Account of the King’s invasion of Hindustan, and of his regaining that empire. A. H. 962.—A. D. 1554-5.


“O, wise man! the sphere of fortune is always revolving: it is constantly interchanging grief and happiness. Pleasure does not endure for ever, neither does pain continue to the end of time.”

When every thing was arranged for the king’s departure he quitted Kabul, and marched to Jellalabad; he there embarked on a raft;* and was pleasantly floated down the river to Pyshavur. Here he halted for two days, and sent off an express to Sultan Adam, the Ghicker chief, informing him of his proceedings and further intentions. After that, by repeated marches the royal army reached the western bank of the Nilab (Indus). It was on the last day of the month when the army crossed the river; and just as his Majesty passed over, I, the humble servant, saw the new moon, and immediately congratulated his Majesty on this auspicious event; also of his having crossed the river, and having re-entered the kingdom of Hindustan at the moment of the new moon’s appearance; the king replied, “God be praised, may it be propitious!” This he repeated three times. Amen.

After the troops had all passed the river, we continued our march day after day till we entered the district of Pirhala. At this place his Majesty said to his humble servant, “go, and have the Prince Akber bathed and dressed, and bring him hither.” In obedience to the royal order, I went and delivered the message to the Prince, who said, “I cannot bathe, nor appear naked before you.”* I replied, “if your Royal Highness pleases, I will call your valet, Refyk;” he said, “call him.” After having bathed (in private) he put on a new dress, and I accompanied him to the king. When we arrived his Majesty was sitting, facing the setting moon; he ordered the Prince to sit down opposite him; he then read some verses of the Koran, and at the end of each verse breathed on the Prince, and was so delighted and happy, it might be said that he had then acquired all the good fortune of this world, and the blessings of the next. His Majesty then continued his journey, and when we arrived at the distance of four coss from the Pirhala he alighted.

The next day the king gave an order for a mustering of every description of his followers, and said he would commence with the Ewry department. In compliance with this order the humble servant Jouher, and the other persons belonging to the department, having dressed and armed ourselves, stood in a rank before the king, who having looked at us was much pleased, and said, “I consider this review as an auspicious omen;” on which, we all offered up prayers for his Majesty’s success and happiness. Amen, Amen.

We then marched towards the river Chunab; and when we had arrived within four coss of its bank, we came to a hill or high ground, on which the king directed his tents to be pitched, and the dinner to be served. After dinner he ordered the Khan Khanan, Byram Khan, and some other chiefs with their troops to proceed towards Jallindhar, and ascertain whether the Afghans were still in these districts; if they were found, the chiefs were to return and inform his Majesty; but if not, they were to push on, cross the river Sutlege, and enter the district of Sirhind. His Majesty at the same time directed his secretary, his chamberlain, and several of the domestics to proceed to Lahore, and make preparations for his arrival in that city. On this, a servant named Herbay, came and said, “that Lahore was his birthplace, that all his family were there, and that if his Majesty would grant him permission, he would go on and make inquiries respecting them;” the king replied, “if you go, who is to carry my water bottle?” the paymaster and the chief eunuch replied, “his brother, Futteh Allah, will carry the bottle.” His Majesty did not approve this arrangement, but said, “he may go, but I will give the bottle to another person:” he then ordered me to take charge of it.

The aforesaid Herbay having gone some distance, said to himself, “if the bottle is once given in charge to another attendant, God knows whether I shall ever get it back again.”* Having thus reflected, he repented of what he had done, and during the night returned; but as the bottle had been entrusted to me, I thought it requisite to ask the king’s permis­sion before I gave it up. I therefore said to his Majesty, “is it your royal pleasure, that I shall continue in the Abdar Khaneh (water house), or in the Ewry?” he replied, “you are to remain in the latter, but remember you are always to keep a china cup, a jug with a lid, and the water bottle in your own possession; you are not to allow any other person to offer me water to drink without your seal being affixed; don’t permit the bottle to remain empty during the night; when you give me to drink, pour the water into the china cup, and on the march have the bottle on the horse with you.” Thus his Majesty kindly instructed me; but, as mankind is ever liable to error, the next morning, when we were about to march, Herbay having returned, asked me for the bottle, and I gave it to him; when we were all mounted, and the king saw the bottle in the hands of Herbay, he was very angry, and when he alighted gave me two blows on the side of the head, and said, “whenever I again confer an employment on you, beware not to resign it to any body.” With this reprimand he graciously forgaye me.

The chiefs that had been sent towards Jallindhar having crossed the Sutlege, and passed through Machwareh, entered the district of Sirhind, where they plundered all the property of the Afghan chief, Tatar Khan. The king in the mean time having arrived at Kullanur (Callanore of the maps), halted there for some days; during which time his Majesty and Abu al Mualy agreed to enter the northern range of hills; the chiefs, however, were not satisfied to do so, but being afraid to tell their opinion to the king, they employed me (Jouher) to explain to him, that it was highly impolitic to lose time by making excursions, when more important business was in hand. I did so; but concluded by saying, “they were willing to obey his orders;” the king replied, “very well, I will go back to Lahore.” The order was immediately given, and we set out for that city.

When the king arrived within ten coss of Lahore, all the Syeds and principal people of the city, led by Shykh Abd Allah, came out to meet his Majesty; but as there were two parties in the place, headed by Mukhdum-al-Mulk and Myan-Hajy-Mehdy (religious persons), he had some difficulty in reconciling them.

The king then entered the city in state, and a few days afterwards made a division of the appoint­ments of the province among his followers: to the humble servant Jouher was assigned the collection of the Pergunnah of Hybetpur; but previous to my departure his Majesty called me, and said, “young man, listen to this story as a piece of advice.” A Moghul having received an appointment,* began his supposed duty by snatching a blanket from the shoulders of a citizen, and upon the man’s remon­strating, said, “you scoundrel, don’t you know that I have been sent by Government to collect.” On receiving this hint, I said, “I am aware of my own unfitness for public employment, but trust that through your Majesty’s favour, and having had the honour for so many years of pouring water on the royal hands, I shall not discredit the appoint­ment to which I have been nominated;” the king replied, “good produces good, and evil causes evil.” I then made my obeisance.

When arrived in the Pergunnah, I found that it had been the custom of the Afghan farmers to give their wives or children in pledge to the Hindu bankers for money advanced on account of the collections; therefore, the first thing I did was to collect all the grain that had been hidden in dry wells and other places, and having sold it, paid the bankers, and liberated the families of the peasants. On hearing of this affair his Majesty was much pleased, and promoted me to the collectorship of the villages belonging to the Afghan chief, Tatar Khan Lody.*