buildings in Fusṭāṭ, in a quarter known as Qaṭāyi` (the Wards): he also built another fine Friday Mosque in Fusṭāṭ. `Abd Allah son of Ṭāhir, surnamed Ambidexter, next founded great buildings in the land, spending considerable sums on the mosques. In the year 275 (888) most of the buildings of Fusṭāṭ were burnt down; but Khumāruwayh the Ṭūlūnid restored them, increasing too the area built over, the new quarter becoming known as Qarāfah. The tomb of the Imam Shāfi`ī is in Qarāfah. Now of the Fatimids the Caliph Mahdī, in the year 297 (910), had founded the city of Mahdīyah (near Tunis), and his great grand- son, the Caliph Mu`izz in the year 362 (973) along side of the older capital of Egypt built the city called Qāhirah (Cairo), the work being superintended by the Eunuch Jawhar. Ismā`il the Governor, who was grandson of the Caliph Mu`izz, erected here many fine buildings, labouring to make strong and to adorn it and building the Ḥasaniyyah quarter beside the older capital, to which he joined it. In the early days of the Caliph Mustanṣir, for seven successive years in Egypt, by reason of the high flood of the Nile whose waters never once diminished, all agriculture became im- possible. Famine, pestilence and great scarcity existed, so that one Raṭl (pound-weight) of bread came to be worth 15 (golden) dīnārs, and then afterwards bread was wholly wanting. The strong ate up the weak; the majority of the population perished, and most of the buildings fell to ruin. At length it became possible to sow again; Badr-al-Jamālī, the commander of the Caliph’s armies, did his utmost to restore cultivation and to rebuild the houses and finally he brought back the kingdom to a state of prosperity. Saladin (Salāḥ-ad-Dīn Yūsuf son of Ayyūb) in the year 572 (1176) after restoring what had been burnt down by a fire, built a wall round the various quarters of the city and the citadel, this wall being 29,300 paces in circuit. At the present day all that lies within this wall is known by the name of Miṣr (Cairo). Yāqūt states that in this city of Cairo, such is the mass of buildings, that there are here more than 6000 mosques, 1200 bath-houses, and 12,000 minarets. [<Arabic>] It is indeed the mightiest city of the West. The climate of Cairo tends to heat. Its water is taken from the river Nile; it is sweet and wholesome and with long standing does not become corrupt. In neither hot nor cold weather does any rain fall in this city, or round about its walls. Further, by reason of an enchantment, for a league distant above and below Cairo no crocodile can harm any one. The crops are corn, cotton and much sugar-cane. In the matter of this city it has been said: Its earth is gold; its women mere toys; and the vinegar comes from grapes.

The village of Būṣīr is of the Fayyūm district, where was the Tree of Moses—upon whom be peace* —and here the last Omayyad Caliph Marwān II, surnamed the Wild-Ass, was slain. The Fayyūm lies 20 leagues distant from Cairo to the westward of the Nile. The city of Aylah, whose people God metamorphosed, the young men into apes and the old men into hogs, stands one hundred leagues distant from Cairo; and the Qurān (ch. VII. vv. 163 to 166) has reference to their history in these verses: And ask them about the city that stood by the sea, when its in- habitants broke the Sabbath: when their fish came to them on their Sabbath day appearing openly, but came not to them on the day when they kept no Sabbath, continuing down to the verse ending with the words, And when they proudly persisted in that which was forbidden, we said to them ‘Become scouted apes.’

The following are the distances from Cairo to the (capital of the western) province: from Cairo to Alexandria 68 leagues, thence to Barqah 245 leagues, thence to Tripoli 188 leagues, and from Tripoli to Qayruwān it is 83 leagues.

Hārūniyyah. Of the Third Clime, and counted as of Syria. In the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm it is stated that the Abbasid Caliph Hārūn-ar-Rashīd built it, and it is a medium sized town.

Al-Muthaqqab. In the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm this is given as a small fortress which was built by the Omayyad Caliph `Omar II.

Southern Quarter: and here there are eight places mentioned.

Bāzār Ardashīr*. Of Yaman, it is now known as Tamāshā (the Spectacle), and it is of the First Clime, having been built by Bahman son of Isfandiyār.

Khaṭṭ. An island of the Persian Gulf near India. [<Arabic>] In old times this island with Qaṭīf and Laḥsā were counted as of Baḥrayn. Ardashīr Bābakān built a city on this island. The spears known by the name of Khaṭṭī are brought from here, and it is counted as of the Second Clime.

Rām Fīrūz. Of the Second Clime, and in Indian territory. King Fīrūz son of Yazdagird son of Bahrām Gūr founded it.

Zīb Khusraw*. Of the Second Clime, and in India. It was founded by king Anūshirvān the Just.

Sindūsān*. Of the Second Clime, and in India on the sea coast. It was founded by Alexander.

Farshāvur (Peshavur). Of the Second Clime, and of the Indian lands. It was founded by Sapor II.

Ṣadwah*. Of the Second Clime; in India, and lying on the sea coast. It was founded by Alexander.

The harbour of `Adan (Aden). Of the First Clime, and in Yaman. It was founded by Anūshirvān the Just.

The Northern Quarter: where five places are mentioned.

Bāb-al-Abwāb. The Arabs name this place Sarīr and by the Persians it is otherwise called Darband, also sometimes Fīlān; and the king of this country is known as the Fīlān-Shāh. The Mongols name this place Timūr Qāpū (the Iron Gate). It is of the Fifth Clime. Its longitude being 75°, and its latitude 43°. King Luhrāsp the Kayānian founded it, and his grandson Isfandiyār son of Gushtāsf completed the buildings. It is a city resembling Tiflīs. But in the days of king Qubād son of Fīrūz, it having fallen to ruin, he rebuilt its walls of unbaked bricks. Then Anūshirvān the Just further restored its buildings, surround- ing them by a mighty wall of stone and cement. A rampart also extended from the city wall on the one side, down to the Caspian sea, and out into its waters for a distance of half a league, or there about. On the other side of the town the rampart went up along the crest of the Caucasus range, so that no passage for crossing the same remained open. Some folk call this rampart the Wall of Gog and Magog, but this is an attribution of local authority. Most of what Anūshirvān built still now remains standing. He constructed along the summit of the city wall aforesaid many towers, [<Arabic>] where watchmen were established; these being watchmen brought from Mosul and Diyār Bakr, and they put a stop to the inroads of the Khazars. Along the mountain crest Anūshirvān built fourteen kiosks, like castles, and of these kiosks too some are still standing: and his watchmen spoke the Arabic tongue. The climate of Bāb-al- Abwāb is warm, and its lands produce excellent corn, there are also good pasture lands, water is plentiful, cattle abound, and by tending the same many make their livelihood therefrom.

Balanjar*. This was built by Anūshirvān the Just.

Samandar*. Of the Fifth Clime, standing in a plain of the Khazar Desert, in between Bāb-al-Abwāb and the Volga (Itil) river. It was built by Anūshirvān the Just, and there are many gardens with abundance of grapes. In old times the popu- lation was very great here; now it is less. From Samandar to Bāb-al-Abwāb it is 4 days’ march, and Samandar is now known as the Sarāy of Bātū (Khān). According to another account Samandar lies 2 leagues distant from Sarīr, which latter place of old, in the days of the Chosroes, was the capital of this land, having been founded by Bahrām Chūbīn. Sarīr too is counted as of Bāb-al-Abwāb.

Ṣughdabīl*. Of the Khazar Desert and of the Fifth Clime. It was built by Anūshirvān the Just.

Constantinople. Muslim the son of the Omayyad Caliph `Abd-al-Malik erected buildings here (during his siege of this city), and some traces of these are still standing.