The Highroads: length of the Farsakh or League. The Southern High- road: Sulṭāniyyah to Baghdād and Najaf. Thence to Mecca. Mecca to Medina. Medina to Najaf. Wāsiṭ to Tha`labiyyah. Baghdād to Baṣrah, and thence to Baḥrayn. Baṣrah to Qays. Baghdād to Iṣfahān. Baghdād to Raḥbah, and Baghdād to Mosul. The Eastern Highroad, from Sulṭāniyyah by Ray, Nīshāpūr and Marv-ar-Rūd to the Oxus beyond Balkh. Busṭām to Urganj. Nīshāpūr to Herāt. Nīshāpūr to Turshīz. Herāt to Zaranj. Herāt to Marv. Marv to Balkh. Marv to Urganj. The Northern Highroad. Sul- ṭāniyyah to Bājarvān. Bājarvān to Maḥmūdābād. Bājarvān to Qarābāgh and Tiflīs. Bājarvān to Tabrīz. The Western Highroad. Sulṭāniyyah to Tabrīz and Sīvās. The South-eastern Highroad. Sulṭāniyyah to Iṣfahān. Iṣfahān to Shīrāz. Shīrāz to Qays Island. Thence, by Sea, to Ceylon. Shīrāz to Kāzirūn. Shīrāz to Hurmūz. Shīrāz to Īg. Shīrāz to Kirmān. Shīrāz to Yazd. Shīrāz to Arrajān and Bustānak

DIVISION III, in five sections; describing the Highroads, Mountains, Minerals, Rivers, Springs and Wells, Seas and Lakes (of the Land of Īrān).

SECTION I. As to the distances along the highroads of Īrān.

When discussing the length of the League (Farsakh) in the earlier part of this work, it was explained how in ancient days the learned, in the reign of king Kay Qubād the Kayānian, established the length of the League to be three miles, which is equivalent to 12,000 Common Ells (Dhirā` Khalqī), which is other than the measure known as the Tailor’s Cubit (Gaz-i-Khayyāṭī). Now in [<Arabic>] the Diary of Malik Shāh it is recorded that this monarch, becoming acquainted with the varying lengths of the Farsakh in his journeyings over the many roads of Īrān and of his other kingdoms, gave orders to measure the (various) Farsakhs. And it was found that while the League was of 15,000 paces (Gām) in Khwārazm more or less, in Ādharbāyjān and Armenia it was only of about 10,000 paces; and throughout the Two `Irāqs, Kurdistān, Luristān, Khūzistān, Khurāsān, Fārs, Shabānkārah and Diyār Bakr, with their neighbouring districts, the Farsakh measured but 6000 paces. Then, furthermore, in the provinces of Rūm (Asia Minor), Gurjistān, Arrān, Mūghān and Shīrvān, the Farsakh was not in use, distances being counted in Stages (Manzil) and by time. Malik Shāh, therefore, throughout his dominions estab- lished the use of the League which averaged 6000 paces, and the distances along the roads that he traversed are stage by stage set down in his Diary after this computation. Later, in the reign of Ūljāytū Sulṭān the Mongol, when after this same fashion various roads were measured, and mile-stones set up, the Farsakh was counted, approximately, as of 8000 Tailor’s Cubits (Gaz-i-Khay- yāṭī). Now, the Common Ell (mentioned above) being but two- thirds of the length of the Tailor’s Cubit, and the average Pace (Gām) being of greater length than the Tailor’s Cubit, all the above estimates of the League work out to about the same result, and this may be taken as equivalent more or less to the Farsakh of 12,000 Common Ells, as estimated by the learned men of former days.

We now begin with the highroads going out of the city of Sulṭāniyyah, which stands in the midst of Īrān and has come to be its capital, the which roads lead to the furthest frontiers of the land; and thereto we shall add the description of the bye-roads that branch from the highroads in order that without fail all may be made comprehensible*.

The Southern Highroad.—This goes towards the Qiblah point, which, starting from Sulṭāniyyah, leads to Najaf at the frontier of Īrān; and the distance is 144 leagues.

From Sulṭāniyyah to Hamadān.—Sulṭāniyyah 5 leagues to Bajshīr village, thence 5 to Walaj village, thence 4 to the Rubāṭ of Atabeg Muḥammad ibn Īldagiz, thence 4 to Karkahar village in the Hamadān province, thence 6 to Ṣājī village of Hamadān, thence [<Arabic>] 6 to the city of Hamadān. Total from Sulṭāniyyah to Hamadān 30 leagues*.

From Hamadān to Qaṣr-i-Shīrīn.—Hamadān by the pass over mount Arvand (Elvend) in 7 leagues to the city of Asadābād, thence it is 6 to Kanguvar the first village in Kurdistān. Kangu- var in 5 leagues to Ṣahnah village, thence 4 to Jamjamāl city, thence in 6 leagues—the terrace of the horse Shabdīz lying one league to the right of the road, with the portraits of King Khusraw and Queen Shīrīn carved on the rocks at a place where two springs gush out that turn two mills—to Kirmānshāhān, thence 6 to Jak- ārmis, thence 5 to Ḥisākāvān village, thence 6 to the villages of Kirind and Khūshān, thence by the Pass of Ṭāq-i-Girrā* in 8 leagues to Ḥulwān city; but by the Gīl-wa-Gīlān road this last stage is easier, though 1 league longer. Then from Ḥulwān, the first place in the province of Arabian `Irāq, it is 5 leagues to Qaṣr-i-Shīrīn, and the road here divides. From Hamadān to Qaṣr-i-Shīrīn it is 58 leagues, and 88 from Sulṭāniyyah*.

From Qaṣr-i-Shīrīn, on the road to Baghdād, it is 5 leagues to Khāniqīn city, thence 5 to Rubāṭ Jalūlā built by Malik-Shāh the Saljūq*, thence 5 to Hārūniyyah, thence—with Shahrabān lying 2 leagues distant to the right of the road—in 7 leagues to Ba`qūbā city, and thence 8 to Baghdād. Total (from Qaṣr-i-Shīrīn) to Baghdād 30 leagues, from Hamadān 88, and from Sulṭāniyyah 118 leagues.

From Baghdād to Najaf, on the frontier of Īrān.—From Baghdād [<Arabic>] it is 2 leagues to Ṣarṣar village, thence 7 to Farā- shah*, thence 7 to the Nīl Canal, passing Nars village where Nimrod threw Abraham into the fire, this lying 1 league to the left of the road. From the Nīl Canal it is 2 leagues to the city of Ḥillah—the city of Bābil lying on the Euphrates half a league away to the right hand. From Ḥillah it is 6 leagues to the city of Kūfah, and 2 leagues distant from here lies the Mashhad (Place of Martyrdom) of `Alī, the Commander of the Faithful, at Najaf on the desert border. Total: from Baghdād to Najaf it is 26 leagues, from Hamadān 114, and from Sulṭāniyyah 144 leagues.

From Najaf to Mecca.—From Mashhad (`Alī) which lies on the border (of the desert) at Najaf to Mecca it is 27 stages. On these stages the Lady Zubaydah, wife of Hārūn-ar-Rashīd, and Sulṭān Malik Shāh the Saljūq, and other great folk, have dug water-tanks, raised many buildings and set up signs to mark the way. From Mashhad (`Alī) it is 24 miles to Mughīthah, and the supping-place is at Wādī-as-Sibā` (Valley of Lions) after 15 miles*. The poet Jarīr wrote:

Verily the great misfortune was the death of (Zubayr, rival of
`Alī for the Caliphate), whose tomb
Is at Wādī-as-Sibā`, and many warriors lie round him there.

At Mughīthah there are cisterns. Thence to Qar`ā is 32 miles, where there are wells, and the supping-place is after 14 miles at Masjid Sa`d, who is of the Fazzārah tribe; the common folk, however, attribute this mosque to Sa`d ibn Abū Waqqāṣ (the conqueror of Arabian `Irāq). From Qar`ā it is 24 miles to Wā- qiṣah, where there are wells, among the rest the Well of Qurūn, dug by Sulṭān Malik Shāh. This is 15 ells square, and 400 ells in depth, cut down through rock. The supping-place is at Ṭarf, after 14 miles. From Wāqiṣah it is 29 miles to `Aqabah Shayṭān (the Devil’s Pass), where there are wells. The supping-place is after 14 miles at Qubaybāt: mentioned by the poet, who says: [<Arabic>]

Shall we ever once again
To Qubaybāt return?

From `Aqabah to Qā` is 24 miles, where there are wells, and the supping-place is at Al-Jalḥā after 13 miles. From Qā` to Zubālah 24 miles, here there is water abundantly, and the supping-place is at Juraysī after 14 miles. From Zubālah to Shuqūq 21 miles, where there are tanks*, and the supping-place is at Tanānīr after 14 miles. From Shuqūq to Biṭān, otherwise Qabr-al-`Ibādī (the Tomb of the `Ibādite), 29 miles, where there are tanks, and the supping-place is at Bardīn after 14 miles. From Biṭān to Tha`la- biyyah 29 miles, and the supping-place is at Muhallabiyyah after 14 miles. Total: to Tha`labiyyah from Najaf 236 miles, which is 78 leagues and 2 miles: while from Baghdād it is counted 104 leagues and 2 miles. At Tha`labiyyah the road from Wāsiṭ (to Mecca) joins the road from Baghdād: and Tha`labiyyah is counted as at one-third of the distance from Baghdād to Mecca.

From Tha`labiyyah it is 32 miles to Khuzaymiyyah, where there are tanks, and the supping-place is at Ghumays after 14 miles. From Khuzaymiyyah to Ajfur is 24 miles, where there are tanks, and the supping-place is at Baṭn-al-Agharr after 14 miles. From Ajfur to Fayd* 33 miles, and here there is running water: the supping-place is at Qarāyin after 20 miles. From Fayd to Tūz is 31 miles; here there are tanks and wells, and the supping- place is at Qurnatayn after 17 miles. From Tūz to Samīrā 20 miles, where there are tanks and wells, and the supping-place is at Fuḥaymah after 12 miles. From Samīrā to Ḥājir 36 miles, where there are tanks and wells, and the supping-place is at `Abbāsiyyah after 15 miles. From Ḥājir to Ma`dan Nuqrah (Silver Mine) 34 miles, where there are wells, and the supping- place is at Karawrā after 17 miles. Total from Tha`labiyyah to this place 210 miles, which is 70 leagues: and from Najaf it is 148 leagues and 2 miles, and from Baghdād 174 leagues [<Arabic>] and 2 miles. Here the road to Medina branches off (to the right).

From Ma`dan Nuqrah to Mughīthat-al-Māwān 33 miles; here there are tanks and wells, and the supping-place is at Samṭ after 16 miles. From Mughīthat-al-Māwān to Rabadhah 24 miles, where there are wells and tanks, and the supping-place is at Arīmah after 14 miles. From Rabadhah to Ma`dan Banī Sulaym 24 miles, where there are tanks, and the supping-place is at Sha- rawrā after 12 miles. From Ma`dan Banī Sulaym to Salīlah 26 miles, and the supping-place is at Kunābayn after 12 miles. From Salīlah to `Umaq 21 miles, where there are tanks and wells, and the supping-place is at Sanjah after 12 miles. From `Umaq to Ufay`īyah 32 miles; here there are tanks and wells, and the supping-place is at Kurā` after 15 miles. From Ufay`īyah to Mislaḥ 34 miles, where there are wells and tanks, and the supping-place is at Kibrānah after 14 miles. From Mislaḥ to Ghamrah 18 miles; here there are wells and tanks, and the sup- ping-place is at Qaṣr after 8 miles. From Ghamrah to Dhāt-al- `Irq is 26 miles: and here on this route is the Mīqāt (Place of Meeting)*, though some count it as at Mislaḥ: and the supping- place is at Awṭās after 12 miles. At either Awṭās or Dhāt-al- `Irq the road from Baṣrah joins the (Baghdād-Mecca) road. From Dhāt-al-`Irq to Bustān (the Garden of) Ibn `Āmir is 22 miles, and here there is water in plenty, and the supping-place is at Ghamr Dhī Kindah after 15 miles. From Bustān Ibn `Āmir to Mecca is 24 miles, and the supping-place is at Mushāsh after 15 miles. Total: from Ma`dan Nuqrah to Mecca 284 miles, which make 94 leagues and 2 miles: and from Tha`labiyyah 164 leagues and 2 miles: and from Najaf 243 leagues and 1 mile: and from Baghdād 269 leagues and 1 mile: and from Hamadān 357 leagues and 1 mile: and from Sulṭāniyyah 387 leagues and 1 mile.

In the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm it is given that the road direct from Najaf to Mecca is just 27 marches, [<Arabic>] while from Kūfah to Medina it is 20 marches and from Medina to Mecca 10 marches.

From Mecca to Medina by the highroad.—From Mecca to Baṭn Marr 16 miles; here there is a spring and a tank. Thence to `Usfān 33 miles, where there are wells. Thence to Qudayd, where there are wells, 24 miles. Thence to Juḥfah, which is the Mīqāt (Place of Meeting) of pilgrims coming from Syria, 27 miles: and the Red Sea lies but 5 miles distant at this stage. Thence to the village of Abwā, where there are wells, 27 miles. Thence to Suqyā, where there is running water, 29 miles. Thence to Ruwaythah, where there is a water-tank, 36 miles. Thence to Siyālah, where there are wells, 34 miles. Thence to Malal, where there are wells, 19 miles. Thence to Shajarah 12 miles, and thence to Medina 3 miles. Total from Mecca to Medina 260 miles, which is 86 leagues and 2 miles.

(From Mecca to Medina) by the Badr road*. —From Mecca to the village of Ḥayy 3 leagues. Thence to the Cave of Abū Bakr and `Othmān (or `Omar), called Sīsān, or Rafī`, 6 leagues. Thence to the Water of Al-Khulayṣ, where is the pass called `Aqabah Suwayq, 8 leagues. Thence to the Cave of Ṭafwah Rāthiq, otherwise called Wādī Ṭafwān, 8 leagues. Thence to the Water of Rābiṭ `Arāb, and Su`āl Rāthiq and Su`āl Abḥūd, where stands the column of Abū Jahl, 8 leagues. Thence to the Valley of Badr 8 leagues. Thence to Badr and Ḥunayn 9 leagues. Thence to Wādī-aṣ-Ṣafrā 6 leagues. Thence to Wādī-al-Ghazāl 8 leagues. Thence to Dhū-l-Ḥulayfah, which is the Mīqāt (Place of Meeting), 7 leagues. Thence to the well of the Caliph `Alī 8 leagues; and thence to Medina 2 leagues. [<Arabic>] Total: 243 miles, which is 81 leagues.

(From Mecca to Medina) by the route that the Prophet went on the occasion of his Flight.—From below Mecca the guide led him down to near the sea-coast at `Usfān: thence by the road passing Qudayd he went up through Al-Kharrār and by the pass called Thanīyat-al-Marāh. Thence he passed on by the Mad- lajah (water-trough) of Mujāj; then by Marjiḥ; then by Baṭn Marjiḥ of Dhū-l-Ghaḍawayn; then by Baṭn Dhāt Kishd; then by Al-Ajrad; then by Dhū Samur; then by Baṭn A`dā, and the water-trough of Ta`hin, arriving at `Ithyānah. Then by Khān to Al-Qāḥah, and by the descent to Al-`Arj, and through the pass called Thanīyat-al-A`yār, coming out to the right hand, and finally descending to Qubā of the Banī `Amr ibn `Awf; from which he came in to Medina.

From Medina to Najaf, near Mashhad (`Alī) on the return journey.—From Medina to Ṭaraf, where there is running water, 35 miles. Thence to Baṭn Nakhl, where rain-water is found, 22 miles. Thence to `Usaylah, where there are wells of brackish water, 36 miles. Thence to Ma`dan Nuqrah 46 miles. Total from Medina to Ma`dan Nuqrah 139 miles, which make 46 leagues and 1 mile. Then from Ma`dan Nuqrah on to Najaf it is, as has already been detailed, 148 leagues and 2 miles, which makes a total of 195 leagues (from Medina to Najaf).

From Wāsiṭ to Tha`labiyyah, where the (Baghdād) Mecca road is joined*. —From Wāsiṭ to Sha`sha`ah 30 miles, thence to `Ayṣī 32 miles, thence to Dhāt-al-`Ayn 26 miles, thence to Sha- bīyah 26 miles, thence to Akhādīd 30 miles, thence to Kharjā 30 miles, thence to Sūyah 27 miles, thence to Līnah 30 miles, thence to Tha`labiyyah 25 miles. Total from Wāsiṭ to Tha`la- biyyah 256 miles, which make 85 leagues and 1 mile. From Tha`labiyyah to Mecca, as already given, it is 164 leagues [<Arabic>] and 2 miles, and these figures together make 250 leagues (for the distance from Wāsiṭ to Mecca).

From Baghdād to various other towns, and first to Baṣrah.— Baghdād 6 leagues to Madāin, thence 8 to Dayr-al-`Āqūl, thence 7 to Jabbul, thence 10 to Fam-aṣ-Ṣilḥ, thence 9 to Wāsiṭ, making total of 40 leagues from Baghdād to Wāsiṭ. From Wāsiṭ it is 10 leagues to Nahrabān, thence 8 to Fārūth, thence 5 to Dayr- al-`Ummāl, thence 7 to Ḥawānīt; thence, passing from the river- bed to the Swamps, and on through the Nahr-al-Asad, after a total of 30 leagues distance, is the beginning of the Blind Tigris estuary, by which, and the Nahr Ma`qil, after 10 leagues, Baṣrah is reached; making in all from Wāsiṭ to Baṣrah 40 leagues, and from Baghdād 80 leagues.

From Baṣrah to Baḥrayn.—From Baṣrah it is 12 leagues to `Abbādān, whence 2 leagues more by fresh water to the open sea; then 70 leagues to the city of Baḥrayn. And on this course there are in the open sea two hidden mountainous reefs below the water level; these are known as `Uways and Kusayr. If a ship strikes on the summit of one of these reefs it will be wrecked. Otherwise the depth of the water on this course is from 70 to 80 fathoms. The total distance from Baṣrah to Baḥrayn is 84 leagues.

From Baṣrah to the emporium of Qays.—It is 50 leagues (from Baṣrah) to Khārak Island, thence 80 leagues to Ạl-Ān Island, thence 7 to Abrūn Island, thence 7 to the island of Chīn, which is uninhabited, and thence 7 to the emporium of Qays Island. Total: from Baṣrah to Qays 151 leagues.

From Baghdād to Iṣfahān, the largest of the cities of Persian `Irāq.—From Baghdād to Kanguvar it is 75 leagues, as has been de- tailed above (see pp. 161, 162). Then from Kanguvar it is 5 leagues to Bīdastān, thence 3 to Nihāvand city, thence 4 to Farāmurz village, thence 4 to the city of Burūjird. [<Arabic>] Beyond Burūjird the road to Shāpūrkhwāst turns off to the right hand, while going left from Burūjird it is 4 leagues to Ḥasanābād, thence 8 to Miyān- Rūdān, thence 3 to Minār, thence 6 to the city of Karaj. From Karaj it is 4 leagues to Dūnsūn, thence 5 to Āsan*: here another (the more direct) road to Iṣfahān turns off to the right, while going left from Āsan it is 6 leagues to Sangān, thence 6 to Jūy-Margh- i-Kuhtar (the Canal of the Smaller Meadow), thence 7 to Ash- qurān, thence 7 to Tīrān*, thence 6 to Jūy-i-Kūshk, and finally 4 leagues to Iṣfahān. Total: from Karaj to Iṣfahān it is 45 leagues, from Kanguvar 82 leagues, and from Baghdād 157 leagues*.

From Baghdād to Raḥbah of Syria.—Baghdād 3 leagues to Tall-`Aqarqūf, which is a hillock so high that it can be seen from the desert 15 leagues away; thence 8 leagues to the city of Anbār. Thence by the way across the Samawāt desert you may reach Damascus direct in ten days, it being more or less 100 leagues distant. From (Anbār, however, you go) to Raḥbah, which last is 170 leagues from Baghdād.

From Baghdād to Mosul, the largest city of Diyār Bakr*. — From Baghdād it is 4 leagues to Baradān, thence 5 to `Ukbarā, thence 3 to Bāḥamshā, thence 7 to Qādisīyah, thence 3 to Sāmar- rah. Total, from Baghdād to Sāmarrah 22 leagues. Then from Sāmarrah it is 2 leagues to Karkh, thence 7 to Jabultā, thence 5 to Sudaqānīyah, thence 5 to Bārimmā, thence 5 to the Bridge over the Lesser Zāb, where it flows into the Tigris, thence 12 to Ḥadīthah. This makes a total of 36 leagues from Sāmarrah to Ḥadīthah, and from Baghdād [<Arabic>] it is 58 leagues. From Ḥadī- thah it is 7 leagues to Banī Ṭam`ān, and 7 more to Mawṣil (Mosul), making a total of 14 leagues from Ḥadīthah to Mosul, while from Sāmarrah it is 50 leagues, and from Baghdād 72 leagues to Mosul.

The Eastern Highroad, from Sulṭāniyyah to the furthest limit of Īrān on the Oxus, being 347 leagues.

From Sulṭāniyyah to Ray and Varāmīn.—From Sulṭāniyyah in 5 leagues to the village of Quhūd, which the Mongols call Ṣāin Qal`ah, thence 4 to the city of Abhar, thence 4 to Fārisjīn, thence— with the city of Qazvīn lying 4 leagues distant on the left hand— in 6 leagues to Sūmīqān, which the Mughāls call Āq Khwājah*. Beyond this place the way divides; to the right one road turns off, going to Sagzābād, while the main road (towards Khurāsān) continues onward, going through Sunqurābād. From Sūmīqān it is 5 leagues to the village of Mārīn, thence 8 to Dahand*, thence 5 to Sunqurābād, thence 5 to Dīh Khātūn, thence 5 to the Place of Martyrdom (Mashhad of Shāh `Abd-al-`Aẓīm), thence 3 to the city of Ray, making a total of 50 leagues from Sulṭāniyyah to Ray. From Ray to Varāmīn it is 6 leagues.

From Varāmīn to Rubāṭ Mihmān-Dūst.—From Varāmīn it is 6 leagues to the Rubāṭ of Khumārtakīn*, thence 6 to Khuvār of Ray, which is called Maḥallah-i-Bāgh (the Garden-Place), thence 6 to Dīh Namak (Salt Village), thence 6 to Rās-al-Kalb (Dog’s Head)*, thence 6 to Dīh Surkh (Red Village), thence 4 to Samnān; and from Sulṭāniyyah hither it is 90 leagues. From Samnān it is 7 leagues to Rubāṭ Āhuvān, thence 7 to Rubāṭ Hurmuz, also known as Jarm-Jūy (Hot-stream), thence 6 to Dāmghān. Total: from Samnān to Dāmghān 20 leagues, and from Varāmīn 54 leagues, [<Arabic>] and from Sulṭāniyyah 110 leagues. Then from Dāmghān it is 6 leagues to Ḥaddādah, otherwise known as Mihmān-Dūst* (Guest-friend). From this place one road branches to the right, going direct to Nīshāpūr by Sabzavār; while to the left is the highroad which passes through Jājarm.

From Mihmān-Dūst to Nīshāpūr by way of Jājarm.—From Ḥaddādah it is 7 leagues to the city of Busṭām, from Dāmghān to Busṭām it being 13 leagues, from Samnān 33, from Varāmīn 67, and from Sulṭāniyyah 123 leagues. At Busṭām the roads divide again, one road leading to Nīshāpūr, while another turns off to Khwārazm. On the road to Nīshāpūr from Busṭām it is 7 leagues to Maghz*, thence 7 to Sulṭāniyyah village (or Dih-i- Sulṭān), thence 3 to Rubāṭ Savanj, and thence 6 to Jājarm. Total: from Busṭām to Jājarm it is 23 leagues, from Dāmghān 36, from Samnān 56, from Varāmīn 90, and from Sulṭāniyyah 146. From Jājarm it is 8 leagues to the village of Āzadvār, the birthplace of Khwājah Shams-ad-Dīn Muḥammad Ṣāḥib Dīvān, thence 4 to Khūrāshāh, thence 3 to Baḥrābād village, the abode of Shaykh Sa`d-ad-Dīn of Ḥamāh, thence 5 to Barzātābād, thence 4 to Tūdah (or Nūdah), thence 8 to Ṭāqān-Kūh, thence 6 to Rubāṭ Būzinagān at the village of Aḥmadābād, and thence 4 leagues in to Nīshāpūr. Total: from Jājarm to Nīshāpūr it is 42 leagues, from Busṭām 65, from Dāmghān 78, from Varāmīn 132, and from Sulṭāniyyah 188 leagues.

From Nīshāpūr to Sarakhs.—From Nīshāpūr it is 7 leagues to Dīh Bād, [<Arabic>] whence the road to Herāt branches to the right hand: and from Dīh Bād, turning left, it is 5 leagues to Khā- kistar village, thence 3 to Rubāṭ Sangbast, thence 6 to Rubāṭ Māhī, thence 7 to Rubāṭ Tūrān (or Nūrān); thence in 7 leagues, across two passes each of half a league, you go to Rubāṭ Ābgīnah, thence in 6 leagues you come to the city of Sarakhs. Total from Nīshāpūr to Sarakhs 41 leagues.

From Sarakhs by the road through Balkh to the Oxus, on the furthest limit of Īrān.—From Sarakhs it is 9 leagues to Rubāṭ Ja`farī, thence 7 to Mīl `Omarī, thence 7 to Rubāṭ Abū Nu`aym, thence 5 leagues across the desert sands with no water to Āb-i-Shūr, thence 2 to Diz Hind, and thence 5 to the city of Marv- ar-Rūd. Total: from Sarakhs to the city of Marv-ar-Rūd it is 35 leagues, from Nīshāpūr 76, from Dāmghān 154, from Varāmīn 208, and from Sulṭāniyyah 264 leagues.

From Marv-ar-Rūd it is 7 leagues to Rubaṭ-i-Sulṭān, thence 5 to the village of Kūchābād: the city of Ṭāliqān lying 6 leagues distant on the right hand of the road. From Kūchābād it is 7 leagues to Āb-i-Garm (Hot Spring), thence 5 to Kabūtar-khānah, thence 7 to Masjid Rāzān, thence in 7 leagues—the city of Fāryāb lying 2 leagues distant on the right of the road—to Astānah, thence 6 to Rubāṭ Ka`b, thence 9 leagues across a waterless plain to the city of Shubūrqān, thence it is 2 leagues to the village of Sulbarān, thence 9 to Rubāṭ `Alawī (the Alid Guardhouse), thence 1 league to Dastagird, thence 5 to the ham- let at [<Arabic>] the Bridge of Jamūkhiyān, thence 2 leagues in to the city of Balkh. Total: from Marv-ar-Rūd to Balkh it is 72 leagues, from Sarakhs 107 leagues, from Nīshāpūr 147, from Dām- ghān 225, from Varāmīn 279, and from Sulṭāniyyah 335 leagues.

From the city of Balkh it is 6 leagues to Siyāh-Kūh (the Black Hill), and thence in 6 leagues you come to the Oxus river over against Tirmid: making a total from Balkh to the Oxus of 12 leagues: while from Marv-ar-Rūd it is 84 leagues, from Sarakhs 119, from Nīshāpūr—by this road—159, from Dāmghān 237, and from Sulṭāniyyah to the Oxus 347 leagues.

From Busṭām to Khwārazm (Urganj) by way of Jurjān and Dihistān.—From Busṭām by the pass called Nardibān-Pāyah it is 7 leagues to Dih Ganj, thence 6 to the village of Mīlābād, thence 5 to Mūsā-ābād village, thence 5 to the city of Jurjān. Total: from Busṭām to Jurjān 23 leagues, from Dāmghān 36, from Varāmīn 90, and from Sulṭāniyyah 146 leagues. From Jurjān there are two roads to the (northern) frontier—one direct by the waterless desert, the other by Dihistān. By this last from Jurjān it is 9 leagues to Bāraz Rūd, thence 7 to the village of Muḥammadābād, thence 7 to Dihistān*. Total: from Jurjān to Dihistān 23 leagues, from Dāmghān 59, from Varāmīn 113, and from Sulṭāniyyah 169 leagues.

From Dihistān going across the Desert it is 7 leagues to Rubāṭ [<Arabic>] Gazbīnī (or Kursī), thence 9 to Rubāṭ Abū-l-`Abbās, thence 7 to Rubāṭ Ibn Ṭāhir, and thence 7 to the city of Farā- vah*. From Farāvah it is 8 leagues to Rubāṭ Khisht-i-Pukhtah, thence 8 to Khūshāb Dān, thence 7 to Rubāṭ Ṭaghmāj, thence 7 to Kārvān-gāh, thence 9 to Rubāṭ Sarhang, thence 7 to Minārah- gāh, thence 8 to Saīl-Balī, thence 7 to Mushk Mabnā, thence 9 to Rubāṭ Maryam, thence 8 to the town of New Khwārazm, thence 6 to New Ḥalam (or Khulm), and thence 4 leagues to Urganj, the capital of Khwārazm*. Total: from Dihistān to Urganj 110 leagues, from Jurjān 133, from Dāmghān 169, from Varāmīn 223, and from Sulṭāniyyah 279 leagues.

Nīshāpūr to Herāt.—From Nīshāpūr in 7 leagues to Dīh-Bād*, where the road to Sarakhs already given (p. 169) goes off to the left. From Dīh-Bād it is 5 leagues to Rubāṭ Badi`ī, thence 7 to Farhādān village, thence 7 to Sa`īdābād village, thence 5 to Dīh Khusraw, thence 7 to the city of Pūchkān (or Būzjān)*. Total, from Nīshāpūr to Pūchkān it is 38 leagues; and from here roads go off to Herāt, Qāyin, Bākharz and Sarakhs. On the Herāt road it is, from Pūchkān, 6 leagues to Gulābād village, thence 10 to Kūshk Manṣūr, thence 6 to the city of Fūshanj (or Būshanj), and thence 8 leagues to Herāt. [<Arabic>] Total: from Pūchkān to Herāt it is 30 leagues, from Nīshāpūr 68, from Dāmghān to Herāt by the road already detailed it is 146 leagues, from Varāmīn to Herāt 200, and from Sulṭāniyyah 256 leagues.

Nīshāpūr to Turshīz and Quhistān*. —From Nīshāpūr it is 5 leagues to Rubāṭ Sih Dīh (Guardhouse of the Three Villages), thence 4 to Rubāṭ Nūr-Khān, thence 3 to Chāh Siyāh (Black Pit), thence 5 to the village of Dāyah, and this stage goes through a populous, well-watered country, where are eight villages; thence 4 to Dīh Murd, and thence 7 leagues to Turshīz. Total from Nīshāpūr to Turshīz it is 28 leagues; then from Turshīz it is 25 leagues to Tūn, and 36 to Qāyin, and likewise 36 to Pūchkān.

Herāt to (Zaranj, the capital of) Sīstān*. —Herāt one march to Jāmān, thence the same to Kūh-i-Siyāh (Black Hill), thence the same to Qanāt Sarāy, thence the same to Khāstān (or Jāstān), which is a dependency of Asfuzār, thence the same to Kūstān, thence the same to Darah, thence the same to the city of Farah, thence the same to Pūl-i-Rūd-i-Farah (Bridge over the Farah river), thence the same to Sirishk, thence the same to Kanjar, thence the same to Bust, thence the same to Juvayn, thence the same to Bashtar, thence in 4 leagues you come to, and cross, the Hirmand river to Karkūyah, and thence in 3 leagues to (Zaranj, capital of) Sīstān. Total from Herāt to Zaranj it is 15 marches, which by Ibn Khurdādbih is given as equivalent to 80 leagues; other authorities, however, give it as only 60 leagues’ march from Herāt to Zaranj.

Herāt to Marv.—From Herāt [<Arabic>] it is 5 leagues to Sagābād, thence 5 to Bādghīsh, thence 5 to Bavvan, thence 5 to Marghzār Darrah, thence 8 to Bāghchī Shūr, thence 5 to Lūs-rūd, thence 4 leagues to Marv-ar-Rūd*. Total from Herāt to Marv-ar-Rūd it is 37 leagues. Then from Marv-ar-Rūd it is 5 leagues to Qaṣr Aḥnaf ibn Qays, thence 4 to Khawrāt (Khawrzān or Khūrāb), thence 6 to Asadābād (or Astarābād), thence 7 to Qarīnayn, thence 5 to Yaḥyā-ābād, thence 7 to Mahdī-ābād, thence 6 to Fāz, and thence 7 leagues to the city of Marv*. Total from Marv-ar-Rūd to Marv 47 leagues, and from Herāt 84 leagues.

From Marv to Balkh.—From Marv to Marv-ar-Rūd it is 47 leagues by the road that has just been described. Then from Marv-ar-Rūd it is 5 leagues to Araskan, thence 7 to Aṣrāb, thence 6 to Ganjābād, thence 6 to Ṭāliqān, thence 5 to Kasḥān, thence 5 to Arghūn in the district of Jūzjān, thence 5 to Qaṣr Ḥūt, also in the district of Jūzjān, thence 5 to Fāryāb, thence 9 to Qāḥ, thence 9 to Shubūrqān, thence 6 to Ṣidrah, thence 5 to Dastagīr, thence 4 to `Awd, and thence it is 3 leagues to Balkh*. Total from Marv-ar-Rūd to Balkh is 80 leagues, while from Marv it is 127 leagues.

Marv to (Urganj, the capital of) Khwārazm.—Marv in 5 leagues to Dih Saqrī, thence 2 to Dih Ābdān Ganj, thence 8 to Rubāṭ Sūrān, [<Arabic>] thence 5 to Chāh Khāk (Dry Well), thence 7 to Chāh Ṣāchī, thence 7 to Chāh Hārūn; thence in 7 leagues—of which 2000 paces are across the Moving Sands—to Rubāṭ-i-Naw- Shāgird, thence 7 to Sagābād, thence 6 to Rubāṭ Ṭāhirī, thence 5 to Rubāṭ Būdīnah, thence crossing the frontier of Khwārazm in 9 leagues to the city of Jaqarband, thence 7 to Darghān, a city of Khwārazm, thence 5 to Dahān-i-Shīr (the Guardhouse of the Lion’s Mouth), where precipitous rocks form the Narrows of the Oxus, which rushes through between them; thence 4 to Sadūr, thence 10 to Hazārasp city, thence 9 to Dih Azraq, thence 7 to Rakhushmīthan, thence 6 to Andarāstān, thence 2 to the city of Nuzvār, and thence in 6 leagues to the city of Urganj, the capital of Khwārazm*. Total, from Marv to Khwārazm by this road it is 124 leagues.

The Northern Highroad, from Sulṭāniyyah to Bāb-al-Abwāb*

(Gate of Gates), on the furthest frontier of Īrān: and Bāb-al- Abwāb the Mongols call Dimūr Qāpī (the Iron Gate, otherwise Darband).

Sulṭāniyyah to Ardabīl.—Sulṭāniyyah in 5 leagues to Zanjān; from here one road goes off to Tabrīz, Marāghah, Armenia and Rūm (Asia Minor), while another road turns off to Ardabīl and Sarāv. By the Ardabīl road you go in 7 leagues to the village of Tūt (or Būb) Suvārī, thence 7 to the city of Kāghadh Kunān, thence by the Pass of Burūlaz on the river Safīd-Rūd in 6 leagues to the villages of Sanjīdah and Khalkhāl, thence 6 to the village of Tālish, and then 6 to the city of Ardabīl*. [<Arabic>] Total from Sul- ṭāniyyah to Ardabīl 37 leagues.

From Ardabīl to Qarābāgh of Arrān.—From Ardabīl it is 8 leagues to Rubāṭ Arshad, thence 8 to the village of Varanq. To the left hand, and to the westward*, one league distant, lies Barzand, formerly a city, now a mere village; and thence it is 4 leagues on to Bājarvān, formerly a city, now only a village*. Total: from Ardabīl to Bājarvān it is 20 leagues, and from Sul- ṭāniyyah 57 leagues. From Bājarvān to Maḥmūdābād of Gāv- bārī, the road goes after this wise. Bājarvān in 8 leagues to Pīlsuvār, thence 6 to Jūy-i-Naw (New Canal), and thence 6 to Maḥmūdābād Gāvbārī. Total: from Bājarvān to Maḥmūdābād 20 leagues, from Ardabīl 40 leagues, and from Sulṭāniyyah 77 leagues.

The Qarābāgh Road.—From Bājarvān it is 7 leagues to the village of `Alī Beg, thence 6 to the village of Bakrābād, and thence 2 to the bank of the river Aras, which is the frontier of Qarābāgh. Total: from Bājarvān to Qarābāgh 15 leagues, from Ardabīl 35, and from Sulṭāniyyah 72 leagues.

From Qarābāgh to Ganjah.—From Qarābāgh to the village of Har it is 3 leagues, thence 5 to Gharq, thence 4 to the village of Labandān, thence 3 to Bāzārchūq, thence 4 to the city of Bardā`, thence 1 to the city of Jūzbīq, thence 4 to Dih Iṣfahānī, thence 5 to Khānqāh Shutur, and thence 5 to Ganjah city. Total: from Qarābāgh to Ganjah 34 leagues, from Ardabīl 69, and from Sulṭāniyyah it is 106 leagues. From Ganjah it is 2 leagues to the city of Shamkūr, now in ruins, thence 3 to Yūrt-Shādāq- Bān, [<Arabic>] thence 6 to the Aqtavān river, thence 5 to Yām, and thence 4 leagues to the city of Tiflīs*. Total: Ganjah to Tiflīs 20 leagues, from Qarābāgh 54, from Ardabīl 89, while from Sulṭāniyyah it is 126 leagues.

From Qarābāgh to Tabrīz, by way of Āhar.—From the bank of the river Aras, which is the frontier of Qarābāgh, to Bājarvān it is, as has already been said, 15 leagues. Thence it is 4 leagues to Barzand, thence 6 to Rubāṭ-i-Ayvān, built by the Vazīr Khwājah Tāj-ad-Dīn `Alī Shāh Tabrīzī, thence 8 to the village of Bahlatān*, known as the village of the Ṣāḥib Dīvān, thence in 8 leagues, passing the Rubāṭ (Guardhouse) built by the Vazīr `Alī Shāh aforesaid, standing in the valley called Darrah Farū- jāy, to the city of Āhar; thence in 6 leagues by the Pass of Gūkchah-Mīl (the Blue Pillar), in which stand two Guardhouses —one the Rubāṭ built by Khwājah Sa`d-ad-Dīn of Sāvah, the other by Amīr Niẓām-ad-Dīn Yaḥyā of Sāvah—to the village of Armīnān (or Arminiyān); and thence, passing another Rubāṭ built by the Vazīr `Alī Shāh aforesaid at the stage of Yaldūq (or Baldūq), it is 8 leagues into Tabrīz*. Total, from Qarābāgh to Tabrīz it is 55 leagues.

The Western Highroad.—From Sulṭāniyyah to Qūnīyah of Rūm (Asia Minor) at the furthest frontier of Īrān it is 301 leagues.

Sulṭāniyyah to Tabrīz.—Sulṭāniyyah in 5 leagues to Zanjān, thence 6 to Rubāṭ Nikbāy built by the Vazīr Khwājah Tāj-ad- Dīn `Alī Shāh, thence 7 leagues to Sarcham; in this stage a Rubāṭ has been built by the Vazīr Khwājah Ghiyāth-ad-Dīn Amīr Muḥammad Rashīdī, and another Rubāṭ has been built here by [<Arabic>] his brother Khwājah Jalāl-ad-Dīn. Total (from Sulṭāniyyah to Sarcham), 18 leagues. From this stage a road goes off to the left to Marāghah, while the road to the right leads to Miyānij. From Sarcham, by the pass it is 6 leagues to Miyānij, thence 6 to the village of Turkmān Kandī called Dayr Kharrān, which formerly was a city, thence 4 to the village of Sankalābād, thence 4 to the city of Ūjān, thence 4 by a pass to Sa`īdābād, and thence in 4 leagues to the city of Tabrīz. Total from Sulṭāniyyah to Tabrīz 46 leagues.

Tabrīz to Arzan-ar-Rūm.—From Tabrīz it is 11 leagues to Marand, thence 12 to Khuvī (Khoi), thence 6 to Shakmābād, thence 5 to Naw-Shahr (New-Town), thence 3 to Band-i-Māhī, thence 8 to Arjīsh, thence 8 to Malāzjird, thence 10 to Khanūs, thence 5 to the Pass of Āq Aftan, thence 5 to Basīn, thence 6 leagues to Arzan-ar-Rūm (Erzerum). Total (from Tabrīz to Arzan-ar-Rūm) 79 leagues.

From Arzan-ar-Rūm to Arzanjān.—From Arzan-ar-Rūm it is 10 leagues to Asjah of the district of Vasīrjān, thence 10 to Khūmān Qubūḥ at the foot of the pass, thence 4 to Arzanjān. Total: from Arzan-ar-Rūm to Arzanjān 24 leagues, and from Tabrīz by the winter road (just described) it is 103 leagues, and from Sulṭāniyyah it is 149 leagues.

From Arzanjān to Sīvās.—From Arzanjān it is 5 leagues to the village of Khwājah Aḥmad, thence 7 to Arzanjak, thence 8 to Āq-Shahr, thence 5 to Akarsūk, [<Arabic>] thence 8 to Zārah, thence 10 to Rubāṭ Khwājah Aḥmad, and thence it is 4 leagues to Sīvās*. Total: from Arzanjān to Sīvās is 47 leagues, from Arzan-ar-Rūm 71 leagues, from Tabrīz 150, and from Sulṭāniyyah 196 leagues.

The Highroad going diagonally, south-east from Sulṭāniyyah to Qays (Island) at the frontier of Īrān: distance in total 254 leagues.

Sulṭāniyyah to Sāvah.—From Sulṭāniyyah to the village of Sagzābād as already described (p. 168) it is 5 stages, or 24 leagues, and here the highroad towards Khurāsān branches off. From Sagzābād it is 6 leagues to Rubāṭ Ḥājib Ḥasan, thence 7 to Rubāṭ Dawānīq, thence 5 to the city of Sāvah. Total from Sulṭāniyyah to Sāvah 42 leagues; and Sāvah stands at the beginning of many roads.

Sāvah to Kāshān.—From Sāvah it is 4 leagues to Āvah, thence 6 to Qum, thence 12 to Kāshān. Total, from Sāvah to Kāshān it is 22 leagues.

From Kāshān to Iṣfahān.—From Kāshān it is 8 leagues to the village of Quhrūd, thence 6 to the village of Wāsiṭah, thence it is 6 leagues to the Rubāṭ (Guardhouse) of Mūrchah Khūrd, and 8 on to the village of Sīn: or else from Wāsiṭah it is 12 leagues direct to Sīn by the Miyānī Road, but on this way there are no habitations; and from the village of Sīn it is 4 leagues to Iṣfahān city. Total: from Kāshān to Iṣfahān 32 leagues, from Sāvah 54, and from Sulṭāniyyah it is 96 leagues.

Iṣfahān to Yazdikhwāst.—Iṣfahān in 3 leagues to the village of Iṣfahānak, thence 5 to [<Arabic>] the village of Mahyār on the frontier of Fārs, thence 6 to Qūmishah city; total from Iṣfahān to Qūmishah 14 leagues. From Qūmishah it is 5 leagues to the village of Rūdkān*, and thence 7 to Yazdikhwāst village. Total: from Qūmishah to Yazdikhwāst 12 leagues, and from Iṣfahān 26 leagues. From Yazdikhwāst the winter road down to Band-i- `Aḍudī turns off to the left, while the (shorter, western, or) sum- mer road is to the right, by Kūshk-i-Zard.

From Yazdikhwāst by the summer road to Shīrāz.—From Yazdikhwāst in 8 leagues to Dih Girdū, thence 7 to Kūshk-i- Zard, thence 5 by the Girīvah-i-Mādar wa Dukhtar (Mother and Daughter Pass) to the Rubāṭ of Ṣalāḥ-ad-Dīn in the plain called Dasht Rūn, thence 3 to the Guardhouse at the Bridge (over the upper Kur river, near Ūjān) called Pūl-i-Shahriyār, thence 7 leagues through the very stony Pass of Māyin to the town of Māyin, and all the roads leading to Māyin are very stony. Thence in 4 leagues—passing by the Castles of Iṣṭakhr and Shikastah, which overhang the road on the left hand—to Pūl-i-Naw (New Bridge, over the Kur), thence 5 to Dih Gurg (Wolf Village), and thence in 5 leagues to the city of Shīrāz. Total: from Yazdi- khwāst to Shīrāz 44 leagues, from Qūmishah 56, from Iṣfahān 70, from Kāshān 102 leagues, and from Sulṭāniyyah 166 leagues.

Shīrāz to (the Island of) Qays on the frontier of Īrān.— Shīrāz 5 leagues to Shahrak village, thence 5 to the city of Kavār, thence by the Girīvah-i-Zanjīrān (Pass of Chains), leaving Fīrūzābād 7 leagues distant away to the right hand, in 5 leagues to Rubāṭ Jamkān, thence 5 to Maymand, thence 6 to the be- ginning of the Ṣīmkān District, [<Arabic>] thence 6 to the end of this District, thence in 7 leagues to Kārzīn by the Pass of Sar- i-Safīd (the White Head), thence it is 5 leagues to Lāghir, thence 6 to the Fāryāb District, thence 6 to the city of Khunj, thence 5 to Āb-Anbār-i-Kinār, thence 5 to Hurmuz, thence in 6 leagues by many steep passes to the village of Dārūk, thence 6 to Māhān, thence in 6 leagues by the Pass of Lardak to Hūzū on the sea-shore. From here you cross the water in 4 leagues to the city of Qays (on the island of that name)*. Total: from the city of Shīrāz to Qays 88 leagues, from Iṣfahān 158 leagues, from Kāshān 190, from Sāvah 212 leagues, and from Sulṭāniyyah 254 leagues.

Remainder of the (sea) journey in this direction: from Qays to Sarandīb (Ceylon) where Adam fell (to earth from Paradise).— From Qays (island) it is 18 leagues to the Island of Abarkāfān, thence 7 to the Island of Urmūṣ, thence in 70 leagues you come to the Island of Bār on the frontier between Fārs and Sind, and thence it is 80 to Daybul; this lies 2 leagues from the mouth of the Mihrān (Indus), which is the great river of Sind. Thence it is 40 leagues to Ankīr (or Utakīn), where begins the kingdom of Hind (India), thence 2 leagues to Kūlī, thence 18 to Sindān, thence 50 leagues to Malībar, thence 20 to Ballīn. From Ballīn you cross a great arm (of the sea), and in 10 leagues reach Ceylon*. Total: from Qays to Ceylon 317 leagues, [<Arabic>] from Shīrāz 405, from Iṣfahān 475, from Kāshān 507, from Sāvah 529, and from Sulṭāniyyah 571 leagues.

Shīrāz to Kāzirūn.—Shīrāz in 5 leagues to the Wall of Ḥājjī Qiwām, thence 8 to Dasht Arzin village, thence 6 to the Rubāṭ (Guardhouse) at the head of the Mālān Pass, which is very steep, thence by the Hūshanak Pass, also very steep, in 3 leagues to Kāzirūn city*. Total from Shīrāz to Kāzirūn 22 leagues.

Shīrāz to Hurmūz.—Shīrāz in 12 leagues to Sarvistān, thence 8 to the city of Fasā, thence 6 to Tīmaristān village, thence 8 to Dārkān (or Zārkān). From here turning to the left the road goes to (the capital of) Shabānkārah; while turning to the right the road goes on to Hurmūz, and from Shīrāz to Dārkān it is 34 leagues. From Dārkān it is 10 leagues to Dārābgird, thence 3 to the village of Khayr, thence 6 to Shabankān, thence 3 to Rustāq, and thence 3 leagues to Burk (Purg or Forg); from here it is 6 leagues to Tāshlū, thence 6 to Tārum, thence to the frontier of the Lār Province at Janād (or Chinār) it is 4 leagues, thence 48 to Chāh Chil, thence 8 to Tūsar on the sea-coast, whence by water it is 4 leagues to the Island of Hurmūz*. Total from Shīrāz to Hurmūz it is 95 leagues.

Shīrāz to (the capital of) Shabānkārah.—From Shīrāz to Dārkān it is, as already said, 34 leagues, and thence to the city of Īg, which is the capital of Shabānkārah, it is 4 leagues; [<Arabic>] making a total of 38 leagues.

Shīrāz to Kirmān by way of Shahr-i-Bābak.—Shīrāz in 8 leagues to Dāriyān, thence 8 to Khurramah, thence 4 to Khūlan- jān, thence 6 to Kand (or Kīd), thence 6 to Khayrah, thence 5 to Chāh `Uqbah, thence 8 to Bulangān, thence 8 to Chāhak, thence 7 to Sarūshak, thence in 7 leagues to Shahr-i-Bābak. Total from Shīrāz to Shahr-i-Bābak 67 leagues. Shahr-i-Bābak in 8 leagues to Kūshk Na`m, thence 4 to Abān, thence 4 to the city of Sīrjān, making a total of 16 leagues from Shahr-i-Bābak to Sīrjān, and from Shīrāz 83 leagues. From Sīrjān it is 10 leagues to Bakān (or Lakān) and thence 8 on to Kirmān (City), making a total of 101 leagues from Shīrāz to Kirmān*.

Shīrāz to Abarqūh.—Shīrāz in 5 leagues to the village of Zargān, thence 3 to the dam called Band-i-Amīr on the Kur river, thence 3 to the village of Kinārah in the districts of Ḥafrak and Marvdasht, thence 3 to Fārūq, thence 3 to Kamīn, thence 4 to Mashhad-i-Mādar-i-Sulaymān (Shrine of the Mother of Solomon, namely, the Tomb of Cyrus), thence 6 to Rubāṭ Mashk, thence 12 to the city of Abarqūh. Total from Shīrāz to Abarqūh 39 leagues.

Abarqūh to Yazd.—From Abarqūh in 13 leagues to Dih Shīr (Lion Village), thence 6 to Dīh Jawz (Nut village), thence 4 to Qal`at-i-Majūs (Magian’s Castle), thence in 5 leagues to the city of Kathah or Yazd, standing in its Jūmah (District, modern Ḥūmah)*. Total: from Abarqūh to [<Arabic>] Yazd 28 leagues, and from Shīrāz 67 leagues. From Yazd on to Kirmān (City) it is 58 leagues, and from Shīrāz to Kirmān, by this road, it is 125 leagues.

Shīrāz to Nawbanjān.—Shīrāz in 5 leagues to Juvaym, thence 5 to Khullār, thence 5 to Kharrārah, thence 4 to (Dīh) Gawz (Nut Village), which is of the district of Tīr Murdān, thence 3 to Kuz- gān, thence 3 to Nawbanjān. Total from Shīrāz to Nawbanjān 25 leagues*.

Nawbanjān to Tustar, the capital of Khūzistān.—From Naw- banjān it is 4 leagues to Khābdān, thence 6 to Kishish, thence 5 to Gunbad Mallaghān, thence 4 to Chāhah, thence 4 to Khabs, thence 6 to Furzuk, thence 4 to Arrajān, and 4 leagues on to Bustānak, which is the frontier between Fārs and Khūzistān*. Total, from Nawbanjān to Bustānak 37 leagues, and from Shīrāz 62 leagues.

The Highroad to the South-west.—From Sulṭāniyyah to the castle called Qal`ah Bīrah*, which is at the frontier of Īrān, it is 265 leagues: and Allah alone is all knowing of the Ways.