The Province of Fārs. Traditions of the Prophet. Revenues at various times. The five Districts. The District of Ardashīr Khūrah. Shīrāz: foun- dation and early history: the Amīr’s Market: wall and gates: filth of the streets: the water-channels: traditionists and Saints: notable Shrines: the Old and the New Mosque: the Hospital: saints buried in Shīrāz: revenues: its District called the Jūmah or Ḥawmah. The Coast Districts. Tawwaj. Khunayfqān. Sarvistān: the Sīrāf emporium. Simkān and its bridge. Fīrū- zābād or Jūr: its history. Kārzīn and Qīr. Īrāhistān. Kavār. Māndistān. Maymand. Huzū. The District of Iṣṭakhr. Persepolis: early history: the three Castles: the Palace of Jamshīd: the Winged-steed: towers of Silence: the Hot Bath: later history of Persepolis: traditions of King Solomon and Queen Humāy. Abraj. Abarqūh: the Shrine of Ṭaūs-al- Haramayn, and the great Cypress. Iqlīd. Bavvān and Marvast. Bayḍā the White City. Khurramah. Rāmjird and towns on the river Kur. Ṣāhik and Harāt. Qumishah. Kirbāl: the Band-i-Amīr Dam, and the Fuller’s Dam. Yazdikhwāst and the Myrtle Village

SECTION 12. Concerning the places in the land and on the sea of the Fārs province.

It is stated in the Fārs Nāmah* that the province of Fārs was the seat of empire of the Kings of Īrān; for it is well known that, while they exercised sovereignty over the whole of the Land of Īrān, they called themselves simply the Kings of Fārs. Their power and might was such that the world paid them tribute; and concerning this their power and might the Qurān (ch. XVII. v. 5) bears witness in the verse We sent against you our servants endued with terrible power. Now the Prophet in the matter of Fārs said: Verily God hath preferred amongst His creatures of the Arabs the Quraysh, and among the Persians the men of Fārs: for which reason the people of this province [<Arabic>] were known as ‘the Best of the Persians.’ Further Yāqūt reports as a Tradition of the Prophet that he said: The furthest from Islām of all people are the Greeks; but had Islām been fixed even among the Pleiades the men of Fārs would have attained thereunto.

The province of Fārs extends over both land and sea, and we shall describe each part separately. The revenue thereof, according to the settlements and treaties made by the Caliphs `Omar and `Alī, and followed by other later rulers, was established in categories, for some lands paid a half, others a third, others again a quarter or a fifth, or lastly a tithe only, according to the value of the crops which they produced. In the reign of the Caliph Wāthiq a settlement was made and this amounted to the sum of 33 million dirhams, together with 150,000 ass-loads of wheat. Next, in the year 302 (914), the Vazīr `Alī ibn `Īsā by command of the Caliph Muqtadir fixed the amount of the taxes at the sum of 63 million dirhams, which is equivalent to ten and a half million (currency) dīnārs of the present day. In the time of the Buyids the revenues produced 55 million `Awwāl dīnārs, which is about the same sum, but in addition they had to give account to the Caliph for 800,000 dīnārs; though for the most part they never paid in this sum. In the days of the Saljūqs, by reason of the constant marching to and fro of conquering armies, the revenues reached only 2,335,000 currency dīnārs, which is about the same as the sum before mentioned. At the present day the amount on the registers is 2,871,200 currency dīnārs; and throughout the province what is collected in the dis- tricts almost entirely is paid into the (local) Revenue, while in the towns the taxes belong to the Treasury, as will be detailed later on.

The Land province of Fārs, as against the Sea province, was of old divided into five districts, namely Ardashīr Khūrah*, Iṣṭakhr, Dārābjird, Shāpūr Khūrah and Qubād Khūrah, and in each were, and still are, comprised divers lands and townships. The outer frontiers of these districts (of Fārs) march with Persian `Irāq, Khūzistān, Luristān, Shabānkārah and the Sea of Fārs (or Persian Gulf). The Province in length extended 150 leagues, from Qūmishah to Qays (Island); and in breadth 320 leagues, from Yazd to (Khūzistān the land of the) Ḥūz; while its area was eighteen thousand square leagues*. [<Arabic>]

The district of Ardashīr Khūrah took its name from Ardashīr Bābakān, the earliest of the Chosroes. Now in this district the capital, in the beginning, was a town called Fīrūzābād, but of the whole of the Fārs province Iṣṭakhr soon became the capital city, for the district of Iṣṭakhr was the most ancient of all the districts. It is fitting none the less for us to begin with the Ardashīr Khūrah district, because at the present time the capital of Fārs is the city of Shīrāz, and this lies in the Ardashīr Khūrah district.

Shīrāz. Of the Third Clime, and a city built since the days of Islām, being the centre of Islām in those lands. It stands in longitude 83°, and latitude 29°36'. According to tradition it was founded by Shīrāz son of Ṭahmūrath the Demon-binder, and afterwards fell to ruin. By another version, in old times there stood on this site a city called Fārs, being named after Fārs, son of Māsūr, son of Shem, son of Noah. The most reliable account, however, is that after the preaching of Islām Shīrāz was founded, or restored, by Muḥammad, brother (of the Viceroy) Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf,—another version giving it as restored by his cousin Mu- ḥammad ibn Qāsim,—the date of this restoration being the year 74 of the Hijrah (693), while the sign of Virgo was in the as- cendant. In the days of `Aḍud-ad-Dawlah (the Buyid) the city had come to be so populous that there was no more any dwelling- place for his troops, so to the westward of Shīrāz he built a township wherein to quarter his soldiers. This was named Fanā Khusraw Gird, which the common people called Sūq-al-Amīr, ‘the Amīr’s Market.’ This township became in his time so ex- tensive that its taxes amounted to 20,000 dīnārs; at the present day, however, it is a ruin, being a mere village of the district round Shīrāz. Until the days of Ṣamṣām-ad-Dawlah, son of `Aḍud-ad-Dawlah, Shīrāz had no town wall; he, however, to keep out his enemies, surrounded it with a wall, the circuit of which was 12,500 paces. When subsequently this wall fell to ruin, Sharaf-ad-Dīn Maḥmūd Shāh Injū rebuilt it, and set along its summit towers of burnt brick, with cabins for the guards.

The city of Shīrāz has seventeen quarters, and nine gates, namely those of Iṣṭakhr, Darāk Mūsā, Bayḍā, Kāzirūn, Sallam, Fasā, next the New Gate, with the Gates of Fortune and Felicity. The city is extremely pleasant to live in; but its streets, by reason that now- a-days the people have made no privies, are very filthy, [<Arabic>] hence it is impossible for any one to go about in these streets and not be defiled. The climate is temperate, and here all trades may be followed. At most times sweet-smelling herbs are not wanting, and are commonly sold in the market. The water is from under- ground channels, and the best is from the conduit of Ruknābād, which was dug by Rukn-ad-Dawlah son of Būyah; but the largest of the water-channels is that of Qalāt Bandar, otherwise known as Kut Sa`dī, which never needs repairs. During the spring floods the freshet rushes down from Mount Darāk, and passing outside the town flows off into the Māhalūyah Lake. The crops are of medium produce, and very often provisions go up to famine prices. Of fruits, the grapes known as Mithqālī are excellent. Here too the cypresses are celebrated for their fine growth. The population are lean and brown-skinned; they are Sunnīs of the Shāfi`ite sect: some few being Ḥanafites, and there are also Shī`ahs. Further there are many great Sayyids of noble lineage here, who hold Traditions of the Prophet, and as traditionists they are for the most part excellently esteemed. The people of Shīrāz are much addicted to holy poverty, and they are of strict orthodoxy; so that they are content to do but little trade. Hence there are many poor folk, though they refrain from begging, and do not fail to practise some means of livelihood; while the wealthy folk are mostly foreigners. Hence few Shīrāzīs are very wealthy, and most of the people strive after good works, and in piety and obedience to the Almighty have attained a high degree of godli- ness. Never is this city devoid of saintly persons, for which reason it was also called the Tower of Saints (Burj-i-Awliyā); but indeed, at the present day, it should rather be called the Robbers’ Haunt (Makman-i-Ashqiyā) by reason of the lack of justice, and avari- cious frowardness that is too common here.

The Old Friday Mosque of the city was built by `Amr the Ṣaffarid, and they say that never is this building devoid of the presence of some saintly person; further they say that between the Mecca Niche and the Pulpit any prayers offered up are always answered. The New Friday Mosque was built by Atabeg Sa`d ibn Zangī the Salghurid; while the Sunqur Mosque in the Tent- makers’ quarter is called after the Atabeg Sunqur ibn Mawdūd the Salghurid. The hospital (Dār-ash-Shafā) was founded by `Aḍud-ad-Dawlah, and numerous are the other Friday Mosques, convents, colleges, chapels and oratories which rich folk have built throughout the city, and indeed their number is in excess of five hundred. Also there are many other pious foundations, though but few are governed with honesty, the same being for the most part in the hands of extortioners. There are [<Arabic>] many blessed shrines also; as for instance the tombs of Muḥammad and Aḥmad, the two sons of the Imām Mūsā-al-Kāẓim: further the shrine of Shaykh Abū `Abd Allah Khafīf, which Atabeg Zangī the Salghurid built, adding thereto a pious foundation, and as well he caused to be repaired the tomb of Shaykh Bahlūl. And again there are the shrines of Bābā Kūhī, of Shaykh Rūz Bahān, of Shaykh Sa`dī (the Poet), of Karkhī, of Shaykh Ḥasan Giyāh Khur (Grass-eater), of Ḥājjī Rukn-ad-Dīn Rāzgū (Solver of riddles), and of many more, seeing that in most of the colleges and darvīsh-convents, and smaller mosques, there are found the tombs of notable folk. But as to the common people, some are buried within the town, and others without it, in divers different places. The revenues of the city go to the Treasury, and at the present time they amount to 450,000 dīnārs. The whole of the Fārs province may be counted as the dependency of Shīrāz, but that which more especially belongs to the city, lying round and about it, is known as the Jūmah (or Ḥawmah)*, and this com- prises 18 villages, all taking their water from underground channels. The climate of these places resembles that of Shīrāz, and their crops are corn and cotton, with some little fruit of divers kinds.

The Coast Districts (A`māl-i-Sīf). These are various dis- tricts lying on the sea-coast, all of the hot region, and mostly settled by Arabs. The climate here varies much. One of these districts is known as the (Sīf) Coast of Abū Zuhayr, another as the Coast of `Umārah; and they produce nothing but corn and dates.

Būshkānāt*. Divers districts, all of the hot region, pro- ducing dates. There is no town here, and the crops are dates and corn only.

Tawwaj*. Formerly a large town, with an Arab population, lying in the hottest of the hot regions, and in a desert country where no running water exists. It is now in ruins.

Khabr*. A medium-sized town, larger than Kavār, with a temperate climate; its water is wholesome. Its lands produce desert-wheat, also the fruits of both the hot and the cold region in excellent quality. It has a strong castle which is known as Tīr-i-Khudā (God’s Arrow), and game both of the mountain and the plain is found here.

Ḥatīzīr*. A district entirely of the hot lands, where palm- trees [<Arabic>] grow. There is no town here, and its people go armed.

Khunayfqān*. A large village, of which the name is com- monly pronounced Khunāfghān. It stands on the road to Fīrūz- ābād, the which road is very steep and narrow, going through a rough hill country, a mere bridle track, where the fear of footpads always besets the wayfarer. The climate here is temperate, but the people have the rough manners of mountaineers. The water is from the hills and mountains near by; and here is the source of the Burāzah river, which flows down to Fīrūzābād. The crops are wheat and much cotton.

Ramzavān, Dādhīn and Davvān*. All lands of the hot region, but those that lie in the hill-country near by have a more temperate climate. The crops are corn, fruit and rice.

Sarvistān and Kūbanjān*. Districts of the hot region, that have a varied climate. The palm grows abundantly, and crops of corn and dates are produced.

Sīrāf. In former days this was a large city, and very rich, being the emporium of sea-trade (in the Persian Gulf); but during the Buyid supremacy the trade by sea was transferred from here to the emporium of Qays. The climate is extremely hot, and for water they collect the rain in cisterns. There are also three springs. The crops are corn and dates. Najīram and Khūrāshī are places in its dependencies*.

Ṣimkān and Hīrak*. Ṣimkān is a fine town, and is one of the wonders of the world. For through its midst a river flows, and over this river a bridge has been built; and the country above the bridge is of the cold region, where the hazel and the plane and other such trees grow; while below the bridge it is of the hot region, where oranges and shaddocks and the like grow. The wine made from the grapes here is so strong that, until it has been mixed with twice or thrice [<Arabic>] the quantity of water, it cannot be drunk. The people here are poor, but they have arable lands. Hīrak is a large village of this same district.

Fīrūzābād*. Of the Third Clime, in longitude 87°20', and latitude 23°45'. It was founded by king Fīrūz, who gave it the name of Jūr. In the midst of the city a great edifice has been built, so high that the air here was cool; and by means of a tube (or syphon) water was brought up to this height from the hills near. Round the summit a great platform had been built, which same was known as the Aywān (Hall). At the time when Alex- ander the Great was overcoming all these lands, he found himself unable to conquer this place, for on all sides you had to descend to it by passes. Thereupon he caused the Khunayfqān river to be turned from its bed, and directed its course so as to flow over the city, whereby he laid it in ruin, and made the place a lake. Ardashīr Bābakān wished to drain the lake dry, in order to restore the city to its former state. Burāzah his engineer cut a tunnel in the high bank, and when the water began to pour through he bound a chain about his waist to keep himself in safety, but the water had such power that the chain snapped, and so he perished. Now this tunnel in the lapse of time has fallen in, and it has become a gully. Thus king Ardashīr restored the city, calling it by the name of Ardashīr Khūrah. Later it was rebuilt by `Aḍud-ad-Dawlah, who renamed it Fīrūzābād. It has a warm, damp climate, and its water is from the Khunayfqān river, which now is known as the Burāzah. The rose-water made here has a finer perfume, and is superior to that of all other lands. The population are distinguished for piety and honesty.

Kārzīn, Qīr and Abzar*. Kārzīn is a medium-sized town: and Qīr is a small town, as likewise is Abzar. All three are of the hot region, and there are abundant palm-trees here. The water is from the Zakān river; and in Kārzīn is a strong castle, to which water is drawn up from the Zakān. Haram and Kāriyān*, with many other places, are of the dependencies lying in the plain round this district.

Kurān and Īrāhistān*. These lie [<Arabic>] in the desert, being of the hottest region, so that in the summer only a very few people remain here. There are no underground water-channels, and all the corn grown here is dependent on the rains. Of fruits there are none except dates. They plant all their crops in the mountains, whereby they are amply watered by the rain in the winter, the trees also are kept green in the summer. Most of the people are brigands, highwaymen and footpads. (By reason of the heat) foreigners can only live here during the three winter months; and all the tribes here are much given to rebellion.

Kavār. A fine town with many dependencies. Its climate is rather warm, and its water is from the Zakān river. King Bahman ibn Isfandiyār built a dam across this river to raise its waters, and next he established villages among its arable lands. There is here much corn and fruit, most things necessary also being found here, and of fruits the morel-cherry and very excel- lent almonds. Much game too is met with near by. The author of the Fārs Nāmah adds that the people of this place are silly and stupid by nature. They are followers of the sect of Shāfi`ī.

Lāghir and Kaharjān*. Of the dependencies of Kārzīn, lying in the hot region, and the climate here is variable. The people are robbers and highwaymen. The crops are corn, cotton and dates.

Māndistān. A desert land, thirty leagues in length and breadth lying along the sea-coast. There are villages here, but neither running water nor underground channels, the only crops being corn and cotton, that appear after the rains. Then if Ādhar- māh and Daymāh (the ninth and tenth solar months), which end the autumn and begin winter, bring the rains, one measure of sown seed will produce a thousand-fold in the spring crop. On the other hand, if in these two months the rains fail, the spring crops give nothing, and dearth ensues. All those who in winter time are occupied there in agriculture take their departure when the hot weather comes on. The farmers at that time cut and stack the harvest, making but little of it, for a half must remain for the next crop, and only a moiety can be reaped for carrying away.

Maymand*. A small town of the hot region. It grows corn, dates, grapes and all kinds of fruit; but grapes especially. [<Arabic>] The people there are craftsmen.

Mūhū, Hamjān and Kabrīn*. Three towns lying between Fasā and Shīrāz. The climate resembles that of Shīrāz. Run- ning water is found, and some few gardens, with grapes and fruit of the cold region; also there is much game in the neighbourhood; but the people are robbers and insolent.

Huzū and Sāviyah*. Two villages, with many others round them of the same district, lying on the sea-coast. They all belong to the dependencies of the emporium of Qays; and lie in the hottest part of the hot region.

The Iṣṭakhr District. Since in the kingdom of Fārs no city had been built earlier than Iṣṭakhr (Persepolis), the district round took its name from the city, extending in length from Yazd to Hazār Dirakht (Thousand Trees), and in breadth from Qūhistān to Nayrīz, and all of this land is of the dependencies of the district.

Iṣṭakhr (Persepolis). Of the Third Clime, in longitude 83°20', and latitude 20°. According to one account it was founded by king Gayūmarth, according to another by his son, who was himself named Iṣṭakhr. Hūshang added much to its buildings, and Jamshīd completed these additions, which finally covered all the lands from the borders of Ḥafrak to the limits of Rāmjird, namely fourteen leagues in the length by ten in the breadth. Jamshīd here established what is beyond all description in matter of palaces, and orchards, and villages. Also there were erected three castles, on the summits of three hills, one being called Iṣ- ṭakhr, the second Shikastah, and the third Shankavān*: the whole being known as Sih Gunbadān (the Three Domes). The author of the Fārs Nāmah states that Jamshīd built his palace at the base of the mountain, and this may be described as standing on a platform, at the hill foot, constructed of squared black stone, being itself a quadrilateral. One side of it is on the moun- tain, and the other three sides open to the plain. The platform is 30 ells in height, and you go up on two sides by stairways. On the platform stand round columns of white stone, so finely cut, that the like even in soft wood could not now possibly be done. At the threshold are two square pillars, [<Arabic>] each being of over one hundred thousand mann-weight; and in the neighbourhood there is no stone to be found similar to this. Now powder scraped from these stones and laid on wounds will staunch the flow of blood. On each of these pillars is sculptured the figure of Burāq (the winged-steed that bore to heaven in his Night Journey the Prophet Muḥammad). Its face is the face of a man with a curly beard, and a crown on his head; the forelegs, and hind legs and the tail, being those of a bull. The portrait of Jamshīd himself, finely adorned, is also here.

In the mountain near by a bath tank has been hollowed out of the rock, the hot water rising from a natural spring, so that there is no need of fire to heat it. On the summit of this moun- tain were great Dakhmahs (Towers of Silence, where the Fire worshippers exposed their dead), which the common people now call Prisons of the Wind. At the time of the Moslem conquest, after the people of Iṣṭakhr had more than once broken faith and acted as meditating treachery, the Arabs here made a great slaughter, and laid most of the place in ruin. Then in the days of Ṣamṣām-ad-Dawlah, the Buyid, the Amīr Qutulmish bringing an army against Iṣṭakhr, laid it completely in ruin, and so it re- mained, becoming afterwards merely a moderate sized village. In among the ruins of the palaces of Jamshīd they find Indian tutty, which is used for the eyes, but no one knows where this tutty came from, and how it got here. At the present time people call these buildings with their columns The Forty Minarets. In the Majma` Arbāb-al-Maslak it is stated that these columns and buildings were the palace of Queen Humāy, daughter of king Bahman; in the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm, on the other hand, they are said to have been a Mosque built by Solomon: and it is possible that king Solomon did indeed convert the palace of Jamshīd into a Mosque, and that Humāy in her turn changed it again to a palace, and thus all three traditions may be true. Now the plain of Iṣṭakhr was of old very broad and long, hence many of the places that now are counted as of Marvdasht are in that plain. Its crops are corn and excellent grapes, and of its other fruit the sweet apple is most renowned.

Abraj*. A large village, lying at the foot of a mountain. And this mountain is their comfort, for all the houses are dug out of it, and from it also they get their water, which flows down from the same.

Abarqūh. Of the Third Clime. It originally stood at the foot of a mountain, and hence was called Barkūh—‘on the moun- tain’—but afterwards it was built on the plain where it now lies. It is a small town [<Arabic>] with a temperate climate, having its water- supply both from streams and from underground channels. Corn and cotton grow well here. The inhabitants are, for the most part, craftsmen, much given to piety and religion. Of the cele- brated tombs here is that of Ṭāūs-al-Ḥaramayn (Peacock of the Two Sanctuaries—Mecca and Medina), and this shrine has the peculiarity that, if ever it be roofed over, the roof immediately falls to ruin*, so much so that even an awning of palm-matting set there is not suffered to stand. Further it is said that in Abarqūh if any Jew remains but for forty days he dies; hence there are no Jews here: and should any come hither on some important business, in less than forty days he must go hence. There are many places of the dependencies of Abarqūh, among the rest Dih Marāghah (or Farāghah), where there is a cypress- tree, most famous throughout the world, even as from the days of the Kayānian kings the cypress-trees of Kashmar and of Balkh were famous. And at this present time the cypress here is taller and greater of girth than those others, and in all the Land of Īrān there is none now its equal. The revenues of Abarqūh, with its districts, amount to 140,400 dīnārs.

Isfīdān and Quhistān*. Isfīdān is a small city with a castle; and Quhistān is a large village, both being of the cold region. In the hills near here is a huge cave, which serves the people as a sure place of refuge in times of terror.

Iqlīd, Sarmaq and Arjamān*. Iqlīd is a small town with a castle. The climate is temperate, and it has running streams. All kinds of fruit grow here, also desert wheat. Sarmaq too is a small town, in all matters like Iqlīd; further the yellow plum of Sarmaq is of especial excellence and sweetness, wherefore it is dried, and then exported to other districts; for of these there are many that are dependent on Iqlīd, Sarmaq and Arjamān.

Bavvān and Marvast*. Bavvān is a small town, growing desert corn and fruits, with a temperate climate. It has running streams. Marvast is a large village with like productions.

Bayḍā* (the White City). A small town, with white soil, for which peculiarity it has received its name. It was founded by king Gushtāsf. It has a temperate climate, and running streams, [<Arabic>] its lands grow desert corn and fruit. Many places are of its dependencies; and there is near here a meadow-land ten leagues broad and long. In Bayḍā many profoundly learned men have arisen, as for instance Nāṣir-ad-Dīn al Bayḍawī the Judge, author of the celebrated Judge’s Commentary (on the Qurān), and there are other celebrated men also who were born here.

Khabraz, Ābādah and Sarvāt*. Khabraz is a small town, with a temperate climate and running streams, where much corn and fruit are grown. Ābādah likewise is a small town, with a strong castle. It has a temperate climate, and its water is from the over- flow of the river Kur. Corn and grapes are grown here, and many villages are of its dependencies. Its revenues amount to 25,500 dīnārs.

Khabrak and Qālī. These are two villages, and in the meadow-lands of Qālī some fruit is grown, with much corn.

Khurramah*. A pleasant town, with a strong castle. Its climate is temperate; it has running streams, and both corn and fruit are grown here.

Rāmjird. A district lying on the (upper) course of the river Kur. A dam has here been thrown across the river, to provide irrigation for the villages; but when this dam fell to ruin, the whole wealth of the district was brought to naught. Then the Atabeg Chāulī* restored the dam, causing the district again to flourish. The market town of Māyīn is the capital of this district, and its revenues amount to 52,500 dīnārs.

Ṣāhik* and Harāt. Both small towns; and the climate is temperate. At Ṣāhik is a mine for steel; the crops are corn and fruits.

Quṭruh*. A small town, with a temperate climate, and run- ning streams. Corn and fruit are found here, and there is an iron mine.

Qumishah. In former times this was counted as of the pro- vince of (Persian) `Irāq, and it lies on the boundary of Fārs and `Irāq. The castle of Qūlanjān, built of clay bricks, stands near, and many other places are dependencies of Qumishah. Its climate [<Arabic>] resembles that of Iṣfahān. Its water is from under- ground channels; the crops are corn, fruit and grapes; its popu- lation in character and temper resemble the men of Iṣfahān; and they are ever here of two different minds.

Kāmfīrūz. A district lying on the banks of the river Kur. There is here a great forest, where many lions of great fierceness are found.

Kirbāl. Both the upper and the lower districts of this name take their water from the Kur river; the upper district from (above the Dam of) the Band-i-Amīr, which `Aḍud-ad-Dawlah built; and the lower district from above the Band-i-Qaṣṣār (the Fuller’s Dam), of which the Atabeg Chāulī restored the masonry.

Kamīn* and Fārūq. Two towns, with many dependencies: the climate is temperate, they have running streams, and the lands grow corn and fruit abundantly. Also there is game in plenty.

Kūrad and Kallār*. Kūrad is a small town and Kallār a large village, one district comprising the two. The produce is desert corn, for the climate is cold.

Māyīn. A small town, in the hill country, on the road to Kūshk-i-Zard. The climate is temperate, but rather cold. It has running streams, and for crops grows both corn and fruit. The population for the most part are robbers. There is here the shrine of Shaykh Gul Andām; while at the foot of the Māyīn pass stands the tomb of Ismāīl son of the Imām Mūsā-al-Kāẓim. Māyīn (as already said) is the chief town of the Rāmjird district.

Yazdikhwāst and Dih Girdū (Nut Village). Two villages, surrounded by diverse hamlets, as for instance Sarvistān and Ābādah*, with others all of this same dependency. These are of the cold region, growing desert corn, but no fruit except nuts.

Dih-i-Mūrd* and Rādān. Two villages near Harāt. The climate here is cold, and many myrtles grow in these parts, also much corn. Of the dependencies are some other villages.