The District of Dārābjird. Jahrum and Juvaym of Abū Aḥmad: the Castle of Shamīrān. Fasā with its districts. The District of Shāpūr Khūrah. Kāzirūn: the three original villages: stuffs made here. Bishāvur (Shāpūr): the colossal black statue. The Shāpūr Country. The Jīlūyah hills. Jirrah and Gunbad Mallaghān. Khisht and Kumārij. Khullār and its mill-stones. Ghundijān or Dasht Bārīn. Nawbanjān and Shi`b Bavvān, one of the four Earthly Paradises: the White Castle. Qubād Khūrah District. Arrajān and the Thakān bridge. Rīṣahr and its linen. Janābā and Mahrūbān. Sīnīz. The Sixteen Castles of Fārs. The Meadow-Lands. Qays, Baḥrayn and other Islands of the Persian Gulf

The Dārābjird District. This takes its name from Dārāb son of Bahman son of Isfandiyār the Kayānian; and formerly the province which is known now under the name of Shabān- kārah, and which will be described later in a chapter by itself, occupied the greater part of this district, but we speak here of that part thereof which is still counted as of Fārs. [<Arabic>]

Jahrum. A medium-sized town, founded by Bahman ibn Isfandiyār. It has many dependencies, with a hot climate, grow- ing crops of corn, fruit and cotton. Its water is from both run- ning streams and underground channels. There is in these parts a very strong castle called Khūrshah.

Juvaym of Abū Aḥmad. This is of the Irāhistān district, which (as already said) forms part of the district of Ardashīr Khūrah. The Jūmah (or home-lands) thereof are known as the Kūrah Rūd (River-district)*. The climate is hot, and the water is from underground channels and wells. The crops are corn and dates. There is here a castle called Shamīrān. The people go armed, being footpads, thieves and highwaymen.

Fasā. Of the Third Clime, in longitude 83° 55', and latitude 20°. It was founded by Fasā son of Ṭahmūrath the Demon- binder; after it had fallen to ruin king Gushtāsf the Kayānian began to restore its buildings; which same his grandson Bahrām ibn Isfandiyār completed, giving it the name of Sāsān. It had at first been triangular in plan; but in the days of Ḥajjāj (the Omayyad viceroy of `Irāq) his lieutenant governor Āzādmard by his orders altered this plan, restoring its buildings. Afterwards it was ruined by the Shabānkārah tribes, and then again restored by the Atabeg Chāulī. It was a very large city, with numerous dependencies. Its water is from underground channels, and it has no running streams. The lands grow the fruits of both the hot and cold regions; and among its dependencies are Shaqq Rūdbār and Mīshkānāt, of the hot region, producing desert wheat. Also there are many other dependencies, to mention all of which would be too long.

The District of Shāpūr Khūrah. This district takes its name from Shāpūr son of Ardashīr Bābakān. Originally its chief town was Bishāvur, but at the present time it is Kāzirūn.

Kāzirūn. Of the Third Clime; in longitude 87°, and latitude 29° 19'. It consisted originally of three villages, called Nawdar, Darīst and Rāhbān, all founded by Ṭahmūrath the Demon- binder. [<Arabic>] When Shāpūr son of Ardashīr Bābakān built the town of Bishāvur he made these villages a dependency thereof, but later Fīrūz great-grandson of Bahrām Gūr formed them into a city, and his son Qubād added to the buildings. Thus Kāzirūn be- came a great city, but since originally it had been three villages, so at the present day it forms three distinct wards, each with its magnificent and mighty palace, and each is like a castle. The climate of Kāzirūn is hot, and the water is from three different underground water-channels, each bearing the name of one of the three original villages. Further they rely much on rain water. Oranges, shaddocks, lemons and all the fruits of the hot regions grow here, and there is a special kind of date, known as Jīlān, the equal of which is found nowhere else in the world. Much cotton is produced here, and the muslin stuffs of Kāzirūn are exported to all parts, being of many kinds; and some linen too is made. Most of these Kāzirūn stuffs, unless they be washed in the waters of the Rāhbān watercourse, do not retain their fresh- ness. The people are of the Shāfi`ī sect. There is seen here the shrine of the Shaykh Abū Isḥaq Kāzirūnī, which same has become a sanctuary. Further there are many other tombs of notable men here, the enumeration of which would be too long; and many villages are of the dependencies of Kāzirūn.

Bishāvur*. Of the Third Clime; in longitude 86° 15', and latitude 20°. It was founded by Ṭahmūrath the Demon-binder and named Dīndilā. Alexander the Great, when he conquered Fars, laid it in ruins, and king Shāpūr I rebuilt it all anew, calling it Bishāpūr after his own name; but originally this was Banā-i-Shāpūr (Sapor`s building), which in the lapse of time and by the coalescing of the letters became Bishāvur. The climate is hot; for to the north the city is shut in, by which cause too it is damp. Its water is from the great river which has taken its name from the town. The crops grown here are corn, rice, dates, oranges, shaddocks, lemons, with all other kinds of good fruits of the hot region, which same sell here for a small price; so that those coming and going are perpetually eating of the same. Various sweet-smelling flowers too abound, such as water-lilies, violets, jasmine and narcissus; and silk too is produced. The people are of the Shāfi`ite sect. Some distance outside Bishāvur there is seen the statue of a man in black stone, standing in a temple, and above life size. [<Arabic>] Some say it is a talisman, others assert that this was once a living man whom God Most High turned to stone. The kings in those parts hold it in much honour and veneration, making visitations to the same, and anointing it with unguents*.

Anbūrān and Bāsht Qūṭā*. Anbūrān is a small town of the Nawbanjān district: and some few persons of distinction are natives thereof. Its climate is temperate, and it has running streams. Bāsht Qūṭā is a district lying in the mountains, and of the cold region. It has corn crops and some fruit.

Bilād Shāpūr (the Shāpūr Country)*. This includes various regions lying between Fārs and Khūzistān. Its climate is tem- perate, but tending to be hot. It has many running streams; but for the most part now the land is in ruin.

Tīr Murdān and Jūyīgān*. Two districts, with some large villages that lie on broken ground among clefts and gullies. The climate here is cold, but tends to be temperate. There are many trees, and all kinds of fruit—especially nuts—the same being most plentiful. The greater part of their crops depend on the rains, but some are artificially irrigated. There is much game found in these parts. The people here are warlike and nocturnal robbers: so much so that in a single night they will go a distance of twenty leagues.

Jabal Jīlūyah*. These mountains comprise many hill dis- tricts, and numerous dependencies which border on Luristān. The climate is cold, water is plentiful, and trees without number. There is much fruit grown, and the hunting-grounds are excellent. The people here are Shāfi`ites and Sunnīs.

Jirrah*. A small town, the name being commonly pronounced Girrah. It lies below (south of) Shīrāz, while (the Dam of) Band-i- Amīr, one of the mightiest constructions in the world, lies above (north of) Shīrāz: hence a poet has said,

Seek not conquest from the region of Shīrāz,
For below it lies Girrah
(for Girih, ‘a knot’), and above it stands Band (‘a barrier’).

The climate here is warm, and the water is from the river that bears the name of this town. The crops are corn and dates. The people here are warlike, and [<Arabic>] many districts are of its dependencies.

Gunbad Mallaghān*. A small town, in the neighbourhood of which is the bridge of Pul Būlū (or Lūlū). Its climate is hot, but there are numerous running streams. Its crops are corn and fruit, with many sweet-scented flowers. There is a strong castle here.

Khisht and Kumārij. Two towns lying among the hills, but of the hot region. They have running streams; but except for dates no other fruit is grown. The corn crops are in part watered by the rains, in part by irrigation. The people here carry arms, also they are thieves and robbers.

Khullār*. A large village, where there is a small spring. The mill-stones used in most parts of the Fārs province come from here, and the place produces nothing else but these; the curious matter being that, by reason of the lack of water here, they have themselves no mills, and to grind their corn have to go elsewhere.

Khumāyijān and Dih `Alī*. Two districts having a cold climate, where nut trees grow, also pomegranates; and of their produce, too, is much honey. There are hunting-grounds, and the people are warlike, some also being muleteers.

Sīmsakht*. A district of the cold region, having many trees and running streams. The crops are corn and some little fruit.

Charām and Bāzrang*. Two districts lying between Zīr (or Zīz) and Sumayram of Luristān. The climate is very cold. The water is from streams coming down from mountains that in most seasons are never free from snow. The roads are difficult and dangerous, but water is abundant. Game also is in plenty, and the people there are for the most part hunters.

Ghundijān*. This commonly is known as Dasht Bārīn. It is a small town of the hot region, with one small spring, the water of its wells being brackish. The crops depend on the rains. The people here are for the most part shoemakers and weavers: though some few persons of eminence have indeed come from here.

Nawbanjān and Shi`b Bavvān [<Arabic>]. Nawbanjān is com- monly pronounced Nawbandagān, and it is of the Third Clime, in longitude 86° 15' and latitude 20°. It was founded by Sapor I, and was a large town; but at the time of the troubles caused by the rebellion of Abū Sa`d of Kāzirūn* it became ruined and a place of desolation for beasts of prey. Subsequently the Atabeg Chāulī restored its buildings. The climate is warm, and all kinds of fruit grow here, also sweet-smelling flowers. The people are pious and given to religious observances. The water is from the neighbouring hills. Shi`b Bavvān is one of the most famous pleasances of the world. It is a valley lying between two hills, 3½ leagues long by 1½ leagues broad, all full of trees, bearing divers kinds of fruit. The climate is most pleasant and tem- perate. There are many villages, and through the valley runs a large river; further the summits of the hills on either side are hardly ever free from snow. By reason of the abundance of the trees the ground in this plain never has the sun shining on it; it abounds in gushing springs, and their water is very pure. The learned say that there are four Earthly Paradises, namely the Ghawṭah of Damascus, the Valley of Sughd round Samarqand, Shi`b Bavvān and the meadow-land of Shīdān; farther, of these four, two, namely Shi`b Bavvān and the Shīdān meadow-land, lie within the limits of the Fārs province. Many other places and districts belong to Nawbanjān, some being of the plain, some of the hills. Qal`ah-i-Safīd (the White Castle) lies less than a league`s distance from this town; and in the districts of Nawbanjān there are limitless hunting-grounds.

The Qubād Khūrah District. This district was named from Qubād, father of Anūshirvān the Just; and here there are three cities.

Arrajān*. The name is now commonly pronounced Arra- ghān; it is of the Third Clime, in longitude 86° 20' and latitude 20° 15'. It was founded by king Qubād the Sassanian, and at first was a large town with many districts and dependencies. In the time of the incursions of the Assassins—whom may God curse —the population came to be entirely ruined. The climate is very hot, and the water is from the Ṭāb river, which traverses the dis- trict. A bridge has been built over this river, which is named Pūl-i-Thakān. The soil here gives [<Arabic>] abundant crops, and all kinds of fruit are grown; dates are plentiful and a most excellent sort of pomegranate called Malīsī is found here: also sweet- smelling flowers. In the neighbourhood are many castles, such as Qal`ah Ṭayghūr and Diz-Kilāt, and the ruin of the town is from the Assassins who used to be in garrison there. The people of Arrajān are for the most part pious folk, and occupied with their own affairs. The (village of) Bustānak lies (near), on the frontier of Fārs and Khūzistān. Of holy men, who are buried in Arrajān, is Abū-l-Ḥasan Shīrāzī, commonly called Pursah-dār (Poverty stricken).

Rīṣahr. The Persians call it Rīshahr, and it is also known as Rabiyān*. It was founded by Luhrāsp the Kayanian, and Sapor I restored its buildings. It is a medium-sized town, standing on the shore of the Persian Gulf; the climate is very hot and damp. In summer the people cover themselves with acorn flour, otherwise, by reason of excessive sweating, (the skin) becomes sore*. The crops here are dates, and the Rīshahr linen (is famous). Most of the inhabitants are occupied in the sea trade; but they excel in nothing, and indeed are more stupid than most other folk. The fort of Diz-Kilāt lies one league distant from Rīshahr; and in summer most of the people go to this or to some other of these castles by reason of the better air.

Khabs*, Furzuk and Hindījān. These places lie between Arrajān and the neighbouring districts of Fārs, and Khabs is a custom-house. In climate all these places resemble Arrajān.

Janābā*. Founded by Janābā son of Ṭahmūrath the Demon- binder. The Persians call it Ganbah, which means ‘stinking- water,’ and of a place that has a name like this there is no need for further description. Four villages are of its dependencies, and it is a town standing on the sea-shore.

Jallādjān, Nīv and Dayr*. These are districts [<Arabic>] of Arra- jān, and in climate and produce entirely resemble the same, so that there is no need of repetition. A number of places are of their dependencies.

Mahrūbān. The Persians call it Māhīrūyān, and it is a city standing on the sea-shore, so that the waves of the sea beat against it. There are some few places of its dependencies. The climate is hot and damp. It is a port of call for all who go by sea from Fārs to Khūzistān, and those who travel from Baṣrah to Khūzi- stān also touch here. No fruit is grown, except dates, and for the most part their victualling is from the sea. Sheep here are few, but goats are numerous, and the author of the Fārs Nāmah states that they get from a single she-goat eighty Raṭls (pints) of milk*. Linseed here is most abundant, being much exported to other places.

Sīnīz*. A small town on the sea-shore, with a little fort. There are many palm-trees, for the climate is hot and damp. Linen is produced, also oil for lamps; but the linen here has no wear in it. The people are quiet folk, but stupid.

In the Five Districts aforementioned there are various Castles and Meadow-lands, the most notable of which we now proceed to describe.

Of Castles there are at the present day but sixteen well-known and famous castles in the kingdom of Fārs, though of old there were above seventy. For when the people of Fārs revolted against the commands of the Saljūqs, they sent the Atabeg Chāulī to conquer the land, and he by force of arms laid most of those castles in ruins, while some few that had submitted he left standing, but setting a garrison therein. Of all these castles, therefore, the following are those best known:

Isfīd Diz (the White Castle*) In the Fārs Nāmah it is stated that this fortress was garrisoned and peopled from most ancient times, but by reason of its very antiquity the name of its builder is unknown. Then for many years it remained a ruin, till in the early Saljūq days Abū Naṣr of Tīr Murdān [<Arabic>] restored its fortifications. This fortress occupies a hill summit, the circuit of which is twenty leagues, and it stands isolated from any other range. Only one road leads up to it, and on the mountain-top is a plain of fine soil, with excellent springs of water, and fruit gardens, with some little arable land. The wells go very deep in the ground, and give excellent water. The climate is equable and fine. At the foot of the great fortress there is a small castle called Nishnāk, which is well fortified. In the neighbourhood of this mountain there are spacious plains, and good hunting-grounds. The only weakness of this fortress is that (from its size) it can only be held by a great army of men, and that when any king with a well-appointed army attacks it, forthwith it must succumb to him*.

Iṣṭakhr Castle. According to the Fārs Nāmah there is no castle throughout the land older than this, and every device which a castle can have to strengthen it, this castle possesses. Anciently it was known as Sih Gunbadān (Three Domes), for round and about it stand other two castles, called Shikastah and Shankavān*. At this the main castle there is a cleft going deep into the ground, through which the rain water passed, falling out at the further end into the plain. `Aḍud-ad-Dawlah built a dam at this lower end, and with cement and stones and mortar turned the cleft here into a tank, to which a stairway led down, of seventeen steps. By means of canvas soaked in bitumen and wax, he rendered the cement so impervious that no water could percolate through, and so great a quantity of water used to be collected here, that had a thousand men used of the same for a whole year, its level would not have dropped one single step. The tank further was set with columns, and roofed over, so that the water was undisturbed by changes of the weather; and besides this there were other cisterns lying beyond and about. The climate of this castle is temperate, and the only weakness of the place is that its fortifi- cations are not quite strong enough to resist an attack.

Iṣṭakhr Yār Castle (the Companion of Iṣṭakhr)*. This is strongly fortified, and it is thus called because, in its strength, it is the companion of Iṣṭakhr. Its climate is good, and it possesses likewise a cistern, also there are in its circuit springs of living water. [<Arabic>]

Abādah Castle*. This is less strong than some other castles, and less spacious. Its climate is temperate, and it has water- cisterns; also a place of arms.

Diz* Abraj. This castle stands on a hill above Abraj. On the one side it is well fortified, but on the other side not; thus on this side Abraj may be taken by assault. There is running water from the hill, which flows through the castle.

Tabr Castle*. This lies three leagues from Shīrāz to the south-east, and stands on a hill that is unconnected with any neighbouring range. There is a small spring here up above, and also under the hill another source. All round this hill for a day`s journey there are neither inhabitants, nor fodder for beasts, and hence it is hardly possible to lay siege to the castle. At this present time it is in the hands of the Amīr Jalāl-ad-Dīn Ṭīb Shāh, who is a Turkoman. Its climate is rather hot.

Tīr-i-Khudā (the Castle of God`s Arrow). This stands near Khabr* on an extremely high mountain, for which reason it has this name. Its climate is cold, but inclines to be temperate, and it has water cisterns.

Khurshah Castle*. This stands on a high mountain-top, five leagues from Jahrum. It has a temperate climate, inclined to be hot. Khurshah is the name (of the man) who was made governor of this province by the brother of the (celebrated Omay- yad viceroy) Ḥajjāj, and who built it. Relying on the strength of this fortress, and on the wealth that by his good fortune he had acquired, he rebelled. Wherefore, subsequently, it was never allowed that any (provincial) governor should be master of this castle, lest the pride of possession, cozening the presumption due to these strong fortifications, should be more than a man`s brain could stand, and thus he be led into rebellion.

Khurramah Castle. This is a strong place in the midst of cultivated lands. It has a temperate climate, and its water is from cisterns.

Khwādān Castle*. A strong fortress in the neighbourhood of Fasā. Its climate is temperate, but rather hot, and it has water cisterns.

Khuvār Castle*. A well-fortified castle, with a cold climate, and water from wells. [<Arabic>]

Ramzavān Castle. Near Ghundījān, and a very strong place. The climate is hot; it has water in cisterns.

Sahārah Castle*. This stands on a high mountain four leagues from Fīrūzābād. It was built by the Mas`ūdī (Kurds). It has a pleasant climate, and cold water. Much corn can be stored here, and it cannot be taken by assault.

Shamīrān Castle*. A strong place near Juvaym of Abū Aḥmad. Its climate is hot; but there are water cisterns.

Kārzīn Castle. This is less strong than many other castles. It is of the hot region, and stands on the banks of the Thakān river, from the bed of which a syphon has been laid up to the castle hill.

Gunbad Mallaghān Castle. In the Arrajān district; and so strongly fortified that one man could hold it. Its climate is temperate, and it has water cisterns. Corn may be kept here for many years free from blight.

Now besides the above-mentioned castles, in the district of Irāhistān every village is like a fortress, and each is in itself a strong castle, some standing on rocky hills, and some on hillocks of earth, and some in the plain; and all these are of the hot region.

Meadow-Lands. In the province of Fārs there are many meadow-lands, and those that are most extensive, and most famous, we shall now describe.

The Āvard or Ūrd Meadows. Now known as Kūshk-i- Zard. These are excellent pasture-lands, broad and long, with many springs. The climate is cold, and the grass here is very fattening. There are many large villages, as for instance Dih Bajjah, Ṭamīrkhān* and others. These meadow-lands are ten leagues in length by five in breadth.

The Meadows of Dasht Rūn. Excellent pastures, with running streams and abundant springs. The climate is cold. These meadows are somewhat less in extent than those of Āvard. The Rubāṭ (or Guard house) of Ṣalāḥ-ad-Dīn, and the Shahriyār Bridge, lie in these meadows. The grass is most fattening to cattle. The meadows measure seven leagues by five in ex- tent. [<Arabic>]

The Meadows of Dasht Arzhan. These lie round a lake which is situated in the Plain of the Wild Almond (Dasht-i-Ar- zhan). In its neighbourhood is a forest, where there are fierce lions. The story of the Caliph `Alī and Salmān-i-Fārsī in the Dasht-i-Arzhan Plain is well known*, and it relates to this very place. These meadows are two leagues long by one across.

The Sīkān Meadows*. These are between Shīrāz and Kavār. In their midst there is standing water, and a forest lies near by, where there are lions. The length of these meadow- lands is five leagues and their breadth three.

The Bahman Meadows. These are near Juvaym of Abū Aḥmad, and they are one league across either way.

The Bīd and Mashkān Meadows*. These are in the neigh- bourhood of Basīrā, but of the cold region. They are seven leagues in length by three in breadth, and there is here excellent pasture.

The Meadows of Bayḍā. Lying three leagues from Bayḍā; the pasture here is abundant and very rich. These meadows are ten leagues in length and breadth, with many good springs.

The Shīdān Meadows*. The excellent pasture here is hardly to be equalled elsewhere. All round lie cultivated lands, with numerous springs and running streams. In seasons of flood there is a lake in the centre part, but this dries up in the hot weather. These meadows are ten leagues long, by the like across, and the grass is very rich. Now in regard to this meadow-land, and the Ghawṭah of Damascus, and Sughd of Samarqand, and Shi`b Bavvān, the learned have, as already stated, (named these the Four Earthly Paradises).

The Qālī Meadow. This lies on the (Purvāb, or) Pulvār river, and is a pleasant place; but in summer its grass does not suit cattle, and on the other hand in winter there is lack of pas- turage. It is three leagues in length by one in breadth.

The Kālān Meadow. This lies in the neighbourhood of the Tomb of Solomon`s Mother*. It is four leagues in length, but much less in breadth. The Tomb aforesaid is a square built house of stone, and in the Fārs Nāmah [<Arabic>] it is said that no one dare look inside this, for fear lest he should become blind, but we have never seen anyone who had made the experiment.

The Kāmfīrūz Meadow. This is a very green meadow on the banks of the river Kur. There is here a forest, which is a lair for lions. The pasturage is excellent, but through fear of the lions cattle are seldom sent here.

The Kamīn, Purvāb and Khāstijān Meadows. These are not known as true meadow-lands, but the grass here is very fat- tening for cattle, and better than in the surrounding places.

The Narcissus Meadows. Near Kāzirūn and Jirrah, and of the neighbourhood of Khān Āzādmard. These are three leagues long and two broad, and the grass here is all full of self-sown narcissus, so that all the plain is covered with the flowers. It is most famous, and such is the sweet smell of the narcissus in these meadows, that while it goes to the head, the heart is rejoiced thereby.

Now besides these Meadow-lands, above-mentioned, there are many others, of smaller extent in various parts, but to mention them all would be too long.

The Persian Gulf. The islands which are found in the Persian Gulf, lying between the frontier of Sind and `Omān, are counted as of the province of Fārs, and the largest of these in matter both of population and of wealth are the islands of Qays (or Qaysh) and Baḥrayn. In former times the rulers of Qays counted the greater part of the land of Īrān, and for certain all the province of Fārs, as forming part of the dependencies of Qays, which island they named Dawlat Khānah (the Emporium). At the present day its revenues still amount to 491,300 dīnārs on the Registers, and all the neighbouring islands, which will shortly be mentioned, are of its dependencies.

Qays (or Qaysh). Of the Second Clime, in longitude 83°, and latitude 25° 15'. It is an island lying four leagues from the mainland, off Huzū, being itself four leagues long and the like broad. The city of Qays occupies its centre, and on the island are arable lands and palm groves. Pearl diving takes place here. The climate is extremely warm. Its water is from the rains, which same they store in cisterns. In the Fārs Nāmah Qays is counted as part of the district of Ardashīr Khūrah.

Baḥrayn. Of the Second Clime, in [<Arabic>] longitude 83°, and latitude 35° 15'. This is an island lying between Two Seas (Baḥrayn), hence its name. It is ten leagues in length, by five in breadth, and there are running streams with many gardens and villages here. The city (on the Arabian mainland) is called Hijr, which was founded by Ardashīr Bābakān. In former days Baḥ- rayn, together with Laḥsā, Qaṭīf, Khaṭṭ, Azar, Alārah, Farūq, Baynūnah, Sābūn, Dārīn and Ghābah were all counted as of the Arab kingdom. At the present day, however, the Island of Baḥ- rayn forms a part of Fārs, being of the kingdom of Īrān, though in the present work, in the map of Īrān as described on a previous page, it is not delineated, being too far afield. The peninsula of Qaṭīf, and Laḥsā, with the other neighbouring places, however, at most times pay no allegiance to the Baḥrayn rulers. Baḥrayn, in the way of fruits, produces dates, and these are very plentiful, being exported to many neighbouring lands; indeed, in days of old the Arabs had a proverb which said: He gave gifts as one who traffics in dates to Hijr, or as one who carries brocades going to Yaman. The climate of Baḥrayn is extremely hot; its water is from both springs and underground channels. The people here are, for the most part, Moslems of good religion and orthodox belief: but many are mere pirates, and excel in naught but in sailing out to sea, seizing the ships of merchants, and carrying off their goods. Ibn Khurdādbih states that whosoever makes any stay in Baḥrayn gets an enlarged spleen: as the poet has said alluding to this in the verse:

He who lives in Al-Baḥrayn his spleen enlarges,
Hence he is envied for what is in his belly: though in fact he goeth hungry.

Abzūn*. An island one league square. There are here arable fields and date-groves, and according to the Fārs Nāmah it is to be counted as of the Ardashīr Khūrah district.

Abrūkāmānān*. An island eight leagues long by three across. Most of its population are wicked folk and robbers.

Khārik. An island one league square, having arable fields and palm-groves: [<Arabic>] also much fruit and excellent corn grows here. The pearl fishery in Khārik is better and more abundant than in any other island, and many fine pearls come from here. This island lies about a league from the coast, and it is counted as of the Qubād Khūrah district.