The province of Khurāsān: its revenues in early and later times. Nīshāpūr: earthquakes: Shādyākh: watercourses: the Green Spring: marvels: fish with earring. Isfarāyin and the castle of Ṣu`lūk. Sabzavār and Juvayn. Jā- jarm: poisonous grass. Khabūshān. Ṭūs: the Shrine of the Imām `Alī-ar- Riḍā and the tomb of Hārūn-ar-Rashīd. Kilāt and Jirm. Herāt: its castle: splendour under Ghūr dynasty. Fūshanj. Bākharz and Bādghīsh: the pistachio nut crop. Jām: Shrine of Zindah Pīl. Khwāf and Zāvah: tomb of Ḥaydar. Ghūr and Gharjah. Balkh and Bāmiyān. Towns of the Jūzjān district. Khutlān and Ṭāliqān. Great Marv and its buildings. The four famous men of Khāvarān. Sarakhs and Marv-ar-Rūd. The province of Māzandarān, and its seven districts. Jurjān: the Red Tomb. Āmul and Dihistān. Rustamdār and the port of Nīm Murdān. The provinces of Qūmis and Ṭabaristān. Dāmghān and the Windy Spring. Busṭām and the shrine of Abū Yazīd Ṭayfūr. Damāvand and Khirqān. The province of Jīlān. Tūlim and Rasht. Fūmin and Kaskar. Kawtam and Lāhījān

SECTION 17. Describing the four Quarters of the province of Khurāsān.

There are numerous cities here, and the frontiers of the pro- vince are over against Quhistān, Qūmis, Māzandarān and the Khwārazm Desert.

The revenues of Khurāsān in earlier times were included in what was paid over by the whole kingdom of Īrān, and this quota during the times of the Ṭāhirid dynasty amounted to nearly ten million dīnārs. After the Mongol conquest, by reason that during most reigns the various Vazīrs and secretaries of the imperial treasury were themselves natives of Khurāsān, it was arranged through their influence that the provinces of Khurāsān, Quhistān, Qūmis, Māzandarān and Ṭabaristān should be formed into a region apart, their revenues being collected separately. Further the governors were granted abatements, by which device they would manage to keep back every year some 200,000 dīnārs from the revenues of this province, nominally for the pay of the troops. In the reign of Sulṭān Abū Sa`īd, however, his Vazīr the Amīr Ghiyāth-ad-Dīn (son of the celebrated Rashīd-ad-Dīn) becoming aware of this fraud determined no longer to allow facilities for the same. He gave orders, therefore, that the revenues of the Khurāsān province should be set at a fixed amount; then he established the sums payable for the provincial land-tax, and for the military fiefs, and for other proper expenses, and enjoined that the balance in moneys, together with the full accounts of these provinces, should be transmitted to the imperial treasury. Time, however, was not granted him to accomplish this reform, and matters have still remained much in their former evil state (since his death).

The Nīshāpūr Quarter. Herein are many cities, and the climate is for the most part temperate.

Nīshāpūr. Of the Fourth Clime, [<Arabic>] and at the present time this is the chief city of Khurāsān, standing in longitude 92°32’, and latitude 36°21’. It was founded by Ṭahmūrath the Demon-binder, and after it had fallen to ruin Ardashīr Bābakān built the city of Nih in the desert near by. His son Sapor I was governor of Khurāsān, and he asked this city of his father, who however denied his request; whereupon, emulation seizing on Sapor, he rebuilt (the older ruined) city and gave it the name of Nih of Shāpūr, which as Nishāpūr became its proper name, and this the Arabs called Naysābūr. The circuit of its walls was 15,000 paces; and it was laid out on the plan of a chess- board, in eight squares by eight squares, for the Chosroes had ever the habit to plan their cities after the form of some animal or inanimate thing. Sapor II planned and increased the buildings of this city, but the seat of government under the Chosroes, and down to the time of the fall of the Ṭāhirid dynasty, remained at Balkh and Marv, and it was only when the Ṣaffārids came to power that `Amr ibn Layth established the Government House in Nīshāpūr, which from that time forth became the capital of Khurāsān. In the year 605 (1208) Nīshāpūr was laid in ruins by an earthquake, whereupon a new city was built near by, which was called Shādyākh; and the circuit of its walls was 6900 paces. In the year 629 (1232) Shādyākh likewise was laid in ruins by another earthquake, and again a new city was built in another part of the plain. This is the town which is still standing, and is at the present time the capital of Khurāsān; and it lies at the foot of the mountain on the south-east of the same, the circuit of its walls being 15,000 paces.

Water is from springs and many underground channels— though some of these last are gone to ruin—and they run through the town passing under the houses. Along their courses cisterns and tanks have been made. Further, there is the river which flows down from the mountain lying some two leagues distant to the north-east of Nīshāpūr, and which is very high. Along the two leagues of its course they have erected forty mills, and the current runs so swiftly that an ass-load of wheat is no sooner placed in the hopper of the mill than, in the time it takes but to sew up the heads of two flour-sacks, it is all ground into flour, and as yet the donkey is hardly come back again (that had carried off the previous sacks).

Five leagues distant to the north of the city, on the crest of the mountain, there is a pass where is a spring called Chash- mah-i-Sabz (the Green Spring), [<Arabic>] from which pours forth sweet water, but greenish in colour. The Amīr Chūpān* built a kiosk on the border of the spring, and going up to the roof of the kiosk, you may look down into the midst of the waters. Every Friday night a terrible voice is heard coming from the midst of the spring, and yet it stands five leagues distant from the nearest inhabited place. Further, saintly persons keeping vigil by night behold on the borders of this spring the forms of water- camels, and water-cows, and water-men, and they are then seen to graze all round and about it. From the spring the water flows down through the plain, and along its course are many houses and fields. There is also another spring, in the direction of Ṭūs and Rāyikān, and the Amīr Chūpān put a fish into its waters, with an earring fixed to that fish, having a pearl as big as a pigeon’s egg set in the same. People in company and bands (of friends) are wont to take their pleasure here; they throw bread into the spring, and this fish will come and take the bread, thus diverting the folk. This spring lies four leagues distant from Ṭūs. Of famous shrines of holy men in Nīshāpūr there are these, namely the tomb of Abū `Othmān Jahrumī, of Abū `Alī Thaqafī, of `Abd Allah Mubārak, and of Shaykh Farīd-ad-Dīn `Aṭṭār.

Isfarāyin. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 91°, and lati- tude 36°33’. A city of medium size. In the mosque is an im- mense basin, the circumference of its lip measuring 12 tailor’s ells, and certainly no larger cup than this has ever been made. To the north of the town lies the strongly fortified castle of Ṣu`lūk. Some thirty villages are of the dependencies of Isfarāyin. The climate is temperate. Water is taken from the river which flows at the foot of the castle, where many walnut trees grow, and this renders it unwholesome. The district round, and the dependent villages have their water from underground channels. Crops of all kinds, such as grapes with other fruit and corn, are grown.

Bayhaq. This is the name of the district, of which the chief city is Sabzavār. This last is of moderate size, of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 89°15’, and latitude 36°55’. The climate is tem- perate. It has excellent and ample markets; further, they have built a mighty arch of wood, at the cross ways of the market street, and the same is high and strong. The crops are corn, some little [<Arabic>] fruit and grapes. There are some forty villages of its dependencies. The people here are Shī`ahs of the sect of the Twelve Imāms.

Biyār. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 89°15’, and lati- tude 34°45’. A medium-sized town, with a temperate climate. Its crops are corn, and some little fruit.

Juvayn. This is a district that formerly was included in that of Bayhaq, but which is now counted as separate. Its chief town is called Fariyūmad, and other large places are Baḥrābād (or Yaḥya-ābād), where Sa`d-ad-Dīn Ḥamawī lived, also Arūkāzrī, Dilband and Khūrāshāh. The people here for the most part are Shāfi`ites. Water is had from underground channels, and every village has one or two of these that never fail. Crops are of all kinds, but fruit and grapes are not very abundant.

Jājarm. Of the Fourth Clime. A medium-sized town; and since for one or two days’ journey all round the same the pastur- age is of a poisonous herb, it is quite impossible for any army ever to approach this place. There is also a strong castle here. At its foot grow two plane trees; and it is asserted that if anyone on the morning of a Wednesday take between his teeth some of the bark of these trees he will never suffer again from tooth-ache. Hence much of the bark of these trees is carried off, serving to preserve the teeth. There are many villages of the dependencies of Jājarm, but houses are not easily obtained within the town. Crops of corn and fruit are abundant.

Khabūshān. A medium-sized town of the Fourth Clime. It has many dependencies, and in the government registers the dis- trict has the name of Ustū. After the Mongol conquest Hūlāgū Khān restored its buildings, and his grandson Arghūn Khān made further additions. It has an excellent climate, and abundant crops of corn, cotton, grapes and fruit.

Shaqqān. A medium-sized town, with twenty villages of its dependencies. It is of the Fourth Clime, and has crops of all kinds.

Ṭūs. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 92°32’, and latitude 37°. It was founded by king Jamshīd, and after it had fallen to ruin, was rebuilt by Ṭūs, son of Nawdhar, and he gave the town [<Arabic>] his own name. Among other great shrines there is here the tomb of the (Eighth) Imām `Alī-ar-Riḍā in the village of Nūqān (or Sanābād), which lies four leagues distant from Ṭūs; and the grave of the Abbasid Caliph Hārūn-ar-Rashīd also is within the precincts of this same shrine. The shrine of Ṭūs is indeed among the most venerated of holy places, and at the present day the shrine has become a little town. From the shrine to Zāvah and Sanjān it is fifteen leagues, and Quṭb-ad-Dīn Ḥaydar is buried in Zāvah, and Shāh Sanjān in Sanjān, and Sulṭān Sulaymān in the district of Bākharz. In the south-western quarter of Ṭūs is a gateway, near which 3000 saints, all of the name of Abū Bakr, are buried, and this sanctuary is called the Rūdbār Gate. To the east of Ṭūs are the tombs of (the great divine) Muḥammad Ghazzālī, and of Aḥmad Ghazzālī, also of Firdawsī (the poet), and of Ma`shūq Ṭūsī. The people of Ṭūs are pure in life and of orthodox belief, being friendly to strangers. Of fruits the grapes and figs grown here are abundant and sweet. Round Ṭūs lies the pasturage known as the Rāyikān Meadows, 12 leagues in length by 5 across, and they are among the most celebrated in the world.

Kilāt and Jirm. Kilāt is a very strong fortress and (so ex- tensive) that in its precincts are arable lands for crops, and water here is plentiful. Jirm is a town at the base of the fortress, with some villages round it that are of its dependencies.

Marsān (or Marīnān). Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 90°20’ and latitude 36°. It is a small town, with a rather cold climate. It has running water, many gardens and produces much corn.

Farāvah. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 90°, and lati- tude 39°. A medium-sized town, with a good and temperate climate. Corn and fruit are grown here.

The Herāt Quarter. This Quarter includes nine tūmāns, and it is a broad district, all of the Fourth Clime.

Herāt. Of the Fourth Clime, in [<Arabic>] longitude 94°20’, and latitude 34°20’. Herāt was the name of one of the chiefs among the followers of the hero Narīmān, and it was he who first founded the city. After it had fallen to ruin Alexander the Great rebuilt it, and the circuit of its walls was 9000 paces. The climate is most excellent and pleasant, for during all the summer the north wind blows; and alluding to this, the (Arabic) saying goes: If the soil of Iṣfahān, and the north wind of Herāt, and the water of Khwārazm were but all found in one country, verily but few people would ever die there. The water of Herāt is from a canal derived from the Harī Rūd (Herāt river). Gardens are numerous, and there are eighteen villages lying close round and about the city. Of fruits there are the Fakhrī grapes and excellent melons. The men here are warlike and carry arms, being given to treachery; and they are Sunnīs in creed. There is here a strong castle known as Shamīram, and two leagues distant from Herāt on a hill there is a Fire-temple that was known as Arshak, but which at the present day is called the Castle of Amkalchah. Also, between this Fire-temple and the city, there once stood a Christian church. Of the great shrines of pious and learned men (buried in Herāt) there is the tomb of the Shaykh `Abd-Allah Anṣārī, more generally known as Pīr-i-Harī (the Old Man of Herāt), and further that of Khwājah Muḥammad Abū-l-Walīd, and of the Imām Fakhr-ad- Dīn Rāzī (of Ray). Concerning the excellence of Herāt a poet has said:

If any one ask thee which is the pleasantest of cities,
Thou mayest answer him aright that it is Herāt.
For the world is like the sea, and the province of Khurāsān like a pearl-oyster therein,
The city of Herāt being as the pearl in the middle of the oyster.

During the time when the kings of Ghūr ruled here, there were 12,000 shops all fully occupied, and 6000 bath-houses; besides caravanserais and mills, there were 359 colleges, also a Darvīsh convent, a Fire-temple, and lastly 444,000 houses inhabited by a settled population.

Asfuzār (or Isfizār). A medium-sized town, with villages of its dependencies. Its many gardens produce an abundance of grapes with pomegranates and other fruits. In the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm it is said that the people here are Sunnīs of the Shāfi`ite sect, being also very bigoted.

Fūshanj. Of the Fourth Clime, in [<Arabic>] longitude 94°5’, and latitude 34°55’. It is a small town, but has very extensive dis- tricts round, among its dependent towns being Kūsūy, Khusraw- gird and Rūḥ, besides other pleasant places. Gardens abound, with grapes, melons and other excellent fruit, so that it is said over a hundred kinds of grapes are grown here. All the mills here are worked by wind. Further, it is stated that the Pharaoh who reigned in Egypt in the time of Moses, as also Hāmān who was his Vazīr, both came from this place; and it is said too that Jāmāsp the Sage lies buried in Kūsūy.

Bākharz. A district of the Fourth Clime, with many rich sub- districts, in most of which there are gardens growing grapes and much fruit. Such especially is Mālān, a large town of many excellencies, and among the rest they grow here the long melon which is famous throughout Khurāsān.

Bādghīsh. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 95°30’, and lati- tude 35°20’. Its chief towns are Kūh Nuqrah (Silver-Hill), Kūh Ghunābād, Buzurgtarīn, Bust, Lab and Ḥād, Azkāyirūn, Kālūn and Dihistān*, with their dependencies. The residence of the governor is Kūh Ghunābād, while in its neighbourhood are Bu- zurgtarīn, Dihistān and Kārīz, which last was where the Veiled (Prophet of Khurāsān) once lived, who is known as the Moon- maker of Nakhshab. In this district there is a forest, some five leagues long and the like across, that is all full of pistachio nut trees. When these are bearing the fruit, people come hither from Herāt and other places, who gather the pistachio nuts, carrying them off home for their own consumption, also to sell; and there are many whose whole livelihood depends on the crop they gather here. And further, there is this marvel, that if any one in so doing should carry off the pistachio nuts that another has gathered, that very same night his ass will be eaten by a wolf, while he who does no such evil thing, his ass remains safe.

Jām. Of the Fourth Clime [<Arabic>], in longitude 94°5’, and latitude 34°50’. A medium-sized town, with nearly 200 villages of its dependencies. There are many gardens, with much fruit. Water, for both the town and district, is got from underground channels. A celebrated shrine here is the tomb of Zindah Pīl Aḥmad of Jām, over which Khwājah `Alā-ad-Dīn Muḥammad has built a fine dome, and other shrines with many other blessed graves lie all round this place.

Chast. A medium-sized town; with a district that includes 50 villages; it lies on the river Harī Rūd. At the present day Chast also is where the governor (of the province) lives. The crops are abundant, the fruit excellent, more especially the large white apple, the like of which is found nowhere else in Khurāsān.

Khwāf. A district lying in longitude 98°20’, and latitude 35°20’. The chief towns of its dependency are Salāmah, Sanjān and Zawzan; and in this last Malik Zawzanī built a mighty palace. Fruits here are excellent, such as grapes, melons, pome- granates and figs. The people are of the Ḥanifite sect, they are law abiding and very much attached to their faith. They are friendly to strangers, being given to charity; and they often make the pilgrimage (to Mecca). Much silk and madder is pro- duced here.

Zāvah. A district, the chief town of which also is called Zāvah. It has a strong clay-built castle. Some 50 villages are of its dependencies, some having their water from a river, and some from underground channels. Silk is produced here, and the crops are corn, cotton, grapes and other fruit in abundance. There is seen here the shrine of Shaykh Quṭb-ad-Dīn Ḥaydar, who was the founder of the Ḥaydarī sect.

Ghūr. A district, of which the capital is known as Āhan- garān. It is of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 99°, and latitude 35°. There are some 30 villages of its dependencies. The people here are commonly credited with being very stupid.

Gharjah (Gharjistān). Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 99°, and latitude 36°40’. It is a district that includes some 50 villages, and the climate resembles [<Arabic>] that of Ghūr.

The Balkh Quarter. This includes Tukhāristān, Khutlān and Bāmiyān.

Balkh. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 81°41’, and lati- tude 36°41’. The city was founded by Gayūmarth, completed by Ṭahmūrath the Demon-binder, and its buildings were after- wards restored by Luhrāsp, who set a wall round it. It is a large city in the hot region, and its climate is only moderately healthy. Fruits, especially grapes and melons, are extremely good here. Sulṭān Malik Shāh in his Diary notes that the people here show very little jealousy.

Bāmiyān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 82°, and latitude 34°35’. The climate is cold. At the time of the Mongol in- vasion Prince Mūtūkin, son of Jaghatāy Khān, met his death (during the siege of Bāmiyān), and for this reason, to avenge his grandson, Changhīz Khān ordered the town to be laid in ruins, re- naming the place Māv Bāliq (‘Bad town’ in Mongol), and com- manding that no one should ever build or settle there. And so it remains a ruin even to the present time.

Panjhīr. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 82°, and latitude 36°35’. A medium-sized town, with a good climate; and the crops are corn, with some little fruit.

Jūzjān. A district, the cities of which are Yahūdah, Fāryāb and Shubūrqān. It is of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 98°, and latitude 35°20’. It has a temperate climate. Water is from underground channels, which come down from the mountains of that neighbourhood. Some little corn and fruit is grown here.

Khutlān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 81°, and latitude 20°. There was a large town here, but it is now in ruins. The crops are corn, cotton and grapes.

Saminjān. Of the Tukhāristān district, in the Fourth Clime, in longitude 82°, and latitude 35°. It is a small town; and on the western side are three suburbs, all standing one close to the other, while on the eastern side are other three suburbs, all standing separate one from the other. It has a strong castle; water is plentiful, and there are many gardens, [<Arabic>] with fruit, such as grapes, figs, peaches and pistachios, which are both ex- cellent and plentiful.

Ṭāliqān. Of the Tukhāristān district, in the Fourth Clime, longitude 81°, and latitude 20°35’. A small town, and most of the men there are weavers. Corn and fruit is grown abundantly; it being a very populous and well-cultivated district.

Fāryāb. Of the Fourth Clime, in the Jūzjān district, longi- tude 99°, and latitude 37°45’. It is a small town, smaller than Ṭāliqān, but with many dependencies and much fruit.

Quvādiyān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 82°, and latitude 38°. Kay Qubād, the Kayanian, built this town, and other places belonging to its district are Navīdah, Vāshjird and Shūmān. The climate is warm, and much saffron is grown here.

Kālif. A small town lying on the banks of the Oxus, which last at this point is 3000 paces broad. The circuit of the town wall is also 3000 paces. The climate is harsh, but fruit is excel- lent and plentiful.

Dalaj.* A castle lying twenty (or eight) leagues from Balkh. It stands on a mountain that is eight leagues in circuit, and is entirely of black rock, with no road up to it. On the summit there is abundant water and pasture; it is a very strong place.

The Marv Shāhijān Quarter.

Marv. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 96°7’, and latitude 37°40’. The Old Fort of Marv was built by Ṭahmūrath, and Alexander the Great founded the city, making it the capital of Khurāsān. Abū Muslim, the Abbasid missioner, built the Friday Mosque, and alongside of it the Government House. This was a mighty palace, with a dome that covered a space 55 ells square; and on each side of this was a hall 30 ells by 60 ells. The Caliph Mamūn, when he was still only governor of Khurāsān, resided in Marv; but afterwards the Ṣaffārids transferred the capital to Nīshāpūr. When the Saljūqs came to power, Chaghar Beg brought the capital back to Marv; and his grandson, Malik Shāh, [<Arabic>] built a wall round the city, the circuit of which was 12,300 paces. In this district wheat grows so well that it is even as the Qurān (ch. 11. v. 263) says—the likeness of those who expend their wealth in the cause of God is that of a grain of corn, which produceth seven ears, and in each ear a hundred grains—and the same is supposed to have been revealed in reference to the Marv district. For they say that one mann-weight of corn, when it is sown, produces a harvest of 100 manns in the first year; and in the second year 30 manns is harvested, from that which, having been reaped, has scattered again of itself the seed; and likewise in the third year 10 manns. The climate here is damp, and sickness is common, more especially the malady of the guinea-worm. Water is from the river Marv-Rūd; and the water of the underground channels is brackish, for which same cause its crops are so abundant. Here and there the moving-sand (of the Desert) comes in (over the arable lands), for near by these moving- sands are over-mastering the land. Of fruits pears, grapes and melons are excellent; these last, dried, being exported to many lands, and the single quinces too are very good. The people here are much given to fighting, and the city now is mostly in ruin. In the past many great and learned persons have come from here; as, for instance, under the Chosroes, Barzūyah the physician, Buzurjmihr son of Bakhtikān (the Vazīr), and Bārbad the musi- cian. Further, Dīh Safīdanj*, which is one of the farmsteads near Marv, was the original home of Abū Muslim, the missioner of the Abbasids.

Usfūrqān.* Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 95°, and lati- tude 36°45’. A small town, where nothing is grown but wheat.

Abīvard. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 98°40’, and latitude 37°25’. A small town, where much fruit is grown.

Taftāzān.* Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 95°, and latitude 36°45’. A medium-sized town, with many gardens, water being plentiful, with running streams. Its crops are fruit and corn.

Khāvarān.* Of the Fourth Clime, in latitude 40°40’, and longitude 95°. A medium-sized town, with many gardens and abundant running water. [<Arabic>] Much fruit and corn are grown. One of the dependencies of Khāvarān is the town of Mihnah, the home of the Shaykh Abū Sa`īd, son of Abū-l-Khayr—may Allah sanctify his tomb—and here he lies buried. The following verses were written in honour of the great men who took their origin from Khāvarān:

Since the sphere of Fame revolved over the land of Khāvarān
Before night closed in, there arose four Khāvarī Suns;
A Minister like Abū `Alī Shādānī, that lord of a lucky conjunction;
A Muftī like As`ad of Mihnah, free of every fault;
A pure Ṣūfī like Abū Sa`īd, that master of the mystic Path;
And a glorious poet like the famous Anvarī of Khurāsān.
Rejoice, O earth and water of Khāvarān, for verily by grace,
And like the earth and the water of the sea, thou hast produced a mine of jewels

Sarakhs. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 94°20’, and latitude 37°. It was founded by Afrāsiyāb the Turk, and the circuit of its walls was 5000 paces. It has a strong castle, built on clay foundations. The climate is hot, and the water is from the great river which comes down from Herāt and from Ṭūs; and its waters are excellent and digestive. Of fruits grown here, grapes and melons are very good.

Shuburqān.* A small town, with a hot climate. Corn is plentiful here, and very cheap.

Marv-ar-Rūd. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 97°, and latitude 36°20’. Among its dependent towns is Panj-dīh, which Sulṭān Malik Shāh built. The circuit of the wall of Marv-ar-Rūd is 5000 paces. It has a warm climate, but the air is sharp. The water is wholesome, and in most seasons provisions are plentiful; grapes and melons being especially excellent here. Many vil- lages [<Arabic>] are of its dependencies.

Bāzar.* A medium-sized town of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 95°, and latitude 36°40’. In its district much corn is grown.

Nāy Castle. This was the place of captivity of (the Poet) Mas`ūd, son of Sa`d, son of Salmān.

SECTION 18. Concerning the province of Māzandarān.

This comprises seven tūmāns, as follows: first, the Jurjān tūmān, where is the capital; second, Mūrūstāq; third, Astarābād; fourth, Āmul and Rustamdār; fifth, Dihistān; sixth, Rūghad; and seventh, Siyāh Rustāq*. The revenues of Māzandarān are included in the sum of those of Khurāsān.

Jurjān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 90°, and latitude 36°55’. The city was refounded by the grandson of Malik Shāh. The circuit of its walls is 7000 paces. The climate is warm and damp. The water is from the hill streams; and, further, the hills are so near that in the hot season they bring down snow from thence into the town. Corn and cotton, also silk, are alike found here; and of fruits, dates, grapes, with the Jujube-tree and its fruit, all are excellent and plentiful. As showing excellence in development and increase, it is found that trees here, of two or three years’ growth, are stronger and more productive than those of ten years in other provinces. The people are Shī`ahs, and their bravery is known. In the early days of Islam too their numbers gave them predominance, but in the times of the Buyids a notable decrease in the inhabitants became visible by reason of pestilence and wars; and, further, a general massacre of the people took place when the Mongols made their invasion. At the present day the town is in ruins, and the number of the population small. King Fīrūz the Sassanian built a wall on the frontier of Jurjān to repel the attacks of the Turanians, and it is 50 leagues in length. Among the notable shrines here is the tomb of Muḥammad, son of the Imām Ja`far-aṣ-Ṣādiq, which same is known commonly as the Gūr-i-Surkh (the Red Tomb). Further, in Jurjān may be seen two millstones, each 20 ells in diameter and 2 ells in thickness.

Astarābād. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 89°35’, and latitude 36°55’. It is a medium-sized town [<Arabic>], situated at no great distance from the Caspian, with a mild climate. It produces corn, fruit, grapes and silk.

Āmul. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 87°20’, and latitude 36°30’. It was founded by king Ṭahmūrath. It is a large town, with a warm climate, and the fruits of both the hot and the cold region grow here. Such are walnuts and almonds, grapes and dates, oranges, shaddocks and lemons, with the bitter orange; all these fruits growing together in abundance; also perfumed flowers very excellent and rich; and in fact if the city were cut off entirely from all imports, nothing more beside what it could itself produce would be needed.

Dihistān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 91°14’, and latitude 37°55’. It was founded by king Qubād, son of Fīrūz the Sassanian. Later it became one of the frontier fortresses of the Moslems against the (heathen) Turks. It has a warm climate, with water from a river; and its lands produce some little fruit.

Rustamdār. A district that counts nearly 300 villages of its dependencies. The climate is warm, and most of its lands are watered by the river Shāhrūd.

Sārī. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 83°, and latitude 37°. It was founded by Ṭahmūrath the Demon-binder. It is a medium-sized town, the circuit of its walls being about 4000 paces. There are many districts of its dependencies, where fruit, cotton and corn in plenty are grown.

Rūghad. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 88°, and lati- tude 37°. It is a town of medium size.

Kabūd Jāmah. A district that, like Jurjān, is now ruined, but many places are counted of its dependencies where silk is still produced, with corn and grapes in plenty, for it has many broad lands.

Nīm Murdān. A peninsula (or island), and there are here many folk. Ships from Russia, Gīlān and Māzandarān come hither. It lies but three leagues distant from Astarābād, and has great revenues by reason of the shipping.

Shahrābād. A market town, founded by king Qubād, son of Fīrūz the Sassanian. It is now in ruins. [<Arabic>]

SECTION 19. Describing the provinces of Qūmis and Ṭabar- istān.

The frontiers of these provinces march with Khurāsān, Per- sian `Irāq, Māzandarān and the Great Desert. Their revenues are included in the sum of those of Khurāsān.

Khuvār. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 87°10’, and lati- tude 35°20’. Īt is a small town, but corn and cotton grow ex- cellently here.

Dāmghān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 88°15’, and latitude 36°20’. It was founded by Hūshang. The circuit of its walls is 8000 paces. The climate is warm; water is from its river. The pears here are excellent. There is a spring near by Dāmghān, round which stand four villages. It gives but little water, and what there is, is rather yellow in colour. But if any dirt shall be thrown into it a wind forthwith arises in Dāmghān that blows down all the trees. Then some respectable folk go and cleanse the spring, and thereupon the wind falls. Many times has this experiment been made.

Samnān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 83°, and latitude 36°. It was founded by Ṭahmūrath. The climate is temperate. Water is from its river; and fruits, such as pomegranates, pista- chios and figs, are of excellent quality here.

Busṭām. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 89°, and latitude 36°10’. A small town, with a temperate climate. Of shrines here there is the tomb of that Sulṭān of the Learned Abū Yazīd (Bāyazīd) Ṭayfūr Busṭāmī. The crops of Busṭām are fruit and corn in abundance.

Girdkūh. This is also called Diz-i-Gunbadān (the Fort of the Domes). It lies three leagues from Dāmghān, and in its neigh- bourhood are the other castles of Manṣūrābād, Muhāt, and Rus- tāq. The land is much cultivated, and crops are abundant.

Fīrūzkūh. Yāqūt mentions this as a castle lying on the slopes of Mount Damāvand. The climate is cold, and there are no trees here, but corn grows abundantly, giving excellent har- vests. The river flowing down to Khuvār runs past the gate of this castle, and by the village near here. [<Arabic>]

Damāvand. A provincial town, which is also known as Pashyān (or Mīshān). It is of the Fourth Clime, lying in longi- tude 87°20’, and latitude 35°10’, and it was founded by king Gayūmarth. The climate is cold, and the `Abbāsī (apple) here is excellent, so good indeed that they make a syrup therefrom.

Firrīm.* Some count this as of Qūmis, some as of the de- pendencies of Māzandarān. On the other hand, as it is often considered to belong to Sārī, being put under the command of the governor of that city, it is counted either as of Qūmis or of Sārī.

Khirqān. A village of the dependencies of Busṭām. The climate is good, and water is abundant. Among shrines here is seen the tomb of Shaykh Abū-l-Ḥasan Khirqānī.

SECTION 20. Concerning the province of the Jīlāns.

There are here twelve towns, being of the Fourth Clime. The province lies along the shore of the Caspian Sea; in length, from the river Safīd Rūd and Rustamdār to the Mughān province, being 40 leagues; but in breadth, from the districts of Daylam and Ṭālish down to the sea-coast, being (often) only one league. Its frontiers march with the provinces of Māzandarān, Persian `Irāq, Ādharbāyjān and the Caspian Sea. As to its revenues, every man of Jīlān is bound to pay a tax to the Amīr who is the governor of his particular district; and to the Mongol treasury what is paid in is 20,000 dīnārs. The two largest places here are Lāhījān and Fūmin, and all the remaining Jīlān districts are dependent on one or the other of these two towns, being counted as of their dependencies.

Iṣfahbad. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 85°, and lati- tude 38°. A medium-sized town. Its crops are corn, rice and some fruit. It has many districts, and nearly one hundred vil- lages are of its dependencies. Its revenues amount to 29,000 dīnārs.

Tūlim. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 85°, and latitude 38°. A medium-sized town, with crops of corn, cotton, rice, oranges, shaddocks and lemons.

Tamījān.* A medium-sized town, of the Fourth Clime, with crops like those of neighbouring places.

Rasht. Of the Fourth Clime. It is very hot, and its climate is damp. Corn,[<Arabic>] cotton, silk and rice and produced here. The people are mountaineers, and a rough folk.

Shaft. A small town of the Fourth Clime, with climate and produce like those of neighbouring places.

Fūmin. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 84°, and latitude 33°. A large town, with many districts. Its crops are corn and cotton; much silk too is produced here. The people of Jīlān here- about, for the most part, live in booths of branches.

Kaskar (or Kashkar). A medium-sized town, of the Fourth Clime, and like neighbouring places as to climate.

Kūjafhān.* Of the Fourth Clime. It was founded by Arda- shīr Bābakān, who gave it the name of Sahmash.

Kawtam. Of the Fourth Clime, and lying on the shore of the Caspian. It is a port frequented by ships sailing to and from Jurjān, Ṭabaristān and Shīrvān. Its crops are abundant.

Karjiyān.* Of the Fourth Clime. Of old it was a large place, but now is but a medium-sized town, with climate like the neigh- bouring places.

Lāhījān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 85°, and latitude 38°. It is a large town, and the capital of Gīlān. Its water is from mountain streams. It produces rice, also silk and some little corn, with oranges, shaddocks and other fruits of the hot region in abundance.

Naysar.* A small town of the Fourth Clime, and like other towns of Gīlān in matter of climate.