Of other causes of dissension between Shâh Tahmâsp and his Majesty Humãyùn. A. H. 951.—A. D. 1544.

THE subjects which caused the dissension between the two sovereigns were these: first, some of the disaffected nobility of Hindûstân, who, although servants of the King, had taken part with the Prince Kamrân, and who had afterwards gone on the pilgrimage to Mecca, returned from thence by the route of Persia, viz. Rûshen Beg Kukeh (foster brother), Khuajê Ghâzy Diwân, and Sultân Muham­med (the spearman), all of whom having obtained access to the Persian monarch, insinuated that Humâyûn had not talents for a king; in consequence of which his brothers had not supported him: they also proposed that, if Shâh Tahmãsp would imprison his guest, and entrust them with an army, they would soon take Candahar,* and deliver it over to his Majesty.

The second cause of ill will was this; some of the Turkoman officers said to their monarch, “that Sultân Baber, the father of Humâyûn, had very unjustly put to death one of their countrymen, named Jennum Beg, and that if his Majesty should order any of them to assist Humayun in the recovery of his dominions, he would probably murder them in the same treacherous manner.” But there was a third, and more powerful cause of offence, of a long standing, which was this: soon after Humayun had defeated Bahader-Shâh, of Gujeràt (A. D. 1535), and had returned to his capital, Agra, he was one day amusing himself with divining arrows.* He wrote his own name on twelve of the first class of arrows, and the name of Shah Tahmasp on twelve of the second class; and this anecdote was by some means communicated to the Persian monarch. In consequence, while the two Kings were one day seated together, Shah Tahmasp said to Humayun, “be so good as explain the reason of your selecting arrows of the second class for me on such an occasion;” the King frankly replied, “the fact is, that I then looked to the extent of our mutual dominions; and as Persia at that time was only of half the extent of the kingdom of Hindustan, I therefore considered you as inferior to myself.” Tahmâsp then said, in an ill natured manner, “it was a consequence of your foolish vanity, that you could not properly govern those extensive dominions; you were there­fore driven away by the villagers, and left your wife and family captives:” the King replied, “we are all under the controul of fate, and must willingly submit to the decrees of the Almighty.” With this answer the Persian monarch appeared satisfied.

[Quotation from the Korân.]

“God if omnipotent over all his works, but the greater part of mankind do not understand.”

Some time after this conversation, the Persian monarch consulted with his brother, Bahram Myrza, respecting the destruction (helakyt) of the King Humayun. On hearing this proposal, the Myrza was so much afflicted that he shed tears; he afterwards went to his sister, and said to her, “the King Humayun has sought refuge with the Seffy family, and has long partaken with me of the same salt, and our brother has now made me such and such proposals.”*

When the Princess heard this discourse she also began to weep. Just at this time the Persian monarch entered his sister’s apartment; on which Bahram Myrza made his salutation and retired. The monarch then sat down, and asked the Princess the cause of her crying; she replied, “I am lamenting our adverse fate.” He asked, “what more prosperity can you wish for, than that you now enjoy?” she answered, “I am constantly employed in prayers for your welfare: are you not already encompassed by enemies? and are you not engaged in contest with the Turks, the Uzbegs, the Georgians, and the Russians? and I hear you are now about to raise up other enemies by your intentions of injuring Muhammed Humâyûn, whose son and brothers will one day seek revenge. If you will not support him, at least permit him to go away, that he may apply for assistance somewhere else.” The Persian mon­arch was much affected by the address of his sister, and said, “my Chiefs have been giving me unworthy advice; but what you have suggested is certainly more dignified and praiseworthy.”

Shortly after this, Shãh Tahmasp sent the King an invitation to visit him at his hunting encampment; he went, and arrived about mid-day, and remained till late in the evening; during which time the Per­sian monarch behaved with the greatest kindness; and as our King was about to take leave, said, “Keep your mind at ease, for I shall very soon send you to your own country in a proper manner. Cazy Jehan will mention certain subjects, to which I request you will pay attention;” on which the King offered up prayers for the prosperity of his Majesty.

The two monarchs then mounted to return to their tents; but after riding some distance our King was obliged to alight, having no other attendants with him than his groom. When he had been some time absent, and as it was very dark, Shâh Tahmâsp was alarmed, and said, “what is become of Humã­yûn? I fear some of my Turkomans* may hurt him;” and immediately ordered one of the two torch­bearers that were before him to go in search of the King. The Kurchy, carrying the lighted torch, wandered about, and kept calling in the Turky language. At length the King heard his voice, and sent the groom to say he was coming. Several of the Persian attendants then came, and said their master was enquiring most particulary for him: the King then joined the Persian monarch, and they rode together till they came to some tents, when Sháh Tahmasp asked whose tents they were; and on being informed they were the King’s, he then shook his Majesty by the hand, wished him a good night, and went to his own pavilion.

About midnight the King complained of being very hungry; on which some of the Persian servants who were in attendance went and informed Sháh Tahmasp of the circumstance, who immediately ordered that a supper should be sent to him. Nine dishes were very shortly brought, and his Majesty regaled himself most heartily, and afterwards went to bed.

The next day the Persian monarch went to visit a valley, or pass in that neighbourhood, but we halted; his Majesty therefore took that opportunity of assembling his Hindustany servants, and informed us of the very great kindness of Shah Tahmasp, and of the various conversation he had had with him; he added, “Cazy Jehan will speak to you also on a certain subject (conversion).” On hearing this dis­course all the servants raised their hands in prayer for his Majesty, and were all highly delighted at his prospects. He then ordered us to attend him when he went to join the Persian monarch.

The next morning his Majesty again joined the hunters, who had formed an enclosure of wild animals in the vicinity of the ruins of Persepolis; and so numerous were the deer that they had not room to escape; so that frequently the two Kings having seized the horns of a stag, pulled him out of the enclosure and let him go; in short, the whole day passed in hunting and shooting, and in the evening the party returned to the tents, which were then pitched among the aforesaid ruins.

All this time Shãh Tahmàsp was considering of the best mode of giving a sumptuous entertainment to the King: in consequence of which he had given orders to his officers to make a selection of every thing that might be requisite for the purpose.

On the fifth day after his Majesty’s arrival at Persepolis, he was informed that Shah Tahmasp had passed judgment on the conduct of Rushen Beg, Khuaje Ghazy, and Sultan Muhammed, who had endeavoured to sow dissension between the mon­archs, as was formerly related (see page 100), and had ordered these persons to be confined.

[Extract from the Korân.]

“He who digs a pit for his neighbour shall fall into it himself.”

In short, Shah Tahmasp commanded that some of the longest ropes should be taken from the tents, and that these three culprits should be let down into the caverns or pits, called the prison of the Diwan of Soliman, before described; but if the ropes were not long enough to reach the bottom they (the culprits) might be hauled up again.

When this circumstance was communicated to the prisoners, Rushen Beg wrote a petition to the King, acknowledging his crime, expressing his contrition, and imploring him in the name of his mother, whose milk he had sucked,* to pardon and intercede for him. In consequence of which, the good-natured King wrote, and implored the Persian monarch, by the tomb of his father Ismael, to release the prisoners. When Shah Tahmãsp read the letter he was astonished, and said, “doubtless Muhammed Humayun is a man of the greatest forbearance and clemency, thus to intercede for wretches who have endeavoured to do him the greatest injury.” He therefore gave orders that the prisoners should be delivered over to his Majesty, that he might do with them as he pleased.

About a week after this affair, Shah Tahmasp sent an invitation to the King to come to the entertain­ment prepared for him. Three hundred tents had been fetched for this occasion, and twelve bands of military music stationed in different places, all of which struck up when his Majesty advanced; and the whole of the ground was covered with the imperial carpets. On the first day there was a great profusion of every kind of eatables, and dresses of honour were conferred on the King, and on all the guests.

On the second day Shah Tahmasp, having seated the King close to him, told him that the tents, and every thing he saw, were at his service, and desired him to mention any thing else that he wished for; he also told him, that he had ordered his son to attend him, with 12,000 chosen cavalry, to restore him to his dominions; he further said, “upon your arrival at Systan, you shall yourself muster these troops, and be convinced of their efficiency.”

The Persian monarch then rose, and placing his right hand on his breast, added, “O, Humayun, if I have been deficient in aught, I trust to your generosity to excuse it.”

On the third day the monarchs amused them­selves in shooting with bows and arrows; but when night came on, a great company was assembled, and various kinds of wine and liquors were introduced; before each of the guests was placed a bottle and a goblet, that he might help himself; so that there was no occasion for servants to attend (in order that they need not be under any restraint).

As it had been determined that the camp was to break up next day, his Majesty rose early in the morning, but before his departure went to pay his respects to the Persian monarch, and found him seated in the open air on a small carpet, doubled up; and when his Majesty alighted from his horse, as there was no place for him to sit down, a Moghul, Muhammed Kushky, having cut off the cover of his quiver, spread it for his Majesty to sit on.

The King, pleased with this attention, said to him, “who are you?” to which he replied, “I am a Moghul;” the King said, “you may continue in my service;” the man replied, “I am unworthy of it; but my master is already in your Majesty’s service; whenever you shall promote him, I will then become your devoted servant.”

After taken leave of Shah Tahmasp, the King proceeded towards Tabriz, and halted at a station four coss from Persepolis; but as the Persian monarch had intimated that he expected a feast from him in the Hindustany manner of cookery, preparations were in consequence now made for this ceremony, a number of public singers were collected, and various kinds of liquors procured. The Persian monarch, and the guests having been seated, and the cup having repeatedly passed round, a tray of the fruit called the Royal Sachek (species unknown), was produced; on which Shah Tahmasp said, “who is to divide the Sacheks?” the King replied, “whoever your Majesty shall order:” Tahmasp directed the chief eunuch to do so. The Khuajeh then placed a whole one before the Persian monarch, a whole one before the King, and half a one before each of the other guests,* (or a plate full before each of the monarchs.) After this cere­mony various kinds of food and drink were presented, and every body heartily participated; but Shah Tahmasp was more pleased with the dish of rice and peas (Dal Khuske) than any of the others, it being a mode of cookery unknown in Persia. After dinner both monarchs made a short march.

The next morning the Persian monarch ordered that the King’s tents should remain at that station, but that his Majesty might accompany him to the next stage. In consequence of which the King rode ten coss with Shah Tahmasp, and remained with him that night in his pavilion, during which time it rained very hard.