Frontiers of Arrān and Mūghān. The Mūghān province: the poisonous Hyssop. Bājarvān and the Rock of Moses. Barzand, built by Afshīn. Hamshahrah and the Shāh Nāmah. The Arrān province. Baylaqān and Ganjah. The province of Shīrvān. Bākūyah and Shamākhī. The Rock of Moses. The Gushtāsfī district. Georgia (Gurjistān) and Abkhasia (Abkhāz). Anī and Tiflīs. The province of Asia Minor (Rūm). Tradition of the Prophet: its frontiers. Sīvās. Erzerum, the Church and Mosque. Āqsarā. Antioch. Avnīk and its castle. Divrīgī. Samsūn. Shimshāt, tomb of Ṣafwān the Companion of the Prophet. `Ammūriyah (Amorion). The Church at Qālīqalā. Qarā-Ḥiṣār. Qūniyah (Iconium): the Castle, Wall and Ditch: Tomb of Jalāl-ad-Dīn Rūmī. Qayṣarīyah (Caesarea Mazaka): Bath of Pliny: Shrine of Muḥammad Ḥanafiyyah. Malaṭiyah: Ptolemy, author of the Almagest. Other Fortresses. Little Armenia and Sīs. Greater Armenia. Akhlāṭ. Alāṭāq: Palace of Arghūn. Malāzjird. Vān and Vasṭān

SECTION 4. Describing the provinces of Arrān and Mūghān.

The climate of these provinces is warm, and rather damp. The boundaries march with Armenia, Shīrvān, Ādharbāyjān and the Caspian. Their revenues in the times of the Atabegs amounted to more than 3,000,000 dīnārs of the present currency; but at this day the sum on the registers is only 303,000 dīnārs.

Mūghān. The province of Mūghān extends from the pass [<Arabic>] called Sang-bar-Sang (Stone upon Stone), which lies over against the Pīshkīn tūmān, to the banks of the Aras river. Throughout the whole of this land, from whatsoever place it is im- possible to perceive Mount Sablān, in autumn, the herbage of the hyssop (Dirmanah) is poisonous, and cattle which eat of it perish. In spring-time it is less poisonous, though to any hungry beast that eats the same it is somewhat more injurious than ordinary fodder. In all places from which Mount Sablān is visible, the hyssop fodder is there entirely innoxious.

Bājarvān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 83° 59' and latitude 38°. This originally was the chief town of Mūghān, but it is now in ruins, and is only of the size of a populous village. According to Ibn Khurdādbih what is related in the Qurān (ch. XVIII. vv. 59 to 73) concerning Moses and Khiḍr (Elias)— from the verse beginning Remember when Moses said to his ser- vant:—I will not stop till I reach the confluence of the two Seas, or for years will I journey on:—down to the verse—Then they went on till they met a youth, and he slew him. Moses said—Hast thou slain him who is free from guilt of blood? Now hast thou wrought a grievous thing,—(all this took place in Mūghān and Shīrvān), for the Rock is the rock of Shīrvān, and the Sea is the Caspian Sea, and the Village is the hamlet of Bājarvān; and the servant whom (Khiḍr) killed was slain in the village of Khayzān. In the Ṣuwar-al-Aqālīm however the Rock of Moses is said to exist in Antioch, while in the Commentaries of the Qurān the incident aforesaid is stated to have taken place at the Confluence of the two Seas (beyond the Pillars of Hercules): this last being indeed the true identification. The climate of Bājarvān is somewhat warm; its streams come down from hills in its outskirts: and the produce is corn only.

Barzand. Of the Fourth Clime, lying in longitude 83° 59' and latitude 37° 49'. A medium-sized town. It fell to ruin and then was rebuilt by Afshīn, the page of the Abbasid Caliph Mu`taṣim, and Afshīn made it his residence (when governor here). At the present day it is once more in ruins, and become merely of the size of a populous village. It has a warm climate; it is watered from wells, its lands are productive and corn is grown.

Pīlsuvār. Of the Fifth Clime. It was built by an Amīr of the Buyids, whose name was Pīlah Suvār, which signifies [<Arabic>] ‘Great Horseman.’ It is now of the size of a mere village. Its water is from the Bājarvān river; and corn is its chief crop.

Maḥmūdābād. This stands in the Gāvbārī plain, beside the (Caspian) sea. It was built by Ghāzān Khān the Mongol, and it is of the Fifth Clime.

Hamshahrah. Of the Fifth Clime, and above the shore of the Caspian, from which it stands two leagues distant. Originally it was called Abar Shahrah, and Farhād son of Gūdarz lived here, who is identified with Nebuchadnezzar, and of whom Fir- dawsī speaks in connection with this place in the verse (of the Shāh-Nāmah)

When Farhād chose Abar Shahrah,
He, by his warring, deprived the world of light*.

The Arrān province is the land ‘Between the Rivers,’ namely from the bank of the Aras (Araxes) to the river Kur (Cyrus).

Baylaqān. Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 83° 32' and latitude 39° 55'. It was founded by Qubād son of Fīrūz the Sassanian. It is now in ruins. Most of its houses were built of burnt brick. It has a warm climate, and for crops produces excellent corn, rice in the husk, cotton and cereals.

Barda`. Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 88° and latitude 40° 20'. It was founded by Alexander the Great, and restored by Qubād, son of Fīrūz the Sassanian. It was a large town of considerable wealth, and there were in it numerous fine buildings. Much fruit is produced, and more especially the filberts and chest- nuts here are celebrated for being finer than elsewhere. Its water is from a stream known as the Tartar river.

Ganjah. Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 83° and latitude 40° 34'. This is a town built since Islam, having been founded in the year 39 (659). It is a fine city and very productive, and hence it is thus mentioned in the verse:

Several cities in Īrān are more opulent than many others,
Richer and more productive, by reason of climate and soil, [<Arabic>]
Of these is Ganjah, so full of treasure, in Arrān, Isfahān in `Irāq,
In Khurāsān Marv and Ṭus, in Rūm (Asia Minor) Āq Sarāy.

Hīrak (or Sīrak). This district forms the summer quarters of Barda`, it being a most pleasant and fertile place, with running streams, rich pasture-lands and excellent hunting-grounds. The people of Barda` go thither in the hot season, spending their winter in the city.

SECTION 5. Concerning the lands of Shīrvān and Gushtāsfī.

The Shīrvān country extends from the bank of the Kur (Cyrus) river to Darband of the Gate of Gates. The revenues thereof during the days of the Khāns of Shīrvān amounted to one million dīnārs of the money of our time; but at present, all that is inscribed on the registers is 113,000 dīnārs. Further in the matter of the military fiefs there are many of these in the divers districts.

Bākūyah. Of the Fifth Clime, in latitude 84° 30' and longi- tude 40° 30'. Its climate is warm, and its crops are for the most part corn.

Shamākhī. The chief city of Shīrvān, of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 84° 30' and latitude 40° 39'. It was built by king Anūshirvān the Just. Its climate is warm, and more healthy than other places of the province. According to Ibn Khurdād- bih the Rock of Moses and the Fountain of Life were to be found here, but in other books they are said to stand near the Con- fluence of the two Seas*.

Qabalah. Of the Fifth Clime, lying near Darband*. It was built by king Qubād the Sassanian. It produces excellent silk, also corn and other cereals.

Fīrūzābād or Fīrūzqubād. Yāqūt mentions this as a pro- vincial town lying near Darband. It has a good climate and many pleasant places lie near by.

Shābirān. Built by king Anūshirvān. Its climate is warm, but the water here is unwholesome. It has good crops of corn and other cereals.

Gushtāsfī. This district lies along the coast of the Caspian, having been laid out by king Gushtāsf son of Luhrāsp. He dug a great canal from the rivers Kur and [<Arabic>] Aras, and from this water-channels were taken with numerous villages lying upon their banks. The crops are corn and rice, with some little cotton and fruit. Its population is fair-skinned, and follow the sect of the Imām Shāfi`ī; speaking a Pahlavī dialect that is near akin to the language of Gīlān. The revenues in former days, before the Mongol invasion, amounted to a million dīnārs of the present currency, but in these days the sum is only 118,500 dīnārs. There are here many military fiefs, which have been granted in divers parts of the district.

SECTION 6. Concerning the lands of Gurjistān (Georgia) and Abkhāz (Abkhasia).

There are five towns here, and the climate is cold. The frontiers of these districts march with the provinces of Arrān, Armenia and Asia Minor; and the revenues in the times of their native kings amounted to near five million dīnārs of the present currency; but in our times the government only obtains 1,202,000 dīnārs. The capital of the district of Georgia and Abkhasia is the city of Tiflīs.

Alān. This district lies in the Fifth Clime, under longitude 88° and latitude 40°. It was laid out by king Fīrūz the Sas- sanian, and its climate is excellent, being rather cold. Its streams come down from mountains that are spurs of the Alburz (Cau- casus) range, and they flow into the river Kur. Its crops are corn and fruit.

Ānī. Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 79°, and latitude 41°. Its climate is cold; the crops being corn and some little fruit.

Tiflīs. Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 83°, and latitude 48°. It stands in a valley, one side of which is a spur (of the neigh- bouring) mountain, and the river Kur flows through the midst of the city. The houses, lying along the river banks, are so built that the roofs of one row form the pavement of the street for the next row above. There are here many baths, in which fountains of natural hot water rise up, and hence no fires are needed here to heat the same. The corn crops are excellent, and there is also some little fruit.

Khanān*. This is a strongly built castle, crowning a high hill, that lies on the frontier of Arrān.

Qarṣ. Yāqūt [<Arabic>] reports this to be a small town, lying two days’ march from Tiflīs. It has a good climate, with excellent corn crops, its soil being very fertile.

SECTION 7. Concerning places in the kingdom of Rūm (Asia Minor)*.

There are here about sixty towns. The climate is cold. The learned of old named Rūm ‘the debaucher of Cities,’ and a Tra- dition of the Prophet is warranty thereto, for verily he said Rūm, none that is innocent enters here. Further it is stated by Ibn Khurdādbih, and other learned persons, that when the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and carried away captive the inhabitants, Allah became wroth with them, and made habitual the carrying away therefrom captives and prisoners. Hence from that time forth of a surety no day passes, but what, during it, a prisoner is borne away captive from Rūm to other lands. The writer of the present work further adds that this is even so at the present day; also again, by reason of our wicked lives, many captives are borne away from the lands of Īrān into Rūm; and the Qurān (ch. XXVIII. v. 59) confirms this by the verse We too did not destroy the villages, except when the people thereof were unrighteous—Verily we seek refuge with Allah from His wrath.

The frontiers of the province of Rūm march with Georgia, Armenia, Sīs (Little Armenia), Syria and the Mediterranean. Its revenues at the present day amount to 3,300,000 dīnārs, as set down in the registers; but during the times of the Saljūqs they were in excess of fifteen million dīnārs of the present currency. In this province Sīvās is at the present time the largest city.

Sīvās. Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 71° 32', and latitude 39° 20'. At the present time its walls are in ruin, but these were originally built by `Alā-ad-Dīn the Saljūq of squared stones. The climate here is cold. Crops of corn, fruits and cotton are raised, and the wool of Sīvās, which is so renowned, comes from the district.

Abulustān. A medium-sized town of the Fifth Clime.

Anqurah (Angora). Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 73°, and latitude 38°. Its climate is somewhat cold, and the crops are corn, fruit and cotton.

Arzanjān. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 74°, and lati- tude 39°. Its buildings were restored by Sultan [<Arabic>] `Alā-ad-Dīn the Saljūq; the wall being rebuilt of squared masonry. The climate is excellent; the river Euphrates flows past the town. The crops are corn, fruit, cotton and grapes in plenty. Its revenues amount to 332,500 dīnārs.

Arzan-ar-Rūm (Erzerum). Of the Fourth Clime, in longi- tude 76°, and latitude 39° 40'. There is here a Church, which same is the greatest in all that land. It has an immense dome, measuring 50 ells in diameter; and it is said that part of the vault of this same dome fell down on the very night of the birth of the Prophet, and how often soever they tried to rebuild it, they could never accomplish it, for again it would fall down. Over against this Church stands a Mosque, built as to length and breadth in the likeness of the Ka`bah of Mecca. It is called the Ka`bah Model. The revenues of this place amount to 22,000 dīnārs.

Arāk*. A medium-sized town, taking its water from the Euphrates. The climate is cold, and the crops are corn with little fruit. The revenues amount to 10,700 dīnārs.

Irmanāk. Of old this was a large city, but now it is only a provincial town. Its revenues amount to 7000 dīnārs.

Āqsang*. A small town, whose revenues amount to 5000 dīnārs.

Āqsarā. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 68°, and latitude 38°. It was built by `Izz-ad-Dīn Qilij Arslān the Saljūq, in the year 566 (1171). It is a very fine place, and fertile, producing excellent corn, fruit and abundant grapes. Its revenues amount to 51,000 dīnārs.

Āqshahr. This lies seven leagues from Arzanjān, being three marches from Qūniyah. Its revenues amount to 135,000 dīnārs.

Amāsīyah. A large town that was rebuilt by Sultan `Alā- ad-Dīn the Saljūq. It produces all kinds of fruits, and its climate [<Arabic>] is both healthy and pleasant.

Anṭākīyah (Antioch). A medium-sized town of the Fourth Clime, with an excellent climate.

Avnīk. A castle standing on a hill-top, with the town of Abashkhūr* lying at the foot of the same. It was built by Shaykh Ḥasan son of Ḥājjī Ṭughāy Sūtāy. The Amīr Shaykh Ḥasan Chūpānī laid the town in ruins. It lies eight leagues distant from Arzan-ar-Rūm (Erzerum).

Bāburt. This was a large town; it is now but a small one, having a few gardens, and its revenues amount to 21,000 dīnārs.

Divrīgī. A medium-sized town, whose revenues amount to 40,300 dīnārs.

Davalū. A medium-sized town, whose revenues amount to 40,300 dīnārs.

Darjān*. A medium-sized town, whose revenues amount to 40,300 dīnārs.

Khartabirt. A large town, of the Fourth Clime. It has an excellent climate, and its revenues amount to 215,000 dīnārs.

Shahrah*. A small town lying on the sea coast; its revenues amount to 15,000 dīnārs.

Samsūn. A town lying on the shore of the Greek (Black) Sea, and it is a harbour for ships.

Shimshāṭ. Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 72° 35', and latitude 40°. It is a large town, and there is here the tomb of Ṣafwān ibn Mu`aṭṭal, the Companion of the Prophet. In this neighbourhood there grows a tree, the fruit of which is like an almond; this can be eaten together with its rind, and it is sweeter than honey, with an excellent flavour. No one knows what is the name of this fruit.

`Ammūriyah (Amorion). Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 66°, and latitude 43°. The place is commonly named Angūrah*. In the Jāmi`-al-Ḥikāyāt it is reported that Augustus Caesar of Rome built it, for a treasure was in those days found here, and this was spent on its buildings. Its revenues amount to 72,800 [<Arabic>] dīnārs.

Qālīqalā. Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 78° 35', and lati- tude 39° 40'. A large town where the well-known carpets come from. Yāqūt states that there is here a Church of the Christians, in which is a chamber, where a certain place is opened on the night of Palm Sunday, that being the last Sunday of Lent, and from this place a white clay is taken out, which same is an anti- dote against poison. Of it none should eat more than a sixth of a drachm, otherwise, eating more, he would die.

Qarā-Ḥiṣār. There are many castles of this name. First there is Qarā-Ḥiṣār of Mount Kamar, which lies three marches from Qayṣarīyah; and its revenues amount to 25,300 dīnārs. Next is Qarā-Ḥiṣār built by Bahrām Shāh on the frontier near Qūniyah, and its revenues amount to 11,600 dīnārs. Thirdly, there is Qarā-Ḥiṣār Bavāsī near Nīgdah, and its revenues amount to 14,600 dīnārs. Lastly, there is Qarā-Ḥiṣar Līmūniyah of Āq- Shahr near Arzanjān*.

Qasṭamūniyah. A medium-sized town, the revenues of which amount to 15,000 dīnārs.

Qūmanāt*. A small town, whose revenues amount to 14,000 dīnārs.

Qūniyah (Iconium). Of the Fifth Clime, in longitude 65° 45', and latitude 41°. A large town, of the province of Cappadocia. Sultan Qilij Arslān built here a castle of squared masonry; and therein, for his residence, erected a great hall. Afterwards this castle having fallen to decay, and the walls of Qūniyah being in ruin, Sultan `Alā-ad-Dīn the Saljūq and his Amīrs restored the city walls. These were built very high, of squared stones, and rose straight up from the bottom of the ditch; the ditch being dug 20 ells in depth, and the wall above it being 30 ells in height; while the circuit of the walls was over 10,000 paces. Many mag- nificent buildings were constructed in the city, and the same had twelve city gates, each of which was surmounted by a tower like a fortress. The climate is temperate: the water is from the hills round; and to keep the water pure, at each city gate there is a great dome built (over a tank), [<Arabic>] and outside each dome there are some 300 spouts by which the water flows out. The crops here are plentiful and excellent, consisting of cotton, corn and other cereals. There are many gardens; those on the side of the city that is towards the plain, at the present day, lie waste; but those on the other side under the hill, on which stands the castle of Kūlah, are still in cultivation. Grapes and all kinds of fruit are grown here, and the yellow plums are especially sweet, and full of flavour. Since the city of Qūniyah is near the frontier of the Qarāmān province they are ever at war with their neighbours, and always have to be on their guard. Among other celebrated shrines there is here the tomb of Mawlānā Jalāl-ad-Dīn (Rūmī), the son of Bahā-ad-Dīn—may his grave be sanctified.

Qayṣarīyah (Caesarea Mazaka). Of the Fifth Clime, in longi- tude 69°, and latitude 39° 20'. A great city standing at the foot of Mount Argaeus. Its castle was built of squared masonry by Sultan `Alā-ad-Dīn the Saljūq. Its revenues amount to 140,000 dīnārs. According to Yāqūt Pliny, the Philosopher, made here a bath for Caesar, which could be heated with a single lamp. Also there is a shrine known as the Hall (Majlis) of Muḥammad ibn Ḥanafiyyah, the son of the Caliph `Alī, and this same is much venerated.

Kāb (or Gāb)*. A medium-sized town with a cold climate. It is of the Fifth Clime, and its revenues amount to 22,100 dīnārs.

Kamākh. A castle, with a small town lying below it. The climate is cold, and some villages are of its dependencies, the revenues amounting to 34,400 dīnārs.

Kavak*. A medium-sized town of the Fourth Clime, having much fruit.

Kīr and Baqīḥ*. These originally were two cities, that lay close one beside the other; both are now in ruin, with but few houses standing. The fruit here is excellent, and plentiful.

Lūlūah. A small town of the Fifth Clime. Its climate is cold, and it has fine pasture-lands with hunting-grounds both numerous and extensive.

Malaṭiyah. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 71°, and latitude 39°. There is here a strong castle, [<Arabic>] which they call Arqalūdiyah. Ptolemy, the author of the Almagest, was from Malaṭiyah. It is a large town, with an excellent climate, and running waters, and extensive pastures; its crops being corn, cotton, grapes and much fruit.

Nīgdah. A medium-sized town of the Fifth Clime; its revenues amount to 41,500 dīnārs.

Niksār. A medium-sized town, having many gardens, with fruit in plenty. Its revenues amount to 187,000 dīnārs.

Hūshyār*. A fortress on the borders of the Qarāmān pro- vince. This last is a mountainous region, with forests, where there are many castles, and its frontiers are Little Armenia, Syria, with the coast lands of the Mediterranean and the Frank Sea. Its people go armed, they are robbers, brigands and highwaymen; being ever at war with (the Moslems) of Rūm. Their chiefs are of the race of the Saljūqs.

Yalqān Bāzār*. A provincial town between Qūniyah and Āq-Shahr. There is here a hot spring, the equal of which is found in no other part of the earth, and they have erected over it a magnificent building.

Zamandū*. A medium-sized town. Its revenues amount to 14,600 dīnārs.

Qīr-Shahr. A large town, with fine buildings. It has a good climate, and its revenues amount to 57,000 dīnārs.

Gadūk*. A small town, with a cold climate. Its revenues amount to 16,500 dīnārs.

Ṭūz-Āghāch*. A medium-sized town, whose revenues amount to 19,500 dīnārs.

Ziyārat-Bāzār*. A provincial town and a most pleasant place. Its revenues amount to 1600 dīnārs.

Agrīdūr. A provincial town. Its revenues amount to 4000 dīnārs.

Qavāq*. A great fort, and one that is very strongly built, on the flank of a mountain.

Qūsh-Ḥiṣār. A medium-sized town. Its revenues amount to 27,000 [<Arabic>] dīnārs.

Sivrī-Ḥiṣār. A medium-sized town. Its revenues amount to 25,000 dīnārs.

Qulūniyah. A townlying on the sea coast near Constantinople.

Kastaghī*. A small town on the sea shore.

Malaqūbiyah. Yāqūt says that this town lies near Qūniyah, in the mountains of the province of Cappadocia. In its neigh- bourhood lie the fortresses of Qavah and Āqṭanghūsh.

SECTION 8. Concerning the places in the province of Ar- menia. This same is in two divisions, namely Greater and Lesser Armenia.

Lesser Armenia does not really form part of Īrān. It has Greater Armenia to the eastward, with the kingdom of Rūm to the north, the province of Syria to the south, and the Medi- terranean Sea to the west. Its chief dependencies are the Sīs country, Cyprus and Trebizond. From this country 30,000 dīnārs yearly are paid into the treasury of Īrān, by way of tribute.

Greater Armenia is within the borders of Īrān; it is accounted for 10,000 men (to the army), and it is known as the Akhlāṭ tūmān. The climate, for the most part, is temperate. Its frontiers are Little Armenia, Upper Mesopotamia, Kurdistān, Ādharbāyjān and Arrān. In length it extends from Arzan-ar-Rūm to Salmās, and its breadth is from Arrān to the further end of the Akhlāṭ district. Akhlāṭ is the capital of this province, and its revenues in former days amounted to near 2,000,000 dīnārs of the present currency; but now the total sum paid is only 390,000 dīnārs.

Akhlāṭ (or Khilāṭ). Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude 77° 55', and latitude 38° 29'. Its climate is temperate, and it has many gardens with fruits in abundance. Its revenues amount to 51,500 dīnārs.

Abtūt*. An insignificant provincial town, whose revenues amount to 1000 dīnārs.

Arjīsh. Formerly a considerable town, in longitude [<Arabic>] 73°, and latitude 39°. The Vazīr Khwājah Tāj-ad-Dīn `Alī Shāh of Tabrīz fortified it, and now it has a strong castle. Its crops are corn and cotton, and its revenues amount to 80,000 dīnārs.

Armūk (or Arṣūk)*. A castle on the shore of the Lake of Vān. It is a large place, and most pleasant. Its revenues amount to 16,600 dīnārs.

Alāṭāq. A district with excellent pasture-lands and many hunting-grounds. Arghūn Khān the Mongol built a palace here, and was wont to sojourn here most of the summer. Its revenues amount to 6500 dīnārs.

Bargirī. A small town, that was a large place formerly, standing on the summit of a hill. It has a fine river that comes down from Alāṭāq, and it possesses numerous gardens and much fruit. Inside the walls stands a strong castle, that occupies the one side of the town. Its revenues amount to 25,000 dīnārs.

Bayān*. A provincial town, with many gardens and much fruit. Its revenues amount to 16,000 dīnārs.

Kharādīn. A small town that was formerly larger. Its revenues amount to 5300 dīnārs.

Khūshāb. A provincial town. Its revenues amount to 1000 dīnārs.

Kharmaramt and Lūqiyāmāt. (Each) a small town, with gardens and much fruit, with an excellent climate. The revenues amount to 16,600 dīnārs.

Hangāmābād. Formerly a large town, but now reduced to the size of a village. Its revenues amount to 900 dīnārs.

Salam. A provincial town. Its revenues amount to 7200 dīnārs.

`Ayn. A medium-sized town; its revenues amount to 15,000 dīnārs.

Kabūd. A small town; its revenues amount to 4300 dīnārs.

Malāzjird. Of the Fourth Clime, in longitude [<Arabic>] 76°, and latitude 38° 45'. It has, at the present time, a very large and strong fortress. It is a pleasant place with a good climate, and its revenues amount to 14,000 dīnārs.

Vān and Vasṭān. Of the Fourth Clime. Vān is a fortress and Vasṭān was a large town formerly, but now only of medium size. Its longitude is 73°, and its latitude 37°. It has an excel- lent climate, and its water is from streams that rise in the neigh- bouring mountains, and flow out to the Vān Lake. It has many gardens, with fruit in plenty, and excellent. Its revenues amount to 53,400 dīnārs.

Valāsjird*. A fortress, with a market town at its foot. Its crops are corn, cotton and a little fruit; and its revenues amount to 7000 dīnārs.