The Jazīrah province, otherwise Diyār Bakr and Diyār Rabī`ah. Mosul, Irbīl, Āmid. Jazīrah of Ibn `Omar. Ḥarrān and the Star Fort. Ḥiṣn Kayfā. Rās-al-`Ayn. Raqqah and the Castle of Ja`bar: the Martyrs of Ṣiffīn. Ruhā and the Church of Edessa. Sanjār: houses one above the other. The Market of the Eighty. `Imādiyyah. Qirqīsiyā (Circesium). Mārdīn and the river Ṣūr. Mayyāfāriqīn. Naṣībīn and the river Hirmās: the spell against gnats and locusts. Nineveh: the Shrine of Jonah (Yūnus). The Province of Kurdistān. Alānī and Alīshtar. Dīnavar. Sulṭānābād Jamjimāl. Kirmānshāh and the Stall of Shabdīz: the Park. Kanguvar and Vasṭām. The province of Khūzistān. Tustar and the great Weir. Ahwāz. Dizfūl and the Andī- mishk Bridge: ‘Golden Trees.’ Rāmuz. Sūs: the Tomb of Daniel. `Askar Mukram and the Dū Dānik Canal. Masruqān

SECTION 9. Concerning (the provinces of) Diyār Bakr and Rabī`ah.

In the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm these provinces go by the name of Jazīrah; they comprise 29 cities, and they have a warm climate. The frontiers march with those of Asia Minor, Armenia, Syria, Kurdistān and Arabian `Irāq. Mosul is the capital city. The revenues of this province in the days of the Atabegs, and down to the time of Badr-ad-Dīn Lūlū*, amounted to 10,000,000 dīnārs, but at present the total is only 1,925,000 dīnārs.

Mosul (Mawṣil). Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 77°, and latitude 35°32'; standing on the Tigris. The circuit of its walls is 8000 paces. It has a Friday Mosque, with a Miḥrāb of cut- stone, and carved so well that nowhere, even in wood-carving, could the like be done. Badr-ad-Dīn Lūlū erected here many noble buildings, but at the present time most of them lie in ruins. Its revenues amount to 328,000 dīnārs.

Irbīl (Arbela). Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 77°, and latitude 34°. A large town with a strong castle. Its crops are corn and [<Arabic>] excellent cotton, and its revenues amount to 22,000 dīnārs. It is of the Diyār Rabī`ah district.

Arzan (or Arzanah). A large town with a very strong fort- ress. Its crops are corn, and excellent cotton. The revenues amount to 275,500 dīnārs.

Āmid. Of the Diyār Rabī`ah: of the Fourth Clime, in longi- tude 73°40', and latitude 35°. It stands on the bank of the Tigris, and is a medium-sized town. The revenues amount to 30,000 dīnārs.

Bāṣabdah. A medium-sized town. Its crops are cereals, cotton and a little fruit, and the revenue amounts to 24,300 dīnārs.

Bāṭarnūḥ*. A medium-sized town: and its revenues amount to 15,000 dīnārs.

Barṭallā. A provincial town, and a very healthy, pleasant place. It grows fruit, also corn and excellent cotton; and its revenues amount to 13,200 dīnārs.

Bawāzīj. A small town, the revenues of which amount to 14,000 dīnārs.

Jasār*. Described in the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm as a small town, standing among gardens; on the hills round corn is grown.

Jazīrah (of Ibn `Omar). Of the Fourth Clime. King Arda- shīr Bābakān built it, and it is a large town, with near a hundred villages of its dependencies. It has many vineyards, and its revenues amount to 170,200 dīnārs.

Ḥānī and Sīlwān. These are towns of medium size, of the Fourth Clime. The revenues amount to 171,000 dīnārs.

Ḥarrān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 75°, and latitude 34°. It was founded by Arphaxad, son of Shem son of Noah. It has a fortress built of cut stone, the circuit of which is 1350 paces, the height of the walls being 50 ells, and this is called Qal`ah Najm, (the Star Fort). One of the villages of Ḥarrān called Dih Tallān is said [<Arabic>] to have been the birth-place of Abraham, the Friend of God; but the more true account is that he was born near Bābil (Babylon) in the village of Nūras, and that in the Ḥarrān village he lay concealed (from Nimrod). In Ḥarrān there are many of the Sabaeans.

Ḥiṣn Kayfā. A large town formerly, but now for the most part in ruin, though part is still inhabited. Its revenues amount to 82,500 dīnārs.

Khābūr. Of the Fourth Clime. It was built by king Qubād the Sassanian.

Rās-al-`Ayn. Of Diyār Rabī`ah, and the Fourth Clime, in longitude 73°20', and latitude 34°20'. It is 5000 paces in circuit. It has an excellent climate, and good fruit, such as grapes, with corn and cotton, all grow well here.

Raqqah. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 74°17', and lati- tude 34°40'. It is now in ruin. In the Greek tongue it was called Callinicus. In the Diary of Malik-Shāh it is related that, in the time of the Caliph Qādir, a certain man of the name of Ja`bar, who was governor of these districts, built on the bank of the Euphrates, opposite the city of Raqqah, a castle of great stones; and its circuit was one thousand paces. Then a century later his grandson Sābiq ibn Ja`bar, possessing that castle, took to the practices of a highwayman, and in consequence all the roads thence to Syria, and Diyār Bakr, and `Irāq were stopped. On this Sultan Malik-Shāh had the castle taken by assault, and Sābiq with his sons executed, and the roads once more became safe and open. Among wondrous sights is the following: this castle lies opposite the village of Ṣiffīn, which was the battle- field where the Caliph `Alī encountered Mu`āwiyah; and along the Euphrates bank, all around and about, where the martyrs fell, those of both sides lie buried; now to one afar off the bodies of these martyrs are all visible lying in their coffins, but when you come close up it is impossible to see any one of them.

Ruhā (Edessa). Of the Fourth Clime. In the Diary of Malik- Shāh it is stated to be 5800 paces in circuit. It is built of cut- stone, and within the city is a church, also built of stone, with a dome rising in its centre to a height of over a hundred ells above the pavement. Ibn Khurdādbih [<Arabic>] says that in all the world no one has ever built a finer or greater edifice than this. At the present day, however, it is a ruin.

Sā`ird. A large town of the Fourth Clime, with a good climate. They make here excellent utensils of brass; also their goblets are famous and incomparable. The revenues amount to 46,500 dīnārs.

Sanjār. Of Diyār Rabī`ah, of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 75°20', and latitude 35°. The circuit of its walls is 3200 paces; they are built of mortared stone, and the town lies on a hill, on the southern slope, being so built that the roofs of each row of houses form the pavement of the street of the next row above. It has numerous gardens where sumach, olives, figs and other fruits grow abundantly, also excellent grapes. The revenues amount to 147,500 dīnārs.

Sūq Thamānīn (The Market of the Eighty). A village that lay at the foot of Mount Jūdī, and which Noah built after that he had escaped from the Flood; thus it was the first shrine that was raised on the earth’s face after the Deluge. It is now a ruin.

`Aqr. Of the Fourth Clime; built by king Kay Kāūs the Kayanian. It stands on an artificial hill; there are many vine- yards here, but the wine is bad. Its revenues amount to 27,400 dīnārs.

`Imādiyyah. A large town that was restored by `Imād-ad- Dawlah the Daylamite*, being named from him. It has an ex- cellent climate, and its revenues amount to 68,000 dīnārs.

Qirqīsiyā (Circesium). Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 74°40', and latitude 34°20'. It took its name from Qirqīsiyā, son of Ṭahmūrath the Demon-binder.

Karmalīs. A medium-sized town. Its revenues amount to 11,200 dīnārs.

Mārdīn. Of Diyār Rabī`ah, and of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 74°, and latitude 35°. It stands on a hill, and has a castle situated on the summit of a rock that [<Arabic>] overlooks the town. In this province is a river, that resembles the river of Zanjān- Rūd, and it is called the river Ṣūr. The gardens of Mārdīn take their water from it; and the lands that are irrigated by it com- prise an area of about ten leagues in length by a league across. Here corn, cotton and fruits are grown. Most of the crops of this district are indeed irrigated by the waters of this river. The re- venues amount to 236,200 dīnārs.

Mūsh. In former times a large city, but now a ruin. There are here fine plains, with most excellent pasture-lands, extending from the Euphrates, on the one side, to the Tigris on the other. The revenues amount to 69,500 dīnārs.

Mayyāfāriqīn. Of Diyār Rabī`ah, and of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 75°15', and latitude 38°. It is a large town with a good climate, and much fruit. Its revenues amount to 224,000 dīnārs.

Naṣībīn. Of Diyār Rabī`ah, of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 75°, and latitude 35°. The circuit of its walls is 6500 paces. Its water is from the Hirmās river, and the climate is damp. Fruit and grapes grow abundantly, and the wine here is not bad, and it is a preservative against the dampness of the air. The roses are the finest throughout all the lands of Īrān; but the scorpions are deadly and the gnats numerous. In the Jāmi`-al-Ḥikāyāt* it is stated that, in times past, by means of an incantation both gnats and locusts were bound, so that neither could ever come into the city. Now in the days of Saladin, when they were building walls round the town, they came on some jars with their mouths sealed up; wherefore they imagined this was a treasure, and taking them up they opened them, but found only gnats and locusts within. Upon this these were restored to their former state, but their efficacy was destroyed.

Nineveh. Standing on the Tigris, its circuit is 6000 paces. The shrine of the Prophet Yūnus (Jonah) stands on the south side of the town, being exactly 1000 paces distant therefrom, neither more nor less. [<Arabic>]

SECTION 10. Concerning the lands of Kurdistān; and com- prising 16 districts.

Its frontiers march with Arabian `Irāq, Khūzistān, Persian `Irāq, Ādharbāyjān and Diyār Bakr. The revenues, in the times of Sulaymān Shāh Abūh (the Saljūq), amounted to near 2,000,000 dīnārs of the present currency, but now the amount on the regis- ters is only 201,500 dīnārs.

Alānī*. A moderate-sized market town. It has a fine climate, and running waters. Its crops are cereals, also there are excellent pasture-lands, and numerous good hunting-grounds.

Alīshtar*. A medium-sized town, pleasantly situated. There existed here (of old) the Fire-temple of Arūkhsh.

Bahār. A castle, which, in the days of Sulaymān Shāh, was his capital.

Khuftiyān*. A strong castle, standing on the bank of the Zāb river, with some villages round and about it.

Darband-i-Tāj Khātūn. Formerly a medium-sized town, but now a ruin. It was a most pleasant and excellent place.

Darband-i-Zangī. A small town, with a good and temperate climate, having abundant running waters, and numerous pasture- lands. The people, however, are robbers and highwaymen—an abominable folk.

Dizbīl*. A medium-sized town, with an excellent climate and water.

Dīnavar. A town of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 83°, and latitude 35°. It is a small place, with a temperate climate and abundant water, producing crops of corn, fruit and some small quantities of grapes. The people are better folk than most of their neighbours.

Sulṭānābād Jamjimāl. A provincial town, of the Fourth Clime, standing at the foot of the mountain of Bīsutūn. It was built by Uljaytū the Mongol. It is an excellent and pleasant place, producing much corn.

Shahrazūr. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 81°20', and latitude 34°20'. This town, of old, was called Nīm-Ardāh, being the half way stage between Madāin [<Arabic>] and the Fire-temple of Ādharbāyjān. It was built by king Qubād the Sassanian. In the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm it is said that this place is named Shahr-zūr (City of Strength) because its governors are always of the Kurds, and he whose strength was greater became the governor.

Kirmānshāh. In books the name is given as Qarmāsīn. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 83°, and latitude 34°20'. It was built by king Bahrām son of Sapor II, the Sassanian; and king Qubād restored it, building here for his own use a mighty palace. His son, Anūshirvān the Just, erected a platform, measuring one hundred ells square, and here at a great banquet the Emperor of China, the Khāqān of the Turks, the Rāja of India, and the Caesar of Rome, all (in obeisance) kissed his hand. Kirmānshāh was formerly a medium-sized town, but is now merely a village. In the neighbourhood of the town is the Stall of Shabdīz (the famous horse) of king Khusraw Parvīz, which he caused to be built. In the plain near by, also, he laid out a park two leagues square; and part thereof he planted with trees that bore all kinds of fruit, of both the hot lands and the cold country; and the re- maining part he laid out in meadow-lands as a race-course, and there various kinds of animals were allowed to roam free, which same bred and brought forth their young.

Kirind and Khūshān. These are two villages lying at the summit of the Ḥulwān pass. Kirind is now a ruin, but Khūshān is inhabited. It has a temperate climate; and its streams flow down from the neighbouring mountains. There are here numerous gardens and fields.

Kanguvar. This was known as Qaṣr-al-Luṣūṣ (Robbers’ Castle), because the people here were much addicted to thieving. King Khusraw Parvīz built a castle here, using columns in huge blocks, such that each more or less was of ten thousand Mann- weight, and yet in this neighbourhood there are no existing stones so large as this. Also Mūnis the chamberlain built a very mag- nificent and great mosque in Kanguvar.

Māydasht*. A district containing some fifty villages, lying in a plain and surrounded by level country. There are excellent meadow-lands here, the climate is temperate, and the water is from streams that rise in the neighbouring hills. [<Arabic>]

Harsīn. A castle, with a town below the same. It has a temperate climate, and running streams.

Vasṭām*. A large village, opposite the Stall of Shabdīz (noticed above). It has a temperate climate, and its water is from the river Kūlkū, which rises in the neighbouring mountain of Bīsutūn.

SECTION 11. Concerning the province of Khūzistān, in which are twelve towns.

It has a hot climate, and its boundaries march with `Irāq `Arab, Kurdistān, Luristān and Fārs. The revenues, in the days of the Caliphs, exceeded 3,000,000 dīnārs of the money of these days; at the present time the amount on the registers is only 325,000 dīnārs; there is, however, a good surplus. The capital of the province is the town of Tustar.

Tustar. The name is commonly pronounced Shustar (or Shūshtar). It is of the Third Clime, in longitude 84°20', and lati- tude 31°20'. It was built by king Hūshang the Pīshdadian; and having fallen to ruin was restored by Ardashīr Bābakān, who laid out the plan to resemble the shape of a horse. King Sapor II, when he had returned to Īrān after overcoming the Caesar of Rome, and thus becoming his sovereign lord, imposed on Caesar the task of setting aright all the ruin that he had caused in the land of Īrān. Further he, the Caesar, was set to divide into three channels the river of Shustar, and to build across these a mighty weir, that set flowing the Canal of Dashtābād, which is the chief glory of the district of Shustar. Ibn Khurdādbih asserts that no greater weir than this was ever built across a river; but the Band- i-Amīr (Bendemir) which `Aḍud-ad-Dawlah the Daylamite threw across the river Kur (Cyrus) in Fārs—many years after the writing of Ibn Khurdādbih’s book—is a far mightier weir than this of Shustar. Sapor II erected a great palace in Shustar. The circuit of the town is 500 paces. It has four gates. The climate is extremely hot, for mostly during spring and summer the hot simoon wind blows, continuing also all night, so that the people cannot sleep out on the roofs of their houses. The water, how- ever, here is very digestive, whereby in spite of the great heat heavy meals may be eaten, and no evil ensue. The lands are very fertile, so that ploughing the land [<Arabic>] with an ass is all that is needed. Corn, cotton and the sugar-cane all grow excellently, and provisions are always cheap, so that even in seasons of dearth food is cheaper here than in Shīrāz in times of plenty. The men are dark-skinned and lean. They follow the sect of Abū Ḥanīfah. They are people to be depended upon, peaceable folk, occupied with their own affairs, and not given to rioting and dis- order. Few possess any great amount of capital, and rarely do they become rich. There are many fine hunting-grounds near by, and in the Diary of Malik-Shāh it is stated that especially these four are very famous, namely: that of Rakhshābād, 15 leagues by 12 leagues square; next Dawraq and Hindūyān, which is 20 leagues by 10 across; then Mashhad Kāfī, which is 10 leagues by 6 square; and lastly Ḥawīzah, which is 20 leagues by 12 leagues square. There are round Tustar many excellent meadow-lands. By reason of the great heat in this country, strangers cannot remain here after the spring season, and all corn that has not been reaped while the sun is in the sign of Taurus, when it gets into Gemini, can no longer be cut, for it is perished. The revenues of Tustar belong to the Treasury. Outside the town there stands a strong castle.

Ahwāz. Of the Third Clime, in longitude 88°, and latitude 31°. It was built by king Ardashīr Bābakān, who made of it a place with great dependencies, so that in fact the whole province came to be called after its name (for Ahwāz is plural of Hūz, for Khūz, and hence Khūzistān).

Turb*. Of the Third Clime. A small town of the hot region, lying on the shore of the sea. At the ebb and flow, the tide throws up fish on the shore, and these form the sustenance of the inhabitants. The men here are strongly built, and tall of stature, powerfully made and dark-skinned. There are many gardens here, with oranges, shaddocks, lemons and dates, all of which grow well and abundantly.

Jundī Shāpūr. Of the Third Clime, in longitude 84°5', and latitude 31°15'. Sapor I built it, and later Sapor II erected here many fine buildings. It is a medium-sized town of the hot region. Its climate is bad; but the sugar-cane grows here abundantly.

Ḥawīzah. Of the Third Clime, in longitude 84°5', and lati- tude [<Arabic>] 30°. It was built by Sapor II, and is a city of medium size, of the hot region, with a better climate than that of any other town in Khūzistān. Its crops are corn, cotton and sugar- cane, which last grows here abundantly. Many Sabaeans live here.

Dizfūl. Otherwise called Andīmishk. Of the Third Clime, in longitude 84°5', and latitude 31°. It was built by king Arda- shīr Bābakān, on both banks of the Jundī Shāpūr river. A bridge was then erected across the stream, having 42 arches; the length of the bridge being 520 paces, and its width 15 paces. This was known as the Bridge of Andīmishk and the town is called after it. From the eastern river bank, above the town, they have cut a canal through the rock, and this flows into the river again below the town. They have built great water-wheels on this canal, which raise the water to a head of fifty ells, and all the chief places of the city are served thereby. It is a medium-sized town, with many dependencies. In the neighbourhood of the villages of Shānjird and Maṭarān there is a meadow, half a league across either way, that is covered with narcissus growing wild; and there are here also the trees known as ‘Golden Trees’ which bear innumerable yellow blossoms, that are everlasting, but which produce no fruit.

Dastgir. Of the Third Clime. King Hurmuz, grandson of Ardashīr Bābakān, built it, and it has a strong castle. Its climate is very warm and damp.

Rāmuz. In longitude 85°45', and latitude 31°. It was built by king Hurmuz, who named it Rām-Hurmuz; this in time became corrupted to Rāmuz. It is a medium-sized town with a warm climate. Corn, cotton and much sugar-cane are grown here.

Sūs. Of the Third Clime. A medium-sized town with a warm climate. It was built by Mahalaleel son of Cainan son of Enos son of Seth son of Adam, this being the first city that was founded in Khūzistān. Hūshang added to its buildings, and erected here a great castle, with another castle over it [<Arabic>] that was most strong. Sapor II restored the buildings of the town, naming it Shāpūr Khūrah, laying out its plan to resemble the shape of a falcon. The tomb of the Prophet Daniel lies on the western side of the town, in the middle of the river bed, and the fish here are so tame that they do not flee away from men, and nobody does them any harm.

Ṭarāzak*. A medium-sized town. The sugar-cane grows better and more abundantly here than anywhere else in Khūz- istān, being larger in size and finer.

`Askar Mukram. Of the Third Clime, in longitude 84°20', and latitude 31° 45'. Sapor II restored it, naming it Būrj Shāpūr. It stands on both banks of the Dū Dānik Canal of the Shustar river, and originally bore the name of Lashkar, having been founded by Lashkar son of Ṭahmūrath the Demon-binder. It is a large town, with the best climate of all the cities of Khū- zistān, but there are many deadly scorpions here.

Masruqān. Of the Third Clime, in longitude 85°, and lati- tude 31°. Ardashīr Bābakān dug a canal from the (Shustar) river, and laid out this district along the canal. It is a medium-sized town with many dependencies, all of the hot region.