This king was from among the bought Chihulganee slaves of Sultan Shums-ood-deen Elthemis. After the death of Sultan Nasir-ood-deen, in the year 664 (A. D. 1265), he ascended the throne of Dehli. He conducted the affairs of state in a way similar to foreign kings. He brought into his hands all the country that Sultan Shums-ood-deen had held; he spread the carpet of justice, giving justice according to Mahomedan law. He fixed the orders of government so securely, that no one could move them. In a short time all his country became flourishing; on the highways there was no fear; the sepoys and Ryuts lived happily. He was a very good king. With great honour, he was strong in experience, and he did everything well.

How good a thing is wisdom! Oh God! do not deprive this world of it.

At the commencement of his reign, he gave Lahore, Mooltan, and Sind, in charge of his son, Sultan Mahomed, whose heart was much given to mix with religious men. On this account he always visited Shaikh Buha-ood-deen Zukreeya, and Shaikh Fureed-ood-deen Gunj Shukur. He was a most valiant man; his disposition was bountiful; he was the friend of the wise, such as Ameer Khusrow, and Ameer Husun, inhabitants of Delhi. These two men were always present in his service. They received pay and presents in the rank of courtiers. The Sultan greatly approved of their poetry and prose. Sultan Mahomed was so well bred, that if he sat the entire day and night in the assembly, he would not raise one leg above the other. His oath was, “By God!” (Hukka!) His heart was always upon the priests and men of learning. It is said that Shaikh Oosman Murwundee was among the priests of Sind. He went to Mooltan, when the Sultan showed him great respect, making him an offering. He asked him to settle in Mooltan; to this the priest would not agree.

It is related that one night Shaikh Oosman, and Shaikh Sudr-ood-deen the son of Shaikh Buha-ood-deen Zukreeya were in an assembly, where, by the extacy occasioned by hearing the song of poetry, they became transported, and all commenced capering. The Sultan, arising, put his hand to his breast, and cried. They say that a daughter of Sultan Shums-ood-deen was his wife at that time, and in this condition he (the Sultan) three times declared her divorced. After divorce, marriage with her could not again be performed with the Sultan, until she had been married to some one else (Untalah.) On this account she was married to Shaikh Sudr-ood-deen. After she had gone to his house, the king’s attendants told him to declare the divorce. The lady then said to him: “I have left the house of that bad man, and come near you: it will not be proper before God for you to place me in his hands again.” Sudr-ood-deen replied: “I will not be inferior to a woman”; and he did not declare the divorce. The Sultan, being angry, deter­mined to be revenged upon him.

Sultan Mahomed twice sent men to Shaikh Sundee Shirazee, saying that in Mooltan he would make him a place of residence; that he would buy a village for him, which he might dedicate to pious uses: but Shaikh Sundee, on account of his old age, would not come; and each time he sent his reply in verse, written by his own hand; and he recommended Ameer Khusrow to him. In his time, many good, clever men attended the royal assemblies.

The Sultan went every three years to his father at Delhi, and after remaining there one year he returned.

In the year Hijree 683 (A. D. 1284), Gungeez Khan sent Kutlugh Khan and Taimoor, with a large force, towards Hindoostan, which, having crossed the river Neelab, entered the boundary of Lahore. Sultan Mahomed, with 30,000 horsemen, went towards Lahore. A battle was fought by the two armies. By the desire of God, in that battle Sultan Mahomed drank the sherbet of death, and he went to the Garden of Paradise. Notwithstanding this, defeat came to Taimoor and Kutlugh Khan, and they fled.

Sultan Balbun then appointed Kaikhusrow, the son of Sultan Mahomed, to Mooltan and Sind. The Sultan always remained in sorrow for his son; so much so, that in the year Hijree 685 (A. D. 1286) he departed to the world above.