It has been before observed, that the pergunnah of Etawah, when given by Ahmed Shah Dooranee to Enayit Khan, was in the possession of the Mahrattas, for whose expulsion Moolla Mohsin Khan, with ten thousand horse, marched from Kutheir; he was opposed near the town of Etawah by Kishun and Balla Pundit Mahrattas, but they were defeated and fled, first to the fort of Omurgurh and afterwards across the Jumna. Moolla Mohsin Khan then laid siege to the fort of Etawah, which was given up to him by the Kelladar: but although the Mahrattas were thus driven out of the country, little advantage accrued to Enayit Khan, as the zemeendars refused to pay the revenue, and secure in their mud forts, set his authority at defi­ance, till the arrival of Sheikh Kubbeer and Moolla Bâz Khan with a reinforcement of five thousand foot and a train of artillery, enabled Mohsin Khan to attack them with effect. Many of the smaller forts were levelled, and the command of the fort of Etawah was given to Rajah Bulbuddur.

A grievous famine in Méwat obliged vast numbers of the inhabitants to seek a subsistence in Hindoostan; many of these poor wretches perished on the high roads, but all who reached Kutheir were liberally provided for by Hafiz Rehmut, whose feeling heart was ever alive to the call of distress. To render these people useful, and to preserve their habits of industry, he employed them to raise a mud fortification around the town of Pillibheet, which work occupied them for two years; and at the expiration of that time, grain having become plenty in Méwat, the majority of the emigrants returned to their own country, but many became con­verts to Mahomedanism, and settled in Kutheir, where they are still known by the name of Méwâtees.

In the year 1176 of the Hejiree, while Hafiz Rehmut was engaged at Mehrabad, he received a letter from Ahmed Khan Bungish, informing him that Shooja-ood-dowla was on his march to invade Furrukhabad, and requesting his aid to oppose the enemy. Hafiz imme­diately complied with the request, and pitched his camp at Futtehgurh.

On this occasion, Nujeeb-ood-dowla had advanced to Khodagunje, to join Shooja-ood-dowla, who had encamped at the Serai of Khwaja Phool. Hafiz dis­patched vakeels to inform these two chiefs that if they persisted in their intentions, the whole army of Kutheir should be brought to the aid of Ahmed Khan. They in answer offered Hafiz one-third of Ahmed Khan’s territory if he would remain neuter; but nothing could induce him to forsake his old friend, and Shooja-ood-dowla was therefore compelled to give up his plans on Furrukhabad. A few days afterwards Nujeeb-ood-dowla visited Hafiz Rehmut at Futtehgurh, and as Shah Alum had accompanied Shooja-ood-dowla, they proceeded together to Serai Khwâja Phool, to pay their respects to his majesty. From thence Shah Alum accompanied Shooja-ood-dowla to Oude; Nujeeb-ood-dowla marched to his jaghire at Suharunpore, and Hafiz Rehmut returned to Kutheir, leaving his son Enayit Khan at Furrukhabad, to assist Ahmed Khan in settling his country.

In the latter end of the year 1176 Saadoolla Khan died; his death was hastened by the use of intoxicating liquors and drugs.

Although by the exertions of Moolla Mohsin Khan, the zemeendars of Etawah had been brought under subjection, those in Koomait (a pergunnah on the right bank of the Jumna) still resisted his authority, and having strong forts situated among the ravines, which they deemed inaccessible to artillery, the revenue was entirely withheld. As Hafiz Rehmut had not yet visited his son’s jaghire, he took this opportunity of gratifying his curiosity, and of reducing the refractory zemeendars; he accordingly marched to Furrukhabad, and being there joined by Enayit Khan, they proceeded together to Etawah, where Hafiz remained while his son con­tinued his route to Koomait. The zemeendars defended themselves with great bravery, but the Afghans stormed their forts, and put to death several of the principal men, when a certain annual tribute was agreed to, and the arrears were paid up. Hafiz and his son then returned to Bareilly.

Sooraje-ood-dowla, grandson of Aliverdi Khan Muhabut Jung, the Nuwab of Bengal, had levied from the English higher duties on their merchandize than had been previously agreed to; which breach of faith they represented to their king, who sent a military force to their aid; but before its arrival, Sooraje-ood-dowla marched to Calcutta, when the English after a slight opposition quitted the town, and it was given up to plunder. The English had embarked on board their ships, and would have left the country, had not their king’s troops arrived at this critical juncture; but even with this reinforcement they could not contend with Sooraje-ood-dowla, till Jaffier Ullee Khan proposed to join them, on condition of their placing him on the musnud: which being agreed to, he advised them to make a night attack on the Nuwab’s camp. This proved successful, and the Nuwab’s troops fled.

On the following day Sooraje-ood-dowla was taken prisoner and put to death,* and Jaffier Ullee Khan was placed on the musnud. Soon after this Jaffier Ullee Khan became insane, and his eldest son Meerun having been killed by lightning, the English raised to the mus­nud his son-in-law Kasim Ullee Khan, and from this time they refused to pay any duties on their merchandise.

Kasim Ullee Khan fearing that they would soon deprive him of his power, treacherously murdered three hundred of their chiefs whom he had invited to an entertainment, and marched with all his forces to Calcutta, where he was opposed by the English, and being defeated, returned to Moorshidabad. Unable to retain his footing in Bengal, he fled to Oude, and solicited the aid of the Nuwab Shooja-ood-dowla, offering to pay a lac of rupees for each marching day, and half that sum for each halt. This occurred in the year 1177 of the Hejiree. The Nuwab was well inclined to accede to Kasim Ullee’s request, and Hafiz Rehmut Khan was solicited to join the confederacy. Accordingly six thou­sand men under Enayit Khan marched from Kutheir, and joined Shooja-ood-dowla at Allahabad, whence they proceeded viâ Benares to the Caramnassa river, on the south bank of which the English army was drawn up; but as these did not exceed four thousand men, they retreated to Patna, and entrenched themselves in the new town.

Shooja-ood-dowla with eighty thousand horse and foot followed the English, and encamped at Phoolwureea, four koss from Patna. On the following morning he advanced to the English entrenchments commanded by Colonel Carnac,* when a brisk fire opened on him from the batteries, whereby he lost a great number of men. A body under Bénee Buhadur then attempted to storm the batteries, but the fire from the guns mowed down their ranks, and a large proportion of them being killed the rest took to flight, and Shooja-ood-dowla returned to his encampment, where he endeavoured to prevail on his troops to attempt the storm a second time, but without effect, and many deserted from his army.

Shooja-ood-dowla then erected batteries to play on the old town of Patna, but these were of little use, and did not at all forward his plans against the English. The rainy season being near at hand,* all the sirdars considered it advisable to quit Patna, and to encamp at Buxar till the rains ceased: and this measure being decided on, Enayit Khan with his troops returned to Kutheir, and presented to his father five elephants, some valuable jewels, and several bales of muslins and cloths the manufacture of Bengal, which had been sent for him by Kasim Ullee Khan.

In the course of this year, a tremendous fire broke out in the town of Bareilly which consumed more than half the houses, and about fifteen hundred persons were burned to death. Hafiz Rehmut Khan had afforded every assistance in his power to the unfortunate sufferers in this calamity, and the new buildings were rising apace, when on the 19th of Suffur, in the year 1178 of the Hejiree, at about three P.M. an earthquake threw down several of the largest houses, and shattered others; large rents were made in the earth; the reservoirs of water were emptied, and water was thrown up in places which before were dry. The shock was felt equally severely throughout the whole province of Oude, and for violence and duration was not exceeded by any on record, except that which occurred in the reign of Secunder Lodi in the year 911 of the Hejiree.

Soorujmull Jhaut (who had amassed great riches, and built the strong forts of Bhurtpore, Deeg, Koomhére, and Wyr) availed himself of Ahmed Shah Douranee’s return to Kandahar, and the weakness of Jehandar Shah Juwan Bukht, who acted as Shah Alum’s Naib at Delhi, to throw off his allegiance, and assembled his army to oppose the royal troops. He first marched to Akberabad (Agra), and having bribed the Kelladar, got possession of the fort; he then proceeded towards Delhi, and was opposed by Nujeeb-ood-dowla (in the Dooâb), between Jaiver and Tuppul on the banks of the Jumna, where Nujeeb-ood-dowla entrenched himself; and Soorujmull erected batteries to make his attack at leisure, while with his horse he intercepted his adversary’s supplies. One day, while Soorujmull was in a battery near to that part of the entrenchment commanded by Sydoo Ballôch, a sally was made by the royal troops, and Soorujmull was shot,* when his troops retreated to Bhurtpore.

After six months, Juwahurmull, the son of Sooruj­mull, aided by Mulhar Rao and twenty-five thousand Mahrattas, renewed the attack on Delhi, and surrounded the city, completely preventing the introduction of any supplies of grain. Nujeeb-ood-dowla fortified every ward of the city, encamped his troops outside the walls, and raised batteries in front of them, which were daily attacked by the enemy. The distress of the inhabitants being very great, Nujeeb-ood-dowla entreated the assis­tance of the Afghans of Kutheir, and at the same time applied to the Douranee for support. Hafiz Rehmut, always zealous in the cause of the faithful, readily acceded to Nujeeb-ood-dowla’s request, and leaving Enayit Khan in charge of Kutheir, he marched in 1179 Hejiree to Daranugur, where he was joined by Doondee Khan, Futtéh Khan Khansaman, and Bukshee Surdar Khan, with their respective contingents. In the mean time the Sikhs had taken advantage of Nujeeb-ood-dowla’s detention at Delhi, to invade the northern division of Suharunpore, and as it appeared probable that they might be tempted to advance still further, and enter Kutheir, six thousand horse were in the first instance dispatched to expel them; and a bridge of boats was constructed for crossing the main body of the army and the artillery.

Juwahurmull and Mulhar Rao on hearing of the approach of a reinforcement under Hafiz Rehmut, redoubled their attacks on Nujeeb-ood-dowla; but when they learned that Ahmed Shah was advancing to his assistance, and had actually reached Kâbool, the Mah­rattas became alarmed, and Mulhar Rao returned to the Dukhun. The defection of so large a portion of the army induced Juwahurmull to propose terms, which were agreed to by Nujeeb-ood-dowla, and a treaty being signed, the Jhauts returned to Deeg and Koomhére; while the Afghans under Hafiz encamped at Hussun­pore.

In this interval the English had advanced from Patna to Buxar to attack Shooja-ood-dowla, who was prepared to meet them: but in the action,* the Moghuls of the Nuwab’s army neglected, or refused to obey the orders which they had received, and being wholly without dis­cipline, were completely routed. The Nuwab made his escape as speedily as possible, and the English pursued his flying squadrons to Oude and Allahabad.*

Shah Alum was present in this action, and remained on the field attended by about two thousand men; he was immediately invited to the English camp, where he received the honours due to his rank, and on arriving at Allahabad, a territory yielding seventeen lacs of rupees per annum was allotted for his support.

Shooja-ood-dowla considering himself unsafe at Luc­now, sent for his family and valuables from Fyzabad, and proceeded to Bareilly in the hope of prevailing on Hafiz Rehmut to join his cause; and as Hafiz was at this time at Hussunpore, the ladies were left at Bareilly under charge of Sâlâr Jung. From Hussunpore, Hafiz and the Nuwab marched to Furrukhabad, to consult Ahmed Khan Bungish; and it was there decided that for them to join in attacking the English would be inex­pedient; they therefore recommended that the Nuwab should propose to treat. Such a proposition ill suited the ardent spirit of Shooja-ood-dowla, and as the most press­ing entreaties of his friends were of no avail, he quitted Furrukhabad, called in a body of Mahrattas under Mul­har Rao, and again attacked the English troops at Corah. Mulhar Rao made the first charge, but the guns of the English were so well served, that the Mahrattas fell in heaps, and unaccustomed to such opposition, they thought it best to retreat.* After this second defeat Shooja-ood-dowla returned to Furrukhabad, and was persuaded by Hafiz to throw himself on the mercy of the English General. However reluctant to do so, he was compelled to comply, from a conviction that none of the Afghans would act without the concurrence of Hafiz Rehmut, and he therefore, with a few private servants, set out for the British camp, accompanied by Moonshee Tég Chund, the vakeel of Hafiz.

Shooja-ood-dowla was received with respect, and having agreed to pay to the English one-sixteenth of the revenues of his country, a treaty of peace was signed,* and he returned to Lucnow. His family then left Bareilly under charge of the eunuch Sundul Khan, and accompanied by Iktyar Khan the Aumil of Crore, who was directed to supply them with every requisite on their journey.

Although the Mahrattas had been driven out of the pergunnahs of Etawah and Shékhoabad, they only waited a convenient opportunity for revisiting their old possessions, and Mulhar Rao being now at leisure, laid siege to the fort of Puphond, commanded by Mahomed Hussun Khan, the eldest son of Moolla Mohsin Khan. The approach of Mulhar Rao with hostile intentions had been notified to Hafiz Rehmut, who marched from Bareilly to oppose him, and on reaching Puphond was joined by that active officer Sheikh Kubbeer, who on receipt of the news had advanced from Etawah. Mulhar Rao was not prepared to expect so serious an opposition, he therefore crossed the Jumna and retired to the Dukhun.