The Geographical Part of the
Ḥamd-Allāh Mustawfī of Qazwīn
PREFACE pp. ix—xi
CHAPTER I pp. 1—11
  The Sanctuaries of Mecca and Medina. Mention in Qurān and in the Traditions. Position and size of Mecca. Ṭāif. Building of the Ka`bah: Adam, Abraham and Ishmael. The Well Zamzam. The Black Stone. Water channels. The Ḥarām or Sanctuary. Its limits. The Ka`bah and its Corners. Shrines round the Ka`bah. Restorations of the Ka`bah. Its dimensions. The Court of the Ka`bah. Shrines and houses outside the Sanctuary. Ṣafā and Marwah. `Arafāt. Mount Ḥirā. Tombs of Com- panions, saints and learned men. Distances of divers places from Mecca and Medina
CHAPTER II pp. 12—19
  Medina, anciently Yathrib. Position. The Ditch and Wall. Fertility of its lands. Traditions; and Verses. The Governors of Medina. The Tomb of the Prophet. The Mosque and Colleges. Attempt to carry off bodies of Abū Bakr and `Omar. The Muṣallā. The Cemetery of Baqī` and those buried there. Villages and towns round Medina. Ḥijr and the Thamūd. Khaybar and Fadak. The Tīh, or Desert of the Wanderings. Jerusalem, the Aqṣā Mosque. Position. Story of Isaac, and the promise of God to him. The building of Jerusalem and the Mosque. David and Solomon. Destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. Rebuilding in days of Ezra. Cyrus the Persian. Days of Islam: `Omar restores the Qiblah. Frank conquest: restoration under Saladin. The Rock. Hebron and Nazareth
CHAPTER III pp. 20—31
  Divisions of the Habitable World, according to Hermes Trismegistus, and according to the Persians, the Arabs, the Greeks and the Indians. Latitude and Longitude of the Limits of Īrān: length and breadth of that Country. Explanation of the Map of Īrān. The Frontiers of Īrān, countries to the east, west, north and south. The Qiblah-point: side of the Ka`bah faced from Īrān. General direction of the Qiblah in diverse provinces of Īrān. Exact direction found by the Indian Dial. Construction of the same. Di- rections for its use. Table drawn up by `Abd-ar-Raḥmān Khāzinī to find the exact Qiblah-point. Explanation of Table. Directions for its use. Example: the direction of the Qiblah at Qazvīn
CHAPTER IV pp. 32—43
  The Land of Īrān. Revenues, Khurāsān not included. Total revenue under Ghāzān Khān, and at the time the author wrote. Amount under the Sassanian kings, and the days of Malik Shāh. Contrast with present state of decay. The Province of Arabian `Irāq: reasons for its precedence. Size. Area under cultivation. Mensuration and taxes established by `Omar. Revenue under Ḥajjāj. Revenues under Mongols, assessment known as Rātib. Comparison of total at time of Ḥamd-Allah with accounts of the time of the Caliph Nāṣir. Edict as regards slaughter of cattle. Method followed in these Sections: reasons for beginning with Kūfah of Baghdād. Position of Kūfah. Description of the town, its walls and wells. The Mosque: column with mark of `Alī’s hand. The Oven of the Flood. Tombs of Companions and Holy Men. Taxation of Kūfah lands. Mashhad `Alī. Tomb of `Ali, how re-discovered. Story of Hārūn-ar-Rashīd. The Crooked Minaret. Karbalā, the Shrine of Ḥusayn. Shrine of Ezekiel, or Dhū-l-Kifl, and of Jonah. Baghdād its position: earlier cities here. Foundation by the Caliph Manṣūr of West Baghdād. East Baghdād built by Mahdī. Building of Sāmarrah, transference thither of the capital. Return of Caliphs to Baghdād. Building of the Walls. The Great Mosque and the Palaces. The Gates. Climate, People and peculiarities of Baghdād. Canals and waterways. Colleges, Tombs and Shrines. Distances of various towns from Baghdād. Revenues of the City. Verses in praise of Baghdād
CHAPTER V pp. 44—53
  The chief cities of Arabian `Irāq. Anbār, and the captive Jews. Babylon. Baṣrah, its foundation. The Great Mosque: miracle of its Minaret. Com- panions buried here. The Ubullah Canal and the Tigris Estuary. Dates and Date groves of Baṣrah. Districts round `Abbādān. Towns near Bayāt. Takrīt and its castle. The `Aqarqūf hill. Ḥillah and the shrine of the Expected Imām. Ḥīrah and the palaces of Khawarnaq and Sadīr. The Dujayl district. Rūmiyah. Sāmarrah and its palaces. The Great Mosque and the Malwīyah Minaret. Ba`qūbā and the Nahrawān Canal. `Ukbarā or `Askarah. The Castle of Shīrīn and its milk conduit. Muḥawwal and the Mosquito Charm. Madāin, chief of the Seven Cities. The Great Bridge. The Palace of the Chosroes. Manṣūr’s attempt to demolish it. Its shattered Arch. Shrine of Salmān the Persian. The `Isā Canal. Nahra- wān. Hīt and the bitumen springs. Wāsiṭ
CHAPTER VI pp. 54—64
  Persian `Irāq: size, chief cities, frontiers and revenues. Iṣfahān, the four original villages. Climate and produce. The river Zandah-Rūd. College of Sulṭān Muḥammed, the Indian Idol. Evil ways of the Iṣfahānīs. Tra- dition of the Prophet. The Eight Districts. Distances from Iṣfahān. Ray: anecdotes. Foundation of Ray, its later history. The four districts of Ray and their villages. Shrine of Shah `Abd-al-Aẓīm: other saints buried here. Ṭihrān and Varāmīn. Sulṭāniyyah, its foundation, made the capital. Distances from Sulṭāniyyah. Qazvīn. Traditions concerning this city. Foundation and early history. The three Citadels. The walls. Other Traditions. Climate and produce. Sects. Saints and holy men buried in Qazvīn. Adjacent villages. Revenues
CHAPTER VII pp. 65—77
  Abhar and the Daylam Country. Āvah, Rūdbār and Alamūt, Ḥasan-i- Ṣabbāḥ chief of the Assassins. Zanjān. Sāvah and the dried-up Lake, its four districts. Sujās and the Tomb of Arghūn Khān. The city of Satūrīq with its Lake and Palace. Sarjahān. The Ṭārum and Ṭāliqān districts with their villages. Kāghadh-Kunān, Paper-factory. Muzdaqān river and town. Qum and Kāshān. Jurbādaqān and Queen Humāy. Farāhān and Karaj, the pasture-lands of Kītū. Naṭanz with its towns. Great Lur and Little Lur. Hamadān with its five districts. The two Kharraqāns. Rū- drāvar. Nihāvand and its three districts. Yazd and neighbouring towns
CHAPTER VIII pp. 78—90
  Ādharbāyjān and its frontiers. Tabrīz, its foundations, many earthquakes. Inner Wall and Gates. New quarters built by Ghāzān Khān. Outer Wall and Gates. The suburb of Shām. The Great Mosque. Gardens and water- courses. Fruits. The Cemeteries and Shrines. The seven districts round Tabrīz. Újān or Shahr-i-Islām: its pious foundations. Ṭasūj or Ṭarūj. Ardabīl: Shaykh Ṣafī-ad-Dīn. The Rūyīn Diz Castle. Khalkhāl and Fīrūzābād. Hot and cold springs. The Shāhrūd and Pīshkīn districts. Castles and towns lying on Mount Sablān. Khoi and towns round the Urmīyah Lake. Sarāv and Miyānij. Marāghah and its districts. The Observatory. Dih Khwārqān and other towns. Marand and the Zalūbar river. The Kermes insect. Dizmār. The Khudā-Āfarīn bridge and the bridge built by Ḍiyā-al-Mulk over the Aras. Nakhchivān and Urdūbād
CHAPTER IX pp. 91—101
  Frontiers of Arrān and Mūghān. The Mūghān province: the poisonous Hyssop. Bājarvān and the Rock of Moses. Barzand, built by Afshīn. Hamshahrah and the Shāh Nāmah. The Arrān province. Baylaqān and Ganjah. The province of Shīrvān. Bākūyah and Shamākhī. The Rock of Moses. The Gushtāsfī district. Georgia (Gurjistān) and Abkhasia (Abkhāz). Anī and Tiflīs. The province of Asia Minor (Rūm). Tradition of the Prophet: its frontiers. Sīvās. Erzerum, the Church and Mosque. Āqsarā. Antioch. Avnīk and its castle. Divrīgī. Samsūn. Shimshāt, tomb of Ṣafwān the Companion of the Prophet. `Ammūriyah (Amorion). The Church at Qālīqalā. Qarā-Ḥiṣār. Qūniyah (Iconium): the Castle, Wall and Ditch: Tomb of Jalāl-ad-Dīn Rūmī. Qayṣarīyah (Caesarea Mazaka): Bath of Pliny: Shrine of Muḥammad Ḥanafiyah. Malaṭiyah: Ptolemy, author of the Almagest. Other Fortresses. Little Armenia and Sīs. Greater Armenia. Akhlāṭ. Alāṭāq: Palace of Arghūn. Malāzjird. Vān and Vasṭān
CHAPTER X pp. 102—110
  The Jazīrah province, otherwise Diyār Bakr and Diyār Rabī`ah. Mosul, Irbīl, Āmid. Jazīrah of Ibn `Omar. Ḥarrān and the Star Fort. Ḥiṣn Kayfā. Rās-al-`Ayn. Raqqah and the Castle of Ja`bar: the Martyrs of Ṣiffīn. Ruhā and the Church of Edessa. Sanjār: houses one above the other. The Market of the Eighty. `Imādiyyah. Qirqīsiyā (Circesium). Mārdīn and the river Ṣūr. Mayyāfāriqīn. Naṣībīn and the river Hirmās: the spell against gnats and locusts. Nineveh: the Shrine of Jonah (Yūnus). The Province of Kurdistān. Alānī and Alīshtar. Dīnavar. Sulṭānābād Jamjimāl. Kirmān- shāh and the Stall of Shabdīz: the Park. Kanguvar and Vasṭām. The province of Khūzistān. Tustar and the great Weir. Ahwāz. Dizfūl and the Andīmishk Bridge: ‘Golden Trees.’ Rāmuz. Sūs: the Tomb of Daniel. `Askar Mukram and the Dū Dānik Canal. Masruqān
CHAPTER XI pp. 111—123
  The Province of Fārs. Traditions of the Prophet. Revenues at various times. The five Districts. The District of Ardashīr Khūrah. Shīrāz: foun- dation and early history: the Amīr’s Market: wall and gates: filth of the streets: the water-channels: Traditionists and Saints: notable Shrines: the Old and the New Mosque: the Hospital: Saints buried in Shīrāz: revenues: its District called the Jūmah or Ḥawmah. The Coast Districts. Tawwaj. Khunayfqān. Sarvistān: the Sīrāf emporium. Ṣimkān and its bridge. Fīrū- zābād or Jūr: its history. Kārzīn and Qīr. Īrāhistān. Kavār. Māndistān. Maymand. Huzū. The District of Iṣṭakhr. Persepolis: early history: the three Castles: the Palace of Jamshīd: the Winged-steed: Towers of Silence: the Hot Bath: later history of Persepolis: traditions of King Solomon and Queen Humāy. Abraj. Abarqūh: the Shrine of Ṭaūs-al- Haramayn, and the great Cypress. Iqlīd. Bavvān and Marvast. Bayḍā the White City. Khurramah. Rāmjird and towns on the river Kur. Ṣāhik and Harāt. Qumishah. Kirbāl: the Band-i-Amīr Dam, and the Fuller’s Dam. Yazdikhwāst and the Myrtle Village
CHAPTER XII pp. 124—136
  The District of Dārābjird. Jahrum and Juvaym of Abū Aḥmad: the Castle of Shamīrān. Fasā with its districts. The District of Shāpūr Khūrah. Kāzirūn: the three original villages: stuffs made here. Bishāvur (Shāpūr): the colossal black statue. The Shāpūr Country. The Jīlūyah hills. Jirrah and Gunbad Mallaghān. Khisht and Kumārij. Khullār and its mill-stones. Ghundijān or Dasht Bārīn. Nawbanjān and Shi`b Bavvān, one of the four Earthly Paradises: the White Castle. Qubād Khūrah District. Arrajān and the Thakān bridge. Rīṣahr and its linen. Janābā and Mahrūbān. Sīnīz. The Sixteen Castles of Fārs. The Meadow-Lands. Qays, Baḥrayn and other Islands of the Persian Gulf
CHAPTER XIII pp. 137—145
  The Shabānkārah Province. The Castle of Īg. Zarkān. Iṣṭahbānān and Burk. Dārābgird: the hill of seven coloured salt. Rūnīz and Lār. The Province of Kirmān: legend of Haftawād and the Worm. Guvāshir: the Shīrjānī Garden. Bam and Jīruft. Khabīṣ. Sīrjān and other towns. The Makrān Province. Hurmūz, old and new. The Great Desert: its limits. Jarmaq and Kuhbinān. The Sīstān Province: Zarang. The Quhistān Province. Turshīz: the Cypress of Kashmar: the castles of the Assassins. Tūn and Junābad: the underground water channels. Birjand: the Poet Nizārī. Shākhīn. Ṭabas Masīnān: poisonous clay. Qāyin: Dilchaq, the Jester of Sulṭān Maḥmūd. Mūminābād: a castle of the Assassins. Zābul and Fīrūzkūh. Ghaznayn. Maymand, birthplace of Ḥasan Maymandī. Qarnīn and the Ṣaffarids
CHAPTER XIV pp. 146—159
  The province of Khurāsān: its revenues in early and later times. Nīshāpūr: earthquakes: Shādyākh: watercourses: the Green Spring: marvels: fish with earring. Isfarāyin and the castle of Ṣu`lūk. Sabzavār and Juvayn. Jā- jarm: poisonous grass. Khabūshān. Ṭūs: the Shrine of the Imām `Alī-ar- Riḍā and the tomb of Hārūn-ar-Rashīd. Kilāt and Jirm. Herāt: its castle: splendour under Ghūr dynasty. Fūshanj. Bākharz and Bādghīsh: the pistachio nut crop. Jām: Shrine of Zindah Pīl. Khwāf and Zāvah: tomb of Ḥaydar. Ghūr and Gharjah. Balkh and Bāmiyān. Towns of the Jūzjān district. Khutlān and Ṭāliqān. Great Marv and its buildings. The four famous men of Khāvarān. Sarakhs and Marv-ar-Rūd. The province of Māzandarān, and its seven districts. Jurjān: the Red Tomb. Āmul and Dihistān. Rustamdār and the port of Nīm Murdān. The provinces of Qūmis and Ṭabaristān. Dāmghān and the Windy Spring. Busṭām and the shrine of Abū Yazīd Ṭayfūr. Damāvand and Khirqān. The province of Jīlān. Tūlim and Rasht. Fūmin and Kaskar. Kawtam and Lāhījān
CHAPTER XV pp. 160—179
  The Highroads: length of the Farsakh or League. The Southern High- road: Sulṭāniyyah to Baghdād and Najaf. Thence to Mecca. Mecca to Medina. Medina to Najaf. Wāsit to Tha`labiyyah. Baghdād to Baṣrah, and thence to Baḥrayn. Baṣrah to Qays. Baghdād to Iṣfahān. Baghdād to Raḥbah, and Baghdād to Mosul. The Eastern Highroad, from Sulṭāniyyah by Ray, Nīshāpūr and Marv-ar-Rūd to the Oxus beyond Balkh. Busṭām to Urganj. Nīshāpūr to Herāt. Nīshāpūr to Turshīz. Herāt to Zaranj. Herāt to Marv. Marv to Balkh. Marv to Urganj. The Northern Highroad. Sulṭāniyyah to Bājarvān. Bājarvān to Maḥmūdābād. Bājarvān to Qarābāgh and Tiflīs. Bājarvān to Tabrīz. The Western Highroad. Sulṭāniyyah to Tabrīz and Sīvās. The South-eastern Highroad. Sultāniyyah to Iṣfahān. Iṣfahān to Shīrāz. Shīrāz to Qays Island. Thence, by Sea, to Ceylon. Shīrāz to Kāzirūn. Shīrāz to Hurmūz. Shīrāz to Īg. Shīrāz to Kirmān. Shīrāz to Yazd. Shīrāz to Arrajān and Bustānak
CHAPTER XVI pp. 180—191
  Cause of mountains; advantages therefrom. Abū Qubays and Uḥud. Mount Argaeus. Alvand. The Alburz range. Mount Bīsutun. Mount Jūdī. Mount Damāvand. Rastū and its snakes. Mount Rāsmand and the Kītū Meadow. The Sāvah Mountain and its Cavern. Mount Sablān. Moun- tain where Adam fell, in Ceylon. Mount Sahand. Mount Sinai. The Mountain of Qāf. The Kargas Hills. Kunābad and Raybad Mountains, mentioned in the Shāh Nāmah. Māst or Ararat. The emerald mine of Mount Muqaṭṭam. The Salt Hill of Qum
CHAPTER XVII pp. 192—199
  The three kinds of Minerals. The seven Metals. Mines of Gold, Silver, Iron, Lead, Zinc, Tin and Copper. The three kinds of Gem-stones. Pre- cious Stones: Diamond, Garnet, Plasma, Emerald, Carnelian, Turquoise, Ruby, Sapphire and Jasper. Stones of lesser value: Coral, Rock-crystal and Agate. Common Stones: Tutty, Copperas, Glass, Alum, Kuḥl (Antimony), Litharge, Marcasite, Sal-Ammoniac and Lapis-Lazuli. The Mineral Un- guents: Pitch, Quicksilver, Ambergris, Asphalt, Sulphur, Bitumen and Naphtha
CHAPTER XVIII pp. 200—212
  The formation of rain, hail and snow. Formation of springs, and rivers, which flow into seas. Greater Rivers. Sayḥān and Jayḥān. The Euphrates. The Nile. The Itil (Volga). Aras (Araxes). Būy (Zarafshān). Baradān (Cyd- nus). Jayḥūn (Oxus). Jurjān river. Dijlah (Tigris). Dujayl (Kārūn). Dizfūl river. The Murghāb or Razīq. Zindah Rūd of Iṣfahān. Zakān river. The Safīd Rūd. Sayḥūn (Jaxartes). The Shāhrūd. `Āṣī (Orontes). Farah river. Qārā Murān. Karkhah. River Kur (Cyrus) of Arrān: and of Fārs. Ganges and Indus. Nahrawān. The Herāt river. The Hirmand
CHAPTER XIX pp. 213—220
  Lesser Rivers. Jāyij-Rūd. The Qum river. The Gāvmāsā. Zanjān river. Streams of the Two Ṭārums. The Kāshān river. Muzdaqān and the Lake of Sāvah. The Qazvīn rivers. The rivers of Ādharbāyjān. The Āhar river. The Sarāv and other streams flowing into the Lake of Urmīyah. The Marand river. The rivers of Miyānij. The rivers of Fārs, Shabānkārah and Kirmān. The Pulvār. Ṭāb, Shīrīn and Jirrah rivers. The Ratīn and Jarshīq. The Dīv Rūd. The Shāpūr river. The Burāzah. The rivers of Upper Mesopo- tamia. Balīkh and Khābūr. The Hirmās and the Ṣūr. Rivers of Khurāsān. Rivers Shūrah and Dizbād, with other streams round Nīshāpūr. The Wakh- shāb and the Jaghān Rūd. The rivers of Arabian `Irāq. The rivers of Bayāt, Daqūq, and of Barāz-ar-Rūz
CHAPTER XX pp. 221—234
  The Seven Seas, and the Circumambient Ocean. The ebb and flow of the Tide. First, the Sea of China. Wāqwāq Islands (Japan). Java and the neighbouring islands. Rāmnī (Sumatra). Marvels and wonders. The Whirlpools. Second, the Sea of India, or the Green Sea. Ceylon. Kallah (Quedah) and Sarbuzah. Other Islands with diverse wonders. The Persian Gulf: its islands. Pearl diving and the two Reefs. The Red Sea. The whirlpool of Jabalāt. The Sea of Ḥimyar. Third, the Sea of Zang (Zanzi- bar). The island of Wāghlah, and others. Fourth, the Western Sea. The Confluence of the Two Seas, and the Straits of Gibraltar. Andalusia. Sicily, Crete and other islands. The Fortunate Isles. Fifth, the Sea of the Franks. Alexander’s Cut (the Hellespont) and the Passage of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar). Tinnīs. The island of Khāliṣah. Sixth, the Ghālāṭiqūn, or Sea of Varāng. Seventh, the Eastern Sea. The Caspian. Lakes. Bakh- tigān and other lakes of Fārs. The Lakes of Urmīyah and Vān. Minor Lakes. The Lake of Zarah in Sīstān. The Sea of Aral. Tinnīs Lake in Egypt
CHAPTER XXI pp. 235—247
  Neighbouring Lands, and Cities. Pekin. The Wall of Gog and Magog: account of Sallām the Interpreter. Samarqand. Siyāvukhsh-Gird. Far- ghānah. Kang Diz. Alexandria, with the Pharos and other remains. Damas- cus, and the garden of Iram. Raḥbah. Ṭarsūs. Acre. `Ayn Zarbah. Cairo and Egypt: the Fayyūm and Aylah. Hāruniyyah. Al-Muthaqqab. Bāzār Ardashīr. Khaṭṭ Island. Rām Fīrūz. Zīb Khusraw. Sindūsān. Peshavur. Ṣadwah. Aden. Bāb-al-Abwāb. Balanjar. Samandar. Ṣughdabīl. Con- stantinople
CHAPTER XXII pp. 248—257
  Foreign Countries: to the eastward of Īrān. Badrīyah and other northern cities. Balāsāghūn. Tibet. The Uighūr. Tangut. Churcheh. China and Cathay. Khoten. Khwārazm. Qipchāq. Lands of Gog and Magog. Saq- sīn and Bulghār. Sind. Ṣaghāniyān. Sclavonia and Farkhār. Qirghīz and Salangā. Qandahār and Kābul. Kashmīr and Kaymāk. Māchin. Trans- oxiana. Makrān. Magyars. Greater India. Yaman. Ḥaḍramawt and Yamāmah
CHAPTER XXIII pp. 258—270
  Foreign Countries: to the westward of Īrān. Little Armenia. Ossetes and Russians. Ifrīqīyah. Alān and Sūdāq. Andalusia, and the City of Brass. The Arab Desert. The Berber Country. Circassia. Abyssinia. Ḥijāz. Ḥimyar. Sabā. Syria. Upper Egypt and the Almohad Country. Tripoli (of Barbary). Toledo. Tangiers. The Frank Country and Byzantium. Palestine. Coptos. Caracorum. Qayruwān. Qulzum (Suez). Lower Egypt. Maghrib, the City of Women, and the City of the Children of Israel. The Two Pyramids. Greece
CHAPTER XXIV pp. 271—278
  Wonders and marvels. The Well of the Wind: the Well of Worms. Inter- mittent springs. Moving hillocks. Mount Damāvand pit. Tree at Busṭām. Spring-water against Locusts. Pit of the Pigeons. Other intermittent springs. Hermaphrodites; and other monstrosities. Fidelity of a dog. Poisonous vapours. Intermittent springs and dropping wells. Armless men. Medi- cinal springs. Twins coupled together. The mill of Jonah. Hot and cold springs. Other pigeon pits. Febrifuge water. Miraculous rain-stone of Ardabīl. Poisonous tree and grass. The Bākū fires
CHAPTER XXV pp. 279—288
  Marvels by Land in Foreign Countries. The Bridge of Vomiting. The Laughing-stone of Tibet. The Poison-Hill. The Double-headed Horse. The Brazen Horseman in Andalusia. The Scorpion-water of Antioch. The Padlocked Chamber in Toledo; and king Roderic. The Lebanon Fruit. The Iron Horse and the Sabbatical River. Shell-fish curing Leprosy. The Ox Spring at Acre, and the Spring at Zoar. The Granada Olive Tree. The Seven Intermittent Springs near Tiberias. The Qiblah at Jerusalem. The Church of the Raven in Spain. The Sphinx. The Column at Heliopolis. The Seven Talismans of Nimrod. Mount Etna. Giant Bones in Bulghār. Fountains in India. The Eagle’s Spring. Wonders by Sea
INDEX pp. 289—322


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