The title of the son was “MOOSTUKEEM BILLAH” (the Faithful to God).

God only knows the truth of this! I now describe some of the events, and some of the reasons why the Musulman forces came from Bagdad.

It is written in the histories of Sind, that in the time of the Khaliphat of Abdool Mulik, he gave orders to some of his servants to go to Sind to buy Hindoostan female slaves, and other things. Some merchants of Egypt having joined them, they came to Sind. They bought and col­lected female slaves, and other things, as ordered, and having made their arrangements, started on their return by the sea route. When they got to Daiwul Bunder (now called the Tatta and Luheree Bunder), a band of highway robbers came upon them, killing many, taking a few prisoners, looting the whole of their property; and the remaining few escaping, they returned to, and made their complaint before, the Khaliph, who was so incensed, that the perspiration issued from his body: he warned an army to go to that country, and then he died, the force remaining stationary, when his noble son succeeded to the Khaliphat. Hujjaj the son of Yoosoof was sent by him to govern Koofa. He arranged affairs in Bagdad and Koofa, and then in Karma­nia, Khorasan, Sejistan (Sehwistan). He then heard some of the cir­cumstances of Mukran and Sind, which he reported to the Khaliph: “That formerly some of the Khaliph’s servants went to buy things, and that the people of Sind had looted them of all they had, killing many of the party, keeping some as prisoners; and that the deceased Khaliph had warned a force to go and take revenge. In the mean time the Khaliph was taken ill, and died: thus to this time the Mahomedans are still in confinement in the hands of Kafirs. If ordered, it is possible that these people shall be released, and the property which was looted recovered.”

It is the custom of good, clever men, first of all to gain intelligence of the circumstances of their enemies, and their condition. Previous to receiving a reply to his petition, Hujjaj warned two clever men to go as spies, to ascertain the circumstances of Sind, and the strength of its armies. He gave them a Firman, as if from the Khaliph, and dismissed them. At that time, Daher, the son of Chuk, was the King of Sind: they gave the Firman to him, he receiving it with much honour; he read, and understood its contents. He denied that his men had done as alleged, saying that he was clear of the matter. His tongue was full of enmity, but with it he spoke in terms of friendship before these persons: asking his attendants about the occurrence, he said he would send people to find out who had behaved in this way towards the Khaliph’s servants, declaring, that if caught, he would punish them; that he would recover the stolen property from them, and send it to the Khaliph. He sent his people to inquire into it, detaining the two men for some time by cunning artifices. He wrote a reply to the Khaliph, full of excuses, saying that at the Daiwul Bunder bands of thieves always remained; that these were the people at whose hands his (the Khaliph’s) servants had been maltreated, and that he had not sufficient strength to catch these men. The two spies discovered the condition of the country, and troops, and, returning to Hujjaj, told him all they knew.

In the mean time Hujjaj had received from the Khaliph a reply to his petition. In this it was ordered as follows: “That he should send his cousin Mahomed the son of Kasim to occupy Sind; that Hujjaj should draw upon the royal treasury at Bagdad for the expenses of the army.” In the space of one month Hujjaj had got ready a force of 15,000 men: of these 6,000 were horse; 6,000 were on camels, and 3,000 were footmen. These he sent towards Sind, and with them 30,000 Dirhams for expenses, that, when necessary, it should be expended. This took place in Hijree 92 (A. D. 710).