On the Description of the Opening of Blossoms in the Vineyard of Sovereignty and Government, comprehending the Fruits of Justice and Equity; and the Philosophy of Kings' Existence is the Manifestation of Sound Guidance and Justice, and not the Display of Grandeur and Pomp.

Although Nawshirwàn was a stranger to the (Moslem) religion, he was unique in justice and righteousness. Conse­quently the prince of the creation, (i. e., Mahomed),—on whom be the best benedictions of God, used to say boastingly: I was born in the reign of the just king Nawshirwàn.

The prophet, who, in the reign of Nawshirwàn, became the eye and the lamp of the world by his birth, (lit., face), used to say that he was free from (the stain of) tyranny, because he was born in the reign of Nawshirwàn. How well did that well-wishing adviser speak in the ears of that tyrant king's heart: Think of the darkness of tyranny and profess justice (even only) by way of experiment, and (then) if your justice does not come out more magnificent than tyranny, you may practise tyranny again.

I. It is so recorded in chronicles that for five thousand years sovereignty remained connected with the Guebres and the Magi. And this is a good fortune, which was in their family, as they were just with their subjects and did not allow oppression.

Maxim. It is related in the traditions that God (thus) inspired David: Ask your community not to speak ill of Persian kings and abuse them, because they made the world prosperous by their justice in order that my slaves may live comfortably therein.

Know that it is justice and equity, not belief and disbelief, that are useful for the protection of the state. For the organi­zation of the world, justice without religion is better than the oppression of a king with religion.

Maxim. The companion of a king ought to be an intelli­gent sage, and not a courtier addicted to buffoonery, because from the (influence of the) former proceeds perfection of the highest degree, while the latter's company has an inclination towards degradation of the worst type.

Every pithy saying, which is uttered by the lips and the teeth, is like a jewel: happy is that person, who made the casket of his breast (full with) the treasure of these jewels. An intel­ligent heart is a treasure of the jewels of philosophy; do not be estranged from such a treasure.

II. * * * *

All the manners of that intelligent man, who follows the dictates of Nature, will be according to truth and propriety. But that intelligent man, who follows the rule of Wisdom, becomes, by the beauty of his sagacity, the teacher of good manners (even) to animals.

III. The favourites of kings are like companies of men, who climb up to the top of a mountain. They will eventually tum­ble down in consequence of the quakes of (the king's) anger and the disasters of time, and there is no doubt that the fall of those higher up will be severer, and the coming down of those, who are at the foot, will be easier.

The court of the king's proximity is very majestic, yet do not go very high up that court, because, when you will fall down from that height, I fear you will fall down more heavily than any other falling persons.

Maxim. Kings ought to have secretly in their employment men, who act and speak righteously, so that they may acquaint the king with the condition of distressed subjects and agricul­turists. It is said that Ardeshir was a well-informed king. When his courtiers came to him in the morning, he used to tell them what a certain person ate (the night before), or how a certain woman had treated a certain girl, and like other things of whatever was done he used to tell; so that people thought that perhaps an angel came to him from heaven and informed him. And Mahomed Sabaktagin was a man of this kind.

When the king is not well-informed of the condition of his soldiers, how will the soldiers (care to) avoid his wrath? They will bring forth a thousand pretexts, when they intend to take the cup (of liquor): they will play a thousand songs on the harp of sedition.

IV. Aristotle says: The best of kings is he, who resem­bles a vulture surrounded by corpses, and not he, who resem­bles a corpse surrounded by vultures; that is to say, he should be well-informed of the state of his surroundings, while those surrounding him should be in the dark as regards his attitude, and not that he himself should be ignorant of his own surround­ings, while those surrounding him may be aware of his movements.

The king ought to be well-informed like the vultures, inas­much as corpses have fallen round him, and not (that he should be) like a corpse round which vultures sit in rows, shar­pening their beaks therin for every possible benefit to themselves.

V. Nawshirwàn held an assembly on the Nawruz holiday. He saw that one of those present, who was related to him, put a golden cup under his arm-pit (to purloin it). Nawshirwàn pretended ignorance and said nothing. When the meeting dispersed, the keeper of waters said: Let nobody go out; I want to search for a golden cup which is missing. Nawshir-wàn said: Let the matter drop, because that person who has taken it will not give it back, and that person who has seen (the thief), (i. e., he himself), will not expose (him). After some days that person made his appearance, having put on a new coat and worn new boots on his feet. Nawshirwàn pointed at his robe, meaning: Is this from that, (i. e., produce of the stolen cup)? That person lifted up his skirt, which covered his boots and said: These too are from that. Nawshirwàn laughed, and knowing that (he stole the cup because) he needed it out of necessity, ordered a thousand misqàls to be given to him.

When a generous king becomes aware of your crime, confess it and ask pardon from his generosity. Do not deny your crime, because that (denial) constitutes another crime, nay, denial of crime is much worse than the crime itself.

VI. Màmun had a slave, whose duty was to keep (lit., he was responsible for keeping) at hand the water for ablution. At the intervals of a few days, the ewer and the washing basin were being lost. Màmun said to him: I wish you sell to us the ewer and the basin, which you carry away from us. He replied: I will do it, but you buy this present basin, (as this too I will carry away in no time). Being asked for how much he would sell it, he replied: For ten dinàrs. Màmun ordered ten dinàrs to be given to him and then observed: This basin is now secure (against theft). To this the slave replied: Yes.

Do not grudge silver to one, whom you have bought with gold (i. e., to your slave), so that his soul may thereby rest tranquil. (Don't render him desperate, but) yield by spending your money upon him, so that the affair may not end in the destruction of your life.

VII. Between Moà'viah and A'qil, the son of Abi Tàleb, there existed staunch friendship and long-standing intimacy. One day a thorn fell on the way of their love, and dust deposited itself on the face of their friendship. A'qil cut off from Moà'viah, and ceased to visit his assembly. Moà'viah thus entreatingly wrote to him: O you the supreme object of pursuit of the tribe of A'bdul Matlab! O you the final goal of the family of Qasà O you the musk-deer of A'bd Munàf! And O you the fountain­head of the excellence of Beni Hàsham! Prophetic sign there is in your nature and apostolic glory in your family! Where are all your magnanimity, mildness, and forbearance? Come back (to me), because I am penitent for what has passed (between us), and am distressed for what I said (to you).

How long shall I be the butt of the arrow of your hatred, and remain without heart and religion on account of your separa­tion? On this earth (i.e., while I am living), my face will be on earth (prostrating) before you: under the earth too (after my death) I shall act likewise.

The reply which A'qil wrote to him was (as follows): When a noble person is displeased with his friend, he should retreat in the corner of separation, and be inclined to the lane of exile, not that he should gird up his loins for evil and utter calum­niation.

When a friend thinks of seeking a quarrel with you, sever your ties from him and do nothing more. Do not be very persistent in enmity, but leave some aspect of peace.

Again Moà'viah pressed him with excuses to return to his former friendship, requested him to be reconciled, and sent a hundred thousand derums as price of the peace.

Whenever there arises a breach in the foundation of the friendship of old friends, apologyze and beg their pardon. And if that breach cannot be repaired by expressions of speech, endea­vour to repair it by means of gold and silver bricks.

VIII. Hajjàj was separated from his army in a hunting place. He ascended a hillock, where he saw an Arab sitting (near the place), picking out insects from his patched garment while his camels were browsing round him. When the camels saw Hajjàj, they were frightened. The man looked up, became angry and said: Who is this man that has come to this desert with a glittering coat on? Curses light upon him! Hajjàj said nothing but went near and said: Salàm to you, O Arab! To this the Arab said in reply: No salàm to you! Neither the grace of God nor His blessings upon you! Hajjàj asked for water from him, when the Arab said: Come down and drink water humbly and wretchedly, because, by God, I am nobody's friend or servant. Hajjàj came down and drank water. Then he asked; O Arab! who is the noblest of mankind? To this the Arab re­plied: The Apostle of God, (i.e., Mahomed),—may the blessing and salutation of God be upon him and his family! Again he asked: What do you say of A'li, the son of A'bu Tàlib? He replied: On account of his generosity and greatness, his name cannot be contained in the mouth, (i.e., language is too imperfect to express them). Again he asked: What have you to say of A'bdul Malik, the son of Merwàn? The Arab made no reply, where­upon Hajjàj said: O Arab! reply to me. The Arab observed that he was a bad man. He asked: Why? The Arab replied: He has committed a fault (the evils of) which extend from east to west. On being asked what that fault was, he replied: The fault is that he has sent this wicked and profligate Hajjàj (to rule) over the Moslems. Hajjàj observed silence. Suddenly a bird flew there and made a sound. The Arab turned his face to­wards Hajjàj and asked him who he was. Hajjàj inquired: What is this question that you put to me? He replied: This bird has informed me that an army is approaching here, of which you are the commander. Whilst they were thus conver­sing, his soldiers reached him and saluted him. When the Arab saw this, the colour of his face changed. Hajjàj ordered him to be brought with them. Next day, in the morning, when the table was spread and people gathered, he called the Arab. When he entered, he said: Salàms to you, O Amir! And the grace and benedictions of God be upon you! Hajjàj retorted: Salàm to you! I do not speak to you what you spoke to me (in the desert), (i.e., I do not withdraw from you the benedictions of God and do not curse you as you did me). Then Hajjàj asked him whether he would (like to) eat, to which he replied: This is your food; I shall eat if you permit it. Hajjàj told him to eat, and the Arab sat down, stretched his hand and exclaimed: In the name of God! If it please God that some good should follow this good dinner. Hajjàj smiled and said (to his guests): Do you know what passed on me yesterday at the hands of this man? The Arab said: May God correct you, O Amir! Do not reveal to-day the secret which passed between you and me yesterday. What is past should not be described thereafter. Hajjàj said: O Arab! Make your choice out of these two things: Either remain here with me, so that I may make you one of my special attendants, or I will send you to A'bdul Malik bin Merwàn and acquaint him with what you have spoken of him. The Arab observed that yet another course was possible. Being asked what it was, he said: Leave me alone that I may return to my place (or city), and so that neither you may see me any more nor may I see you any more. Hajjàj smiled and ordered ten thousand dinàrs to be given to him, and he was sent away to his own place.

A man ought to reclaim the nature of masters of tyranny from tyrannical acts by polite language and graceful address, and bring back to liberality, by means of charming words, every ignoble person, who is quite away from (all sense of) obligation and liberality.

XI. * * *

X. The Vazir of Hormuz, the son of Shàpur, wrote him a letter that sea-merchants had brought many jewels, and that he had purchased them for the king for 100,000 dinàrs. He further wrote: I have heard that the king does not wish to buy them; if that is true, such and such a merchant buys them, leaving us a profit of 100,000 dinàrs. Homuz wrote in reply: 100,000 dinàrs are not of much account to us. If we engage ourselves in trade, who will govern, and what will merchants do?

It is not in conformity with the dignity of kings that they should voluntarily engage themselves in buying and selling with the intention of earning a livelihood. When the king makes the business of wordly merchants his profession, you yourself say what else are merchants to do?

XI. The Commander of the Faithful, O'mar, was plastering a wall with mud in Medinah during the time of his Khalàfat. A Jew complained of oppression before him, and said that the governor of Basrà had bought commodities from him of the value of 100,000 derums, but that the governor beguiled him in the payment of the price thereof. O'mar ordered him to bring a piece of paper. He said that he had none, whereupon O'mar took a potsherd and wrote thereon: The complainants against you are numberless, while there is found none, who is your thanks-giver. Either abstain from the cause of these grievances or give up the post of governorship. At the end was transfixed the signature O'mar A'bdul Khetàb. Neither was there a seal nor any ornamental superscription imprinted thereon. But so deeply were the impetuosity of his justice and the awe of his administration seated in people's heart, that, when the Jew handed over that potsherd to the governor of Basrà, the latter who was on his horse, alighted from it, kissed the ground, and fully paid off the Jew's debts, while the Jew remained all this time on horse—back.

When the king inspires no awe by his administration, he has to suffer abjectness at the hands of arrogant persons. When the lion sheds his teeth and claws, he has to submit to slaps from lame foxes.

XII. A youth was caught in a theft. The khalif ordered his hand to be cut off, so that it may be shortened from (reaching) the property of Musalmàns. The youth cried and said:

When God has adorned me with the right hand (in company) with the left, do not allow my right to be separated from my left.

The Khalif again ordered his hand to be cut off, as that was one of the punishments ordained by God, relaxation wherein was non-Islamic, (i.e., contrary to religion). The mother of the young man was with him. She got up and said: O Khalif! He is my son. It is owing to his support that I maintain myself from morning till night, and it is from his pains-taking hand that I get my livelihood.

To my oppressed soul the son is, as it were, life-giving. My maintenance is threaded with his hand: do not approve of its being cut down.

The Khalif (again) ordered his hand to be cut off, as he would not pardon this crime, and would not incur upon him the guilt of waiving this punishment, whereupon the mother observed: Regard this crime in the same light with those other crimes, and think it to be one of those sins, for which you are always craving pardon (from God) and praying to be forgiven. The Khalif liked her saying and ordered him to be set free.

Happy is that intelligent person, who utters a pithy saying before a king at the time of his anger, brings forth a maxim sweet as water, and throws water on the fire of the king's anger!

XIII. A culprit was brought before a Khalif, who prescrib­ed the punishment requisite thereto. The culprit said: O you Commander of the Faithful! Taking revenge for a crime is justice, but conniving at it is a virtue excelling justice. And the dignity of the magnanimity of the Commander of the Faithful is above this that he should neglect what is (a) higher (virtue), and should lower himself to what is low. The Khalif liked his words and forgave his crime.

Retaliation is justice, but to pardon a crime is a virtue excell­ing all: between this and that there is as great a gap as between heaven and earth. How can that intelligent man, who is aware of (the difference between) these two, abandon this virtue and turn towards justice?

XIV. A boy of the tribe of Beni Hàshem behaved disres­pectfully towards one of the masters of excellences. A complaint was lodged before his uncle, who wished to teach him respect by punishment. The boy exclaimed: O my uncle! I acted as I did, because I had not any wisdom: you do what you like, con­sidering that you are (endowed) with wisdom.

If a fool acts according to the impulses of lust and passion, and not according to the dictates of good sense, you once for all, in­asmuch as you are not overcome by lust and passion, do not tread any path except that of wisdom.

XV. A woman of that faction, that had rebelled against Hajjàj, was brought before the latter. Hajjàj spoke some words to her, but she, hanging down her head, stared on the ground, neither replying to him nor looking at him. One of those present said to her: O woman! the Amir is speaking to you and you are turning away from him! She retorted: I am ashamed before God the Highest that I should look at a man at whom God (himself) does not look.

Don't look at the face of a tyrant, because it is, (as it were), a door opened of hell: ever since this door has been opened, the eye of God's grace has never fallen upon it.

XVI. They asked Alexander: By what means have you obtained what you have of good fortune, power and dominion at this tender age and at this early beginning of your reign? He observed: By means of reconciling enemies, till they turned away their reins from hostile malignity, and by means of confe­derating with friends, till they were confirmed in the bonds of friendship.

If you desire the kingdom of Alexander, you ought, like him, to turn enemies into friends and make friends friendlier by your good qualities.

XVII. One day Alexander was sitting with his officers, one of whom observed: God the Great and Glorious has given you a very great kingdom. Take many wives so that you may get a great number of children, and your memory may thereby be perpetuated in the world. He retorted: My memory and my children are good words and good qualities. * * *

When a father cannot be to this extent certain whether his son will be one of the group of the foolish or the intelligent, benign qualities are a sufficient progeny to him (to perpetuate his memory).

Notes on the Third Garden.

Gabra and Maghàn. They were known as al-màjus, a sect of ancient philosophers, which rose in Persia at a very early period, devoting much of their time to the study of heavenly bodies. They held in the greatest abhorrence the worship of images, and worshipped fire as the purest symbol of Divine Existence. This religious sect was reformed by Zoroaster in the sixth century before Christ, when Zoroastrianism became the national religion of Persia. The Magi were very learned men and the practical results of their observations surprised the people of the town, a circumstance which has given rise to the surmise that the word magic owes its origin to this fact.

Mawbed. Various derivations are given of this word. Some say it comes from mugh, Magi and bud, leader, meaning the chief of the Magi. Others say that it is a Turkish word meaning a tavern-keeper, mugh, wine, only Zoroastrian subjects in Persia selling and using wine, which was prohibited to the Mahomedans.

Duzakh, Hell, (Jahnam), is situated into the lowest depths of the earth, and there are seven such: (1) Jahnam, the abode of wicked Mahomedans, who will be released after a time on the intercession of Mahomed. (2) Lazà for the Christians. (3) Hàtame for the Jews, or, according to some, for the Brahmins. (4) Sa'ir for the idolators of Et??iopia. (5) Saqar for the Magi or Parsees. (6) Jahim for the idolators. (7) Havie for all debtors and hypocrites. The horrors of hell are unbounded. The sinful burn there in eternal fire and there is no rescue; for from fire, they are transferred to zumharir or the col??est regions of the earth Mahomed has promised sal­vation to all his followers, and all imaginary things are said as regards the mode and time of salvation. It appears that the intercession of the prophet on behalf of the sinful will be by the permission of God, on the day of judgment only and not earlier, and that the intercession does not begin from the very date of the man's death; and so the sinful have to suffer after all in the grave till the day of resurrection. It is said that when dead bodies will revive on the third blast, all pro­phets will begin to look for the safety of their own souls, while Mahomed will cry out for his own followers in order to intercede in their behalf.

“Hell truly shall be a place of snares, the home of transgress­ors; no coolness shall they taste therein, nor any drink, save boiling water and running sore.” “Hell-fire burnt a thousand years so that it became red, burnt another thousand years till it became white; after that it burnt a thousand years till it became black; then hell fire is black and dark, and never has any light.”