Before we proceed with the history of Hafiz Rehmut, it may not be uninteresting to give a brief sketch of the life of Ahmed Shah Douranee, and some account of the Mahrattas, whose invasions of Hindoostan have been related.

Ahmed Shah was of the tribe of Suddudzâee, descendants from Ubdul, which name is generally pronounced by the Afghans, “Abdâl,” and whence the name “Abdallee.” Ubdul was the son of Tureen, the son of Shurf-ood-deen, the son of Surreen, the son of Kys-Abdool-Rusheed, who was descended from Afghân the grandson of Saul king of Israel.

Mahomed Zeman Khan, the father of Ahmed Shah, was the son of Dowlut Khan Abdallee, and on the death of Abdoolla Khan became ruler of Heerât, and was succeeded in that office by his son Zoolfikar Khan. Rehman Khan, a son of Abdoolla Khan, incited the friends of his family to rebellion; and the Afghans to put an end to these feuds made Rehman governor of Kandahar and Foorâth, and Zoolfikar Khan governor of Bâkhurz, while Allayar Khan was invited from Mooltân and made ruler of Heerât, in the year 1137 of the Hejiree. After a short time, Abdool-gunnee Kôzee instigated Zoolfikar Khan to attack Allayar Khan, and for six months the province of Heerât was a scene of bloodshed, when the Afghans determined to reject both these competitors for the government, and to establish each head of a tribe as ruler. Allayar Khan retired to Rôchâk, and Zoolfikar Khan to Foorâth. This sort of patriarchal government continued till Nadir Shah’s approach to invade their country rendered it expedient to vest the sovereign power in one person, and Allayar Khan was recalled, and a second time made Governor of Heerât. Zoolfikar Khan and Allayar Khan united their forces to oppose the enemy, and several desperate battles were fought; but at length Zoolfikar Khan was defeated at Foorâth, and fled with his younger brother Ahmed to Kandahar, where they were seized and imprisoned by Shah Hoossein Ghooljee. When Nadir Shah conquered Kandahar, these young men obtained their liberty and waited on him, and a portion of land in Mâzinderân was allotted for their support. Zoolfikar Khan did not long survive, and his brother Ahmed then entered into the service of Nadir Shah, by whom he was placed in the command of a gate of the palace.

When Nadir Shah, at the instigation of his brother Ullee Koolee Khan, was murdered at Futtiabad, Ahmed assembled a force, and attacked the rebels, whom he entirely defeated; the principal sirdars fled, and Ahmed proceeded to Kandahar, where he was met by the Kil­ladar Mohubbut Khan; the governor of the city, Noor Khan; and the commandant of the forces, Giddyee Khan, who escorted him to the fort, and proclaimed him king in the year 1161 of the Hejiree.

In a short time these three persons presuming upon the services which they had rendered to Ahmed Shah, were guilty of many improper acts, and although he would willingly have avoided noticing them, yet at length he found himself under the necessity of doing so to establish his own authority, and they were accordingly put to death. Nâsir Khan was appointed soobuhdar of Kâbool and Peshawur, and his son Nuwab Buhadur was detained a hostage for his father’s fidelity. After a time Ahmed Shah proceeded to Kâbool, when Nâsir Khan aware that his conduct would not bear investiga­tion, fled towards Lahore. A force was dispatched in pursuit, which overtook him and defeated his followers on the banks of the Indus, but Nâsir Khan escaped, and placed himself under the protection of Shah Nuwaz Khan, the governor of Lahore. Ahmed Shah with twelve thousand horse followed him, but sent in advance Mukdoom Shah to dissuade Shah Nuwaz Khan from affording an asylum to the fugitive: the Shah presuming on the sanctity of his priestly office, made use of harsh language, which was resented so highly that Shah Nuwaz Khan caused him to be put to death. The news of this outrage induced Ahmed Shah to proceed by forced marches, and on reaching Lahore he stormed the batteries by which the city was defended, when Shah Nuwaz Khan fled to Delhi.

The king left a garrison in the fort of Lahore, and was proceeding to Delhi, when the royal army of Hin­doostan, under Kummur-ood-deen Khan, opposed his advance near to Sirhind. The result of the battle fought on that occasion, as well as of Ahmed Shah’s subsequent invasions of Hindoostan, has been related in its place. When Ahmed Shah was on his death-bed, he sent for his son Timoor Shah from Heerât; but Shah Wullee Khan, the vizier (whose daughter was married to the prince Soolimân Shah), wished to place his son-in-law on the throne, and caused a furmân to be sent to Timoor Shah, prohibiting his advance. On the death of Ahmed Shah, his younger son Soolimân was proclaimed king, and the vizier who had raised him to this dignity directed the affairs of the state. Preparatory to the conquest of Heerât he invaded the province of Sind, where he was defeated by Timoor Shah, and being taken prisoner, was put to death. Soolimân then resigned the sceptre to his elder brother Timoor, who was proclaimed king in the year 1183 of the Hejiree, and continued to reign when this history was written in the year 1207 of the Hejiree.