-Ḥasan b. -Qásim, called ad-Dá'í ila`l-Ḥaqq.

Abú Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. al-Qásim b. al-Ḥasan b. 'Alí b. 'Abdu`r-Raḥmán ash-Shajarí b. al-Qásim b. al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. al-Ḥasan b. 'Alí b. Abí Ṭálib now succeeded under the title of ad-Dá'í (f. 129a) ila`l-Ḥaqq (“The Summoner unto the Truth”), or, as he is called in the Kitábu`l-Ansáb, ad-Dá'í aṣ-Ṣaghír (“the Lesser Dá'í”). He reached ´Amul on Ramaḍán 12, A. H. 304 (= March 9, A. D. 917), and Sayyid Abu`l-Ḥusayn Aḥmad b. an-Náṣir surrendered the sovereignty to him. The brother of the latter, Abu`l-Qásim Ja'far b. an-Náṣir, sent to him, saying, “The kingdom is our father’s; why then dost thou surrender it to him?” but he paid no heed, and an estrangement between the two brothers resulted. Ja'far went to Muḥammad b. Ṣa'lúk at Ray, and promised to adopt the black colour of the 'Abbásids, to coin money in the name of the (Sámánid) rulers of Khurásán, and to insert their names in the k??uṭba, and help to recover Ṭabaristán for them.

Ḥasan governed justly and well, and made the people contented and happy. When Ja'far came to ´Amul, Ḥasan retired to Gílán in A. H. 306 (= A. D. 918—919), and Ja'far remained there seven months, extorting exorbitant taxes from the people, till -Ḥasan returned in Jumádá II, A. H. 307 (November, A. D. 919), and again established justice, so that all men prayed for long continuance of his life. He had his palace at Muṣallá (“the Oratory”) near ´Amul, and built lofty dwellings for his officers round about him, so that they should not dwell in the city, or vex and molest the inhabitants. The Ispahbad Sharwín and Shahriyár the son of Wandá-ummíd agreed to pay him the tribute they had paid in the time of Sayyid Ḥasan b. Zayd, but -Ḥasan b. -Qásim, not deeming this enough, marched against them, defeated Shahriyár at Kawíj, and made peace with Sharwín.

At this time the Sámánids were vainly endeavouring to subdue Níshápúr, and Sayyid Ḥasan sent against it Laylá b. Nu'mán (f. 129b), who took it. Then he proceeded to Tús, where, being defeated by the Sámánid army, he fled to Gurgán. There a number of the Daylamite chiefs gave him their allegiance, and conspired with him to kill Sayyid Ḥasan by treachery, but, the plot being made known to the Sayyid, he, without saying a word to any one, marched to Gurgán, seized the conspirators, and beheaded them. Amongst them was Harúsandán, the father of Siyáh Gíl, chief of Gílán. So men’s hearts were filled with fear of Sayyid Ḥasan, and thenceforth no one dared to plot against him. Leaving Abu`l-Ḥusayn [b.] Náṣir at Gurgán, he then returned to ´Amul. Shortly after this Abu`l-Qásim b. an-Náṣir collected a number of followers in Gílán, while Sayyid Abu­`l-Ḥusayn [b.] Náṣir also turned against Sayyid Ḥasan, and sent his general Abú Músá Hárún Isfáh-dúst to ´Amul, where, however, he was defeated and slain. On thís event 'Abdu`lláh b. Muḥammad al-Kátib has the following verse:


Sayyid Ḥasan, having concluded peace with Abu`l-Ḥusayn for a payment of 10,000 dirhams, sent 'Alí b. Ja'far ar-Rází against the Ispahbad Shahriyár, and Ḥusayn b. Dínár against the Ispahbad Sharwín. Both submitted and came in (f. 130a), but fled on being informed that Sayyid Ḥasan thought to put an end to the trouble they were continually causing by casting both of them into prison. Sayyid Ḥasan was therefore compelled to pursue them, and finally had to be content with taking their sons as hostages for their good behaviour.

Sayyid Ḥasan next ordered Ilyás b. Ilísa' to evacuate Gurgán, but, as he paid no heed, he was attacked, his army routed, and himself killed. When this news reached Bukhárá, the Sámánids sent Qará-takín the Turk with 30,000 horsemen to Gurgán. Sayyid Ḥasan and Abu`l-Ḥusayn retired into Tammísha, knowing that they could not with­stand so large a host, and Abu`l-Ḥusayn presently deserted Sayyid Ḥasan, went to Gílán, and joined Abu`l-Qásim Ja'far, while Sayyid Ḥasan took refuge with the Ispahbad Muḥam­mad b. Shahriyár, who, however, put him in fetters and sent him to 'Alí b. Wah-súdán, governor for the Caliph al-Muqtadir at Ray. Ṭáhir b. Muḥammad the scribe was sent to 'Alí b. Wehsúdán bidding him not to forward his prisoner to Baghdad, but to imprison him in his fathers' castle at (f. 130b) Alamút, where he remained a prisoner until Muḥammad b. Musáfir defeated 'Alí b. Wehsúdán at Qazwín, when Khusraw Fírúz released him and sent him to Gílán.

Meanwhile Sayyid Abu`l-Ḥasan and his brother Abu`l-Qásim Ja'far succeeded conjointly in expelling Qará-takín from Ṭabaristán, which was rendered the easier by troubles in Khurásán which required his presence. The brothers then remained in Gurgán until Aḥmad Ṭawíl was sent against them from Bukhárá, but him also they defeated, and he fled alone to Bisṭám, while most of his army dispersed to Jájarm and Isfará`in.

Sayyid Ḥasan, on his release, came to Gílán, sent to Ṭabaristán for his hidden treasures and moneys, and there­with collected an army, with which he invaded Ṭabaristán, and advanced to ´Amul and Sárí. Abu`l-Ḥusayn and Abu`l-Qásim sent Abú Bakr az-Zifrí to ´Amul to obtain news, but at Astarábád he heard that Sayyid Ḥasan had already reached Lamrásk, whereupon he at once returned to make his report. Abu`l-Ḥusayn, Abu`l-Qásim and [the son of] Harúsandán* held a council of war (f. 131a), and it was agreed that the first should march on Astarábád and give battle to Sayyid Ḥasan, while the two others remained in Gurgán. Next morning these last went out from the city to the Dá'í’s Tomb to await news from Astarábád. A ghu­lám of 'Alí Qumí Darzí came out from Gurgán, however, with the news that Laylá’s men were plundering their houses and stealing their treasures. Thereupon they went back to the city, and Abu`l-Qásim found the very mats stripped from his house, and learned that there were only ten of his followers left in it, whereupon he cast himself on the ground and burst into tears. Laylá denied any complicity in this robbery, but told Abu`l-Qásim that he could not remain in Gurgán; and as he feared to go alone, he gave him an escort of 30 men under Lashkar-sitán. The Daylamites had shut the gates, but he got out by the new road of Kaláta, having only three dínárs in his possession with which to buy bread (f. 131b). On advancing a little further he met three men, who informed him that Sayyid Ḥasan had defeated his confederate Abu`l-Ḥusayn. Abu`l-Qásim and Darzí Qumí were now left alone in despair and bewilderment. The former bought an ass in a neighbouring village, and went by Bisṭám to Dámghán, and thence to Ray and Gílán.

Sayyid Ḥasan, having defeated Abu`l-Ḥusayn, sent him a kindly message, saying, “I am thy servant, and the king­dom is thine, having been thy father’s before.” So these two were reconciled.

When the House of Símjúr began to cause trouble in Khurásán, [Abú] 'Alí b. Símjúr came to Gurgán, and invited the Sayyids, as men of peace and religion, to abandon the country quietly to him. They refused, and fought a battle with him at the village of Jaláyin. Surkháb the son of Weh-súdán attacked and routed him, while Abu`l-Ḥusayn scattered his right wing. His men fled into the plain, but when they had gone some distance, the Tùrks turned at bay, alighted from (f. 132a) their horses, and fired a volley of arrows, completely routing their assaillants, so that the Sayyids Ḥasan and Abu`l-Ḥusayn fled, accompanied only by one ghulám, and by 'Alí b. Buwayh [i. e. 'Imádu`d-Dawla], Mákán b. Kákí, and Jakáw the sipahsálár, while the Turks pursued them to ´Abasgún. In Tammísha they halted and began to fortify themselves, while Sayyid Ḥasan, leaving Mákán there, went on to ´Amul to gather fresh troops. Abu`l-Ḥusayn then again attacked the Turks, repulsed them, and re-occupied Gurgán. This victory was at the end of Dhu`l-Ḥijja, A. H. 310 (= April 20, A. D. 923). For some time after this Sayyid Ḥasan and Abu`l-Ḥusayn held Ṭabaristán thus, the former residing at ´Amul, the latter at Gurgán. Sayyid Ḥasan built mosques and colleges, encouraged and patronized men of learning and poets, and governed the people wisely and beneficently. After a while Abu`l-Ḥusayn again quar­relled with and attacked him, but was defeated, and fled to join his brother Abu`l-Qásim.

These two then allied themselves with Mákán b. Kákí, 'Alí b. Khurshíd, Asfár b. Shírúya and Rashámúj, and determined to seize Sayyid Ḥasan, who, being informed of their designs, marched from ´Amul to Sárí with Rustam b. Sharwín. The brothers Abu`l-Ḥusayn and Abu`l-Qásim marched along the coast to Mishkawá, meaning to fight him next day at Sárí, but Sayyid Ḥasan fled that night, none knew whither. Abu`l-Ḥusayn nominated his own governors and lieutenants, and on Thursday (f. 132b), the 8th of Jumáda I (A. H. 311 = Aug. 24, A. D. 923), came to ´Amul, but behaved so exorbitantly and tyrannically towards the people that they longed with all their souls for the former government. And on Tuesday, Rajab 29, A. H. 311 (= Nov. 13, A. D. 923) Abu`l-Ḥusayn died.

On his death, Abu`l-Qásim, his brother, was left in undis­puted possession of Ṭabaristán, for Sayyid Ḥasan had fled to the mountains, where many of those who loved his rule joined him. On hearing of Abu`l-Ḥusayn’s death, he approached ´Amul, halting at a place known as Gázar-gáh (the Washing-place) to fight Abu`l-Qásim; but in Ramaḍán, A. H. 311 (= Dec. A. D. 923—Jan., A. D. 924), most of his men having deserted to the enemy, he again fled to the mountains. About the same date Sayyid Abu`l-Qásim ordered Khalíl b. Kájí to kill 'Abdu`lláh [b.] Mubárak the scribe, stick his head on a pole, and parade it, with an ink-stand set before it in mockery, through the bázárs. But Abu`l-Qásim himself died soon afterwards on Tuesday, Dhu`l-Qa'da 10, A. H. 312 (= Febr. 7, A. D. 925).

All Gíl and Daylam now swore allegiance to Abu`l-Qásim’s nephew [Abú 'Alí] Muḥammad b. Aḥmad [b.] al-Ḥasan, who was beloved for his justice and beneficence as much as he was feared for his courage.

Abu`l-Qásim had made Mákán b. Kákí governor of Gurgán (f. 133a), and he, with Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán and Abú 'Alí b. Iṣfahán, agreed to swear allegiance to Abu`l-Qásim’s little son (by Díkú, daughter of Iṣfahán) Ismá'íl and make him king; which design, however, they kept secret, until Sayyid Abú 'Alí summoned them to his presence, when they marched from Gurgán to Sárí, Abú 'Alí having gone with only a few retainers to Mámṭír. Mákán then sent his army to seize him, bidding them drag him from his horse, and snatch off his kuláh, which was done. Then Mákán sent him to Gurgán to the Amír Ká, son of Wardásf, who came to ´Amul and crowned Isma'íl. Mákán wrote news of this to Sayyid Ḥasan, and sent his brother Abu`l-Ḥusayn b. Kákí with the insignia of royalty to Jájarm and Khurásán, whither also he despatched an army. 'Alí b. Buwayh, the paternal uncle of Aḍudu`d-Dawla Fanákhusraw, was the Sayyids’ governor of that place, and he, with his 400 men, was defeated and captured by Abu­`l-Ḥusayn b. Káki, who slew all the Khurásání soldiers who fell into his hands. Soon afterwards Mákán wrote to his brother to return to Gurgán and take over the government of it from the Amír Ká; and he sent a confidential mes­sage to his brother bidding him kill Sayyid Abú 'Alí, who was lodging in the house of Raḍí, and send him his head. As the two sat drinking together, Abu`l-Ḥusayn b. Kákí began to quarrel with the Sayyid, who, divining his object, made some pretext for leaving the room, and borrowed from one of his servants a small knife (f. 133b) which he concealed in his dress. Then he returned, and when Abu`l-Ḥusayn b. Kákí, waxing more quarrelsome, seized him by the throat, he threw him down and ripped up his belly. To escape, the Sayyid was obliged to leap from the roof thirty yards down into the moat. He then sent his ring to 'Alí b. Khurshíd and Asfár b. Shírúya, who were in revolt against Mákán and were plundering on the high roads of Gurgán, and they at once joined him and swore allegiance to him. Soon he had an army round him, and was in possession of Gurgán.

As soon as Mákán heard of his brother’s death, he col­lected an army and marched on Gurgán, but the Sayyid, by bribing Rashámúj the son of Shír-Mardán to desert to his side was able to discomfit and rout him. Mákán fled to Lamrásk (f. 134a) without halting, left the Amír Ká, son of Wardásf, there with a regiment, and continued his flight to Sárí. Sayyid Abú 'Alí, having left 'Alí b. Khur­shíd in charge of Gurgán, pushed on to Lamrásk, where the vanguard of his army had already defeated Amír Ká. Without halting he marched on to Sárí and defeated Mákán, who fled into the city, after slaying Abú Ja'far Kúrankíj, who tried to seize him. He was pursued by the soldiers from quarter to quarter and repeatedly wounded, but struck down a soldier who tried to arrest him and escaped. In trying to cross the river he was thrown from his horse, which he then abandoned, together with his coat of mail, and fled through a garden to a house belonging to a poor man, whose help he implored, and who hid him in the branches of a mulberry-tree. The soldiers arrived there and threatened the poor man, who, however, would not betray Mákán’s hiding-place. When they had gone, he brought Mákán out, bound up his wounds, and, when he was strong enough, set him on his way, so that he escaped to the highlands of Sárí. When afterwards Mákán became powerful and prosperous, he richly rewarded his deliverer, whose name was Kayán Búj, raised him to a high position and conferred honour on his family. Sayyid Abu 'Alí came to ´Amul and took possession of Ṭabaristán. He ruled firmly and wisely, but ere long was killed by a fall from his horse whilst playing polo.

When the mourning for his death was concluded, the people (f. 134b) swore allegiance to his brother Abú Ja'far. His accession was soon followed by a serious riot, caused by the injustice of his minister Abu`l-Hasan [b.] Abí Yúsuf, in which disturbance many persons were killed, even in the chief Mosque, where the soldiers massacred numbers of the congregation as they came from public prayer on Friday, till at length the people rose and expelled the troops from the city.

Mákán b. Kákí kept writing from his highland retreat to the Dá'í urging him to revolt and promising him his sup­port, but he would not stir until Mákán had collected 500 men at a place above Nátil still known as “Mákán’s camp”. When Sayyid Abú Ja'far learned this, he marched from ´Amul to Nátil, and encamped opposite Mákán. Many of the notables of ´Amul, such as Sayyid Abú Ja'far Mánk-dím, Abu 'Abdi`lláh Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, Abú Ja'far Muḥam­mad b. 'Alí, the head-man of ´Amul and nephew of Ḥusayn b. 'Alí Faqíh, and 'Abbás b. Qábúsán, wrote letters to Mákán promising to help him. He bade them remain quietly in the city, but they disobeyed him, and, gathering a great rabble of the townsfolk, made manifest their intentions (f. 135a). Sayyid Abú Ja'far, learning this, sent against them 1200 picked soldiers, who utterly routed these undisciplined levies, killing many of them. Next day Sayyid Abú Ja'far Náṣir entered ´Amul, where Abu`l-Ḥasan the minister had exacted large sums of money from the people.

Mákán again urged the Dá'í to revolt, but he still refused, until Asfár the son of Shírúya and Muṭrif, his minister, having exacted vast sums of money from the people, retired to Gurgán and openly cast off their allegiance to Abú Ja'far, who sent 'Alí b. Khurshíd to Sárí as governor. After a month or so, Asfár came from Gurgán and attacked him, defeated him, imprisoned him in the caravanseray of Ḥasan b. Bahrám, seized the city, and proclaimed himself king.

Meanwhile Mákán’s strength continued to increase, and he determined to attack Sayyid Abú Ja'far, who, on his approach, fled from ´Amul to Wandád-Hurmazd Kúh. Mákán occupied the city, and at once sent messengers to the Dá'í to bring him from Gílán. When he arrived, amidst the rejoicings of the people, he advanced with Mákán from ´Amul to Sárí. Asfár fled at their approach (f. 135b), while the Ispahbad Sharwín retired into his highlands. At this junc­ture Naṣr b. Aḥmad the Sámánid marched from Bukhárá with an army of 30,000 men to subdue Ṭabaristán and 'Iráq, and entered the highlands of Ṭabaristán. Abú Naṣr was Sayyid Ḥasan’s governor in Shahriyár-kúh, and he blocked the roads, broke down the bridges, and so entangled Naṣr b. Aḥmad in the highlands that he was unable to get out, and was reduced to great straits for food and fodder, so that finally he sent an ambassador to Sayyid Ḥasan asking him on what terms he would let him depart. The Sayyid sent 'Abdu`lláh b. Salám and Abu`l-'Abbás [b.] Dhu 'r-Riyásatayn to him, and concluded peace, on the understanding that he should pay an idemnity of 20,000 dínárs and depart to Khurásán.

When the Sámánid had departed, Mákán began to behave arrogantly towards the Sayyid, who left him, and went to Gílán with the Ispahbad Sharwín b. Rustam. Má­kán sent messengers to make apologies, but the Sayyid would not listen to them. Then Asfár collected an army of 7000 Turks, Gílís, and Daylamites and came to ´Amul, where he fought with Mákán for three days and nights at the gate known as Dar-i-Júr. Rashámúj had promised to help Mákán, and actually joined him on the fourth day. All the people were watching the fray from the roofs of the various buildings. Mákán looked back, saw them, and said, “Why do ye not take down these dogs?” Then Mákán’s troops dashed at Asfár’s and routed them, and pursued them to Sárí. Asfár came to Gurgán, releasing 'Alí b. Khurshíd, whom he had kept in bonds (f. 136a), and who was brought to Mákán, and by him restored to liberty. Mákán then marched on to Astarábád, while Asfár went to Abú Bakr b. Ilísa', Naṣr b. Aḥmad’s commander-in-chief, who turned back to Sárí, and in A. H. 315 (A. D. 927—8) despatched Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán to the highlands to seek out Sayyid Abú Ja'far, whom he brought in to Sárí, bare­headed and bare-footed, and imprisoned in the Palace of Abu`l-'Abbás [b.] Dhu`r-Riyásatayn. Then the Dá'í wrote to Mákán, reproaching him bitterly for what he had done to Sayyid Abú Ja'far, notwithstanding all his protestations of friendship and promises of support to himself; and there­upon Mákán released Abu Ja'far and sent him to the Dá'í. Then the latter, supported by Gíl and Daylam, and accom­panied by the Ispahbad Sharwín, came to ´Amul, where Mákán came out to meet him. Soon after this Mákán slew Abú Naṣr, who had come to Sárí, with a blow from his mace, while he was riding with him, and restored the government of Shahriyár-kúh to the Ispahbad Sharwín, whom he dismissed with presents and robes of honour. Asfár joined Abú Bakr [b.] Ilísa' and on his death, which occurred shortly afterwards, the army swore allegiance to him. Abú Bakr had a ghulám named ´Il-Tughdí, who, fearing Naṣr b. Aḥmad, joined Asfár, and secured for him the kingdom of Khurásán. Naṣr b. Aḥmad, hearing this, sent Ṣáliḥ b. Sayyár (f. 136b), with the insignia of royalty, to conciliate him, and Asfár waxed bold and tyrannical, so that the people of Khurásán conceived a great hatred for him.

Mákán and the Dá'í being now reconciled, a great army gathered round them, and they marched on Ray, expelled its governor, Muḥammad b. Ṣa'lúk, and annexed it. Asfár, hearing of their absence, marched on Ṭabaristán with the army of Khurásán, and Abu`l-Ḥajjáj Mardáwíj b. Ziyár, the elder brother of Washmgír, who was with Qará-takín the Sámánid, asked permission to join this expedition.

News of this invasion reached the Dá'í and Mákán at Ray, and the latter begged the former to remain there while he marched back to fight the invaders. But the Dá'í would not listen, and, with 500 men, marched to ´Amul. The people of ´Amul, on account of Abu`l-'Abbás al-Faqíh al-'Alaqí, refrained from helping the Dá'í; and Asfár, who was at Sári, hearing of his weakness at ´Amul, and of Má­kán’s absence at Ray, marched to ´Amul and attacked the Dá'i, who came out to meet him in battle, but was slain by Mardáwíj with a blow of his mace at 'Alí-ábád as he was endeavouring to recross the river and regain the city. On the same day Abú Ja'far Mánk-dím and another, a descendant of 'Aqíl b. Abí Ṭálib, were slain, and Ṭabar­istán passed into the possession of Asfár, who appointed his own governors, and, being reinforced by a Turk named Agúshí and his tribe, marched on Ray and defeated Mákán, who fled to Ṭabaristán, while Asfár remained at Ray to enrich himself and his army (f. 137a). Then, leaving Agúshí at Ray, Asfár returned to Ṭabaristán. Mákán thereupon fled to Daylamán. Asfár swore allegiance to Abú Jaf'ar, who, however, he shortly afterwards seized, together with Abu`l-Ḥusayn Shajarí and Zayd b. Ṣáliḥ, and sent them in chains to Bukhárá, while Sayyid Abu`l-Ḥusayn fled. These three remained in captivity at Bukhárá till the death of Abú Bakr Zakariyyá, when they were released, and returned to Ṭabaristán. ´Amul was ceded to Mákán on condition that he should not interfere with the rest of Ṭabaristán. Agúshí the Turk behaved so tyrannically at Ray that Asfár resolved to kill him, but he fled to Qum, pursued by Mardáwíj, whom Asfár sent after him, but without success.

At this juncture the Caliph al-Muqtadir sent his cousin Harún b. al-Gharíb against Ray, but he was defeated by Asfár. Mákán, not regarding his treaty, strove to bring all Ṭabaristán under his control, made Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán his deputy at ´Amul, and himself marched to Gurgán and thence to Níshápúr, accompanied by the Ispahbad Sharwín and Shahriyár of Wandád-Hurmazd-Kúh. There he fought many battles and gained many victories, but a report arose in Ṭabaristán that he was dead, and Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán assumed the control of affairs and placed the crown on the head of Isma'íl the 'Alawí, who was his half-brother, giving him Fáṭima, the daughter of Aḥmad, who had been the wife of the Dá'í, as his wife. But Khadíja, the mother of Abú Ja'far, bribed two of Díkú’s handmaidens with 400 dínárs to poison Isma'íl with a poisoned lancet while he was being bled. Later, when these handmaidens quarrelled and divulged the secret, both were hanged at Shálús by Díkú. Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán came to ´Amul, but was expelled by Abú 'Alí of Isfahán and Abú Músá, two of Mákán’s officers, and retreated to Daylamán. Asfár went from Ray to Qazwín, and slew many of its inhabitants, because they had, in a riot, slain his lieutenant, and burned the bázárs, and many of the people fled into exile. Mardáwíj b. Ziyár quarrelled with him, gathered a number of followers, and retired to Zangán, whence he made an attack on Qazwín, and drove Asfár to Ray, and thence to Qúmish, where he was joined by Abu`l-'Abbás b. Kálanjár. With him Asfár fell back by way of Quhistán on Ṭabas, whither he was pursued by Má­kán. Thence he endeavoured to reach the castle of Alamút, but Mardáwíj stopped the way (f. 138), and finally captured him in Tálaqán and beheaded him. All this happened in A. H. 319 (A. D. 931). Mardáwíj, being now quit of Asfár, slew many of the rabble who had supported him, including Aḥmad b. Rasúl and Abu`l-'Abbás. 'Aṣṣárí, and established himself at Ray. Mákán advanced from Khurásán to Ṭabar­istán and made peace with Mardáwíj, who sent messengers to Gílán by way of Qazwín and brought Náṣir to Ray. Mákán had tortured Abu`l-Faḍl Shágird, a relative of Muṭrif, to make him disgorge money; and Muṭrif induced Mardáwíj to march on Ṭabaristán. Mákán, learning this, came to ´Amul. Mardáwíj sent Náṣir by way of Láriján and Damáwand, but Mákán met him near Wálá-rúd and slew him and many of his followers. Mardáwíj retreated by way of Damáwand to Ray. At this period the sons of Buwayh had seized the provinces of Fárs and Kirmán, and Mardáwíj went to Isfahán to arrange his plans, but while there he was assassinated in the bath.*

On the death of Mardáwíj, the army of Ray swore alle­giance to his brother Washmgír b. Ziyár, who, having set in order the affairs of 'Iráq, sent Shíraj b. Laylá, Lashkarí and Abu`l-Qásim to expel Mákán from Ṭabaristán. Mákán fled thence to Gurgán, on a Tuesday in Ramaḍán, A. H. 323 (= August, A. D. 935). Abú Bakr and Abu`l-Mudhaffar, who were both there, allied themselves with Abu`l-Qásim, and left him in possession of Gurgán when they had expelled Mákán (f. 138b). But in Ramaḍán, A. H. 324 (= July—August, A. D. 936) Abu`l-Qásim was killed by a fall from his horse whilst playing polo, and buried at Sárí. His army swore allegiance to Ibráhím b. Gúshyár. The Amír Abú Ṭálib Washmgír came from Ray to ´Amul and thence to Sárí, and Ibráhím b. Gúshyár came from Gurgán to meet him, but was dismissed from his command and degraded to his former rank. Washmgír then remained for some while at Sári, until Abú 'Alí Khalífa and Langarcha Pír were murdered at ´Amul. In Muḥarram, A. H. 325 (= Nov.—Dec., A. D. 936) he sent to Níshápúr and brought back Mákán, to whom he gave Gurgán. The command of the army of Ṭabaristán he conferred on Abú Dá`úd and Isfáhí b. Urmazdyár, bidding them make war on Abú Músá b. Bahrám, who had rebelled in Daylamán. Abú Ja'far Muḥammad, who was at ´Amul, was joined by Abú Dá`úd, and these, accompanṛed by Abú Ja'far Náṣir, went to attack Abú Músá, whom they defeated and expelled from that country. Daylamán, Jálús and the regions on that side of ´Amul were conferred by Abú Ṭáhir Washmgír on Aḥmad b. Sálár, while Muḥammad b. Aḥmad an-Náṣir ruled at ´Amul, giving audience every Monday and Thursday, and holding religious discussions with the doctors of Islám every Wednesday. Abú Dá`úd was at Sárí, which suffered greatly this year from floods, so that the people fled into the highlands. Abú Dá`úd summoned all the ministers and officials, and warned them that any exaction of which they might be guilty would be severely punished (f. 139a).

In Muḥarram, A. H. 328 (= Oct.—Nov., A. D. 939) Naṣr b. Aḥmad the Sámánid sent Abú 'Alí b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Mudhaffarí to Gurgán. Mákán appealed for help to Washmgír, who sent Isfáhí, with numerous levies from Gíl and Daylam. For seven months there was war in Gur­gán, and at length Mákán and his allies were defeated, though reinforced by Shíraj b. Laylá. Finally, driven out of Gurgán by the army of Khurásán, Mákán fell back on Ṭabaristán and halted at ´Amul. At this juncture news arrived that Ḥasan the Buwayhid had come from Kirmán to Ray, seeking to conquer 'Iráq. Washmgír marched at the head of an army to a place two stages distance from Ray called Mushkú, where a battle was fought, and the army of Ḥasan the Buwayhid was defeated, and fell back on Iṣfahán. In this battle the chamberlain Ibn Shá`úshtí was slain, and Ḥasan the Buwayhid captured the Gílá-gúr, but Washmgír’s men recovered him and brought him in his bonds to Washmgír, who set him free. Some days later, Washmgír came from Ray to Damáwand and summoned Mákán b. Kákí before him. He arrived on the '´Ashúrá (Muḥarram 10) A. H. 329 (= October 15, A. D. 940), and was received with the utmost honour and sent to Sárí. As he was returning thither from Damáwand, the commander-in-chief Abu 'Alí came to Dámghán, marching on 'Iráq. Washmgír turned back from Ray to Wíma near Damá­wand, and sent to Mákán to join him. Mákán, leaving his cousin Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán at Sárí, went to Washmgír, and they met at Isḥáq-ábád. On Saturday, the 21st of Rabí' I, A. H. 329 (= December 24, A. D. 940) they drew up in battle-array against the commander-in-chief [of the Sámá­nids]. At the first attack of the Khurásánís (f. 139b) Washm­gír fled; but Mákán stood firm, till, 1400 of his Gílí and Daylamite guards having been slain, twenty Turkish cham­pions hurled themselves upon him, dragged him from his horse, and slew him. His head, with a number of notable Daylamites who had been taken prisoners, was sent to Bukhárá*. His wazír, the father of Ustád Ibnu`l-'Amíd Muḥammad Qumí, al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad, known as kala, one of the finest scholars of the age, was also slain, and his head sent to Bukhárá. Thither also was sent his secretary, who, because of his accomplishments, was received with honour at the Sámánid court, where he remained for the rest of his days.

Washmgír, meanwhile, fled to Láriján, whence, ten days later, he came to Muṣallá of ´Amul. There, on Wednesday, the 28th of Rabí' II, A. H. 329 (= December 31, A. D. 940) he received the news of Mákán’s death. Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, Mákán’s cousin, and his clansmen agreed that Washmgír had purposely deserted their kinsman, and so rebelled against the latter, who sent Shíraj b. Laylá to fight them. He drove them out of Sárí, and they fell back on Astarábád. Shíraj came to ´Amul, and advanced on Astarábád, while Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán fled to 'Iráq and joined the Sámáníd commander-in-chief, whom he induced to invade Ṭabaristán. Washmgír then retired from Gurgán to Sárí, where, at a place called Walajúy, a battle took place, wherein Washm­gír stood firm; and even in the midst of it (f. 150a) news arrived of the death of Naṣr b. Aḥmad and the succession of his son Núḥ. Thereupon the Sámánid general made peace with Washmgír, and set out for Bukhárá, accompanied by Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, who, on the way thither, treacherously slew his chamberlain Mushawwiq, and, with the plunder which he had seized, returned to Gurgán, while the Sámánid general proceded on his way to join Núḥ b. Naṣr the new sovereign. All this happened in the year A. H. 331 (= A. D. 942—943). Washmgír made Isfáhí governor of Ṭabaristán and himself went to Ray.

At the end of Ramaḍán, A. H. 331 (beginning of June, A. D. 943) Ḥasan the Buwayhid advanced from Isfahán by way of Qazwín, and Washmgír came forth from Ray to give him battle. Shír Mardí and Gúrígír deserted him and went over to his enemy, and Washmgír, filled with appre­hension, was defeated, and fled to Muṣallá near ´Amul. Ḥasan the Buwayhid seized Abú 'Alí the scribe, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-'Umarí and Abú 'Umar the wazír, and bade them disclose Washmgír’s treasures. They indicated to him as the treasurer Abu`l-Ḥasan Mámṭírí, who, under torture, gave up all his own wealth, but not a grain of his master’s. On reaching ´Amul, Washmgír sent Binán b. al-Ḥasan as an ambassador to Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, who, however, imprisoned him in the castle of Jahína, and again came to Sárí, where Washmgír then was. A battle ensued, and Muḥammad b. Dabírí and Isma'íl b. Mardúchín deserted to Ḥasan [b.] Fírú­zán’s side. Thereupon Washmgír again fled to the Ispahbad Shahriyár b. Sharwín in the highlands, and, taking all his kinsmen and women-folk with him (f. 140b), made his way to Bukhárá, where Núḥ b. Naṣr the Sámánid came out to meet him and received him with honour. Washmgír’s lieutenant Isfáhí came to ´Amul, whence, learning that Washmgír had fled, he moved to the castle of Kuhrúd. A riot ensued in ´Amul, wherein many officers and myrmidons of the government were slain, and Ja'far b. Alanbán was hanged, and the people of Qum who were there were mal­treated, till Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán came to ´Amul and encamped at Sha'bú-Dasht, whence he went to Láriján and captured the castle and slew Isfáhí b. Akharyár, and seized all his property, and sent the spoils to his own castle in Daylamán.

Then Núḥ b. Naṣr the Sámánid sent Qarátakín at the head of 30,000 horsemen with Washmgír to Ṭabaristan. When he reached Gurgán, Ḥasan b. Fírúzán pretended that he was going to attack him, but suddenly slipped past him from Astarábád to ´Amul, destroying the roads and bridges, by way of Mámṭír and Tarícha. He was pursued by Washmgír to Sárí, whence, by way of ´Amul, he made good his escape to Daylamán. Washmgír advanced to Jálús, and Qarátakín demanded money of him, so that he was obliged to turn back to ´Amul and give him a share of his possessions, besides presenting all the men of learning and position to him in the mosque, in order that they also might he laid under contribution. Meanwhile Ḥasan b. Fírúzán remained in his castle <Arabic>, and encamped his men at a place called Dúládár. Washmgír marched thither, while Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán encamped on the sea-shore beyond Dar­band. Washmgír put his horse into the sea and attacked them, and captured Abu`l-Qásim b. al-Ḥasan ash-Sha'rání, whom he at once beheaded. Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán then took refuge with Mázyár b. Justán, while Washmgír came to ´Amul and there abode. [Ḥasan] b. Fírúzán then retired to Rúyán and took refuge with the Ustundár. Washmgír, learning this, suddenly attacked (f. 141a) them and dispersed their troops. Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán next fled to Láriján, whence, by way of Damáwand, he went to Astarábád and took up his abode in the castle of Kachín. Washmgír came from ´Amul to Gurgán, but no sooner had he arrived there than Ḥasan the Buwayhid came from Ray by ´Amul to Astarábád, where he was joined by Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán. They then proceeded to Gurgán and fought and defeated Washmgír, who retired to Níshápúr. The Ispabhad Shahriyár came to Ḥasan the Buwayhid, who was now in possession of Ṭabaristán, where he left 'Alí b. Níkáma, and himself returned to 'Iráq and settled at Ray. The Ustundár brought forth Abu`l-Faḍl ath-Thá`ir al-'Alawí (the grand-nephew of an-Náṣir al-Kabír) and established him at Jálús. The people collected round him. Ḥasan the Buwayhid, on hearing this, sent an army under Abu`l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn, known as Ibnu`l-'Amíd, to ´Amul to help 'Alí b. Níkama, but Abu`l-Faḍl ath-Thá`ir deserted the Buwayhid force at Taman­jádiya, and came to ´Amul, where he established himself in the Sayyid’s palace, while the Ustundár took up his abode at Kharmazar above ´Amul. After some time, these two quarrelled, and ath-Thá`ir al-'Alawí went to Gílán. Ḥasan the Buwayhid gave an army to Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, and sent him to Ṭabaristán. At this juncture Ḥasan the Buwayhid’s mother died at Ray, and was buried with great pomp at Jálús near ´Amul, and all Ṭabaristán passed under the sway of Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, who discovered Abú Ja'far the brother of Mákán at Sárí. Washmgír sent to Núḥ the Sámánid to ask his help, and received in response to his appeal several thousand troops, with whom he suddenly attacked Gurgán, and surprised and defeated Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, whose army joined Washmgír (f. 141b), while their late captain fled by night to the castle of Kachín. Washmgír then obtained control of the country.

At this date the Buwayhids had over-run the two 'Iráqs, al-Ḥijáz and Syria, as is fully set forth by Abú Isḥaq Ibrá­him b. Hilál aṣ-Ṣábí in his Kitábu`t-Tájí fí áthári `d-Daw­lati `d-Daylamiyya, and had made Baghdad their capital. Ḥasan the Buwayhid, the father of 'Aḍudu`d-Dawla Faná­khusraw, made his brother Mu'izzu`d-Dawla governor of Ray, while he himself held sway over 'Iráq. As soon as he heard of the return of Washmgír, he set out with a large army of Persians and Arabs to attack Ṭabaristán. Washmgír fled to Daylamán, but its people refused to shelter him for fear of the Buwayhids. Ruknu`d-Dawla Ḥasan the Buwayhid advanced as far as Jálús, and Washmgír took refuge with Abu `l-Faḍl ath-Thá`ir, but for whose protection the Daylamites would have surrendered Washmgír to his foes. Ruknu `d-Dawla the Buwayhid retired to ´Amul and remained there a month, till news of the death of his brother 'Alí reached him, whereupon he left Ṭabaristán and returned to 'Iráq. Thereupon Washmgír and ath-Thá`ir al-'Alawí, accompanied by a host of Gílís and Daylamís, came to ´Amul and appointed their own governors. Leaving the Sayyid at ´Amul, Washmgír himself marched to Gurgán. Shíraj b. Laylá, Wardánsháh and Abu`l-Ḥasan the brother of Náṣir conspired together and slew the chief supporters of ath-Thá`ir, while Muḥammad b. Wahrí, one of his chief intimates, joined them, so that the Sayyid was left alone, and fled by night to Daylamán, while the conspirators plundered and looted ´Amul (f. 142a).

When Ruknu`d-Dawla had concluded the mourning for his brother, he collected a large army, marched on Gur­gán, attacked Washmgír, and drove him by way of Nasá and Báward to Merv, which was then governed for Núḥ the Sámánid by Manṣúr Qarátakín. Níshápúr had been seized by Muḥammad b. 'Abdu`r-Razzáq, who had revolted against Núḥ. Washmgír and Qarátakín made a combined attack on him, and he, unable to withstand them, retired to Gurgán, where he joined Ruknu`d-Dawla’s governor, Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán. In Shawwál, A. H. 337 (= April, A. D. 949) Qarátạkín and Washmgír entered Gurgán, and Muḥammad b. 'Abdu`r-Razzáq fled to Ray and took refuge with Ruknu`d-Dawla. Qarátakín returned to Níshápúr and there died. Amír Núḥ thereupon appointed Abú 'Alí Mus­lim commander in chief in Khurásán, and sent him against Ruknu`d-Dawla. He reached Ray in A. H. 342 (= A. D. 353—4), besieged Ruknu`d-Dawla in the citadel, and finally made peace with him on the condition that he should pay to the Court of Bukhárá a yearly tribute of 200,000 dínárs. Thereupon Abú 'Alí Muslim retired, to the great vexation of Washmgír, who wrote to the Amír Núḥ saying that, if he had pressed his advantage, he might have taken Ruknu`d-Dawla captive. Amír Núḥ, incensed at this, dismissed Abú 'Alí Muslim from his office of commander in chief, and gave it to Abú Sa'íd Bakr b. Malik. Abú 'Alí Muslim, being informed of his dismissal, revolted against Amír Núḥ, omitted his name from the khuṭba, and seized Níshápúr. And about the same time, as it chanced, in A. H. 343 (= A. D. 954—5) Amír Núḥ died, and was succeeded by his son 'Abdu`l-Malik. Thus Abú 'Alí Muslim’s power became greater, and he concluded (f. 142b) an offensive and defen­sive alliance with Ruknu`d-Dawla. They agreed to invade Ṭabaristán, the former by way of Shahriyár-Kúh, the latter by Hurmazd-Kúh; but soon after they had effected a junc­tion, Abú 'Alí Muslim died, and his Khurásání soldiers dis­persed, whereupon Ruknu`d-Dawla retired to Ray, and Washmgír remained unmolested, though enmity continued to exist between the two, until, when Manṣúr b. Núḥ the Sámánid came to the throne, he sent a large army under Muḥammad b. Ibráhím Símjúr to help Washmgír against the Buwayhid. Thereupon Ruknu`d-Dawla, being alarmed, sought for help from Baghdad and Fárs, from his brother Mu'izzu`d-Dawla and from the sons of 'Aḍudu`-Dawla. In the year A. H. 356 (= A. D. 967) [Abu`l-Ḥasan] Muḥammad b. Ibráhím Símjúr joined Washmgír outside Gurgán.

One day about this time Washmgír wished to go for a ride, but was advised by his astrologer not to do so. He waited till the afternoon prayer, at which time some horses were brought for him to see. Amongst these was a very fine black horse from Bukhárá. He ordered it to be saddled, mounted it, and rode forth a little way, when he remembered with vexation the astrologer’s advice. Thereupon he turned back, when suddenly he was attacked by a wild boar, which gored his horse, while he fell to the ground with blood pouring from his nose, eyes and ears, and shortly afterwards expired. This was in Muḥarram, A. H. 357 (= December, A. D. 967).

Washmgír left two sons (f. 143a), Bahistún and Qábús, of whom the former was at this juncture in Ṭabaristán and the latter with his father. The nobles swore allegiance to Qábús, to whom [Abu`l-Ḥasan] Muḥammad b. Ibráhím Símjúr also gave his support. Bahistún, greatly disappointed, thereupon made overtures to Ruknu`d-Dawla, and went to him at Ray, while his brother Qábús continued to strengthen his hold on Ṭabaristán and Gurgán, and to conciliate the nobles by gifts of lands and money. Amongst others he was joined by his maternal uncle the Ispahbad Rustam b. Sharwín b. Shahriyár Báwand. And on Muḥarram 25, A. H. 366 (= November 28, A. D. 970) Ruknu`d-Dawla died.

'Aḍudu`d-Dawla Abú Shujá' Fanákhusraw, the son of Ruknu`d-Dawla, was in Fárs with his brother Mu`ayyidu`d-Dawla. The mother of both of these was the daughter of Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, the cousin on the father’s side of Mákán Kákí. Fakhru`d-Dawla, the third brother, was in Hamadán. Him the other two attacked, and he fled before them to Shamsu`l-Ma'álí Qábús in Ṭabaristán, who received him with honour. His two brothers (f. 143b) offered Qábús the revenues of Ray for a year if he would surrender Fakhru`d-Dawla to them, threatening him with war in case of refusal; and on his rejecting their proposals with scorn, 'Aḍudu`d-Dawla collected a great army of Kurds, Lurs, Arabs, Day­lamites and Turks, and sent them under the command of his brother Mu`ayyidu`d-Dawla to invade Ṭabaristán. They met and defeated Qábús at Astarábád, and he fled with Fakhru`d-Dawla, bearing with him his treasures, to Níshá­púr, where he placed himself under the protection of Tásh, who was ordered by Amír Núḥ the Sámánid to help him to recover his kingdom. Tásh thereupon marched on Gurgán, sending Fá`iq by way of Qúmish, and, aided by Qábús, besieged Mu`ayyidu`d-Dawla in Gurgán for two months. In spite of the scarcity of provisions to which the garrison was reduced, Mu`ayyidu`d-Dawla, at the advice of the astrologer Abu`l-Faḍl of Herát, waited till Mars, the planet fortunate to the Turks, had begun to decline. At this juncture news of the death of 'Aḍudu`d-Dawla reached him, and he secretly bribed Fá`iq and other captains of the besieging army to flee when battle should be joined, which happened on Wednesday, Ramaḍán 22, A. H. 371 (= March 21, A. D. 982). In consequence of the desertion of these faithless officers, Tásh and Qábús were defeated and com­pelled to retire to Níshápúr. At this time Fírúzán b. Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán ruled over Daylamán, his brother Naṣr b. Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán over Qúmish, and the Ispahbad Sharwín Báwand over Ṭabaristán.

On the death of 'Aḍudu`d-Dawla (f. 144a) quarrels arose between his sons, and Fakhru`d-Dawla proceeded to 'Iráq, but shortly afterwards died at Ray. Qábús meanwhile returned to Gurgán, and, by gifts and promises, tried to con­ciliate the chiefs of that country. Núḥ b. Manṣúr the Sámánid died, and was succeeded by Amír Raḍí. Abú 'Alí b. Ḥasan Símjúr rebelled against him, and Khurásán was plunged in confusion. Amír Raḍí fled to Ghazna, and appealed for help to Sabuktagín, who had succeeded Alptagín as ruler of that place. Sabuktagín collected an army and marched on Níshápúr against Abu 'Alí Símjúr and Fá`iq, whom he met in battle at a place called Tafsúr. Qábús, though at heart sympathizing with the Sámánids, had been compelled to place his son Dárá as a hostage in the hands of Abú 'Alí. During the battle Dárá escaped and joined the Sámánid Amír Raḍí. Abú 'Alí was defeated, and Sul­ṭan Maḥmúd b. Sabuktagín, to whose efforts the victory was largely due, was appointed by Amír Raḍí commander in chief of Khurásán, and given the title of Sayfu`d-Dawla, while his father, Sabuktagín, received Balkh as his reward, and withdrew to Herát. Amír Raḍí retired to Bukhárá, where he shortly afterwards died.

Sulṭán Mahmúd, now in secure possession of Khurásán, allied himself with Ilak Khán, and the two came to Bukhárá, seized Amír Raḍí’s son, Ibráhím al-Muntaṣir, and put to death some other Sámánid princes. Muntaṣir, however (f. 144b), succeeded in effecting his escape to Níshápúr, and, being pursued thither by Maḥmúd, fled to Gurgán, where he was well received and generously treated by Qábús, together with Abu`l-Qásim b. Símjúr and Arslán Bálú, who were with him. Qábús further advised them, having regard to the strength of Maḥmúd and Ilak Khán, to abandon for the present all hopes of recovering Khurásán, and rather to turn their attention to Ray, which was ruled by the boy-king Majdu`d-Dawla b. Fakhru`d-Dawla. Thither, accordingly, they marched, accompanied by the two sons of Qábús, Dárá and Minúchihr, but Abu`l-Qásim and Arslán Bálú, bribed by the nobles of Ray, induced them to retire without molesting the city. The sons of Qábús left them and returned to their father, while Muntaṣir made another attempt to recover Níshápúr, whence he was driven back by Sulṭán Maḥmúd to Gurgán. This time, however, Qábús, seeing that Muntaṣir could effect nothing, sent 2000 men to oppose his entrance, and thenceforth (f. 145a) concerned himself no further with the fortunes of the House of Sámán. He sent the Ispahbad Shahriyár b. Sharwín to subdue the district of Shahriyár, which was held by Rustam b. al-Marzubán, the maternal uncle of Majdu`d-Dawla Abú Ṭálib Rustam b. Fakhru`d-Dawla, whom he defeated, and proclaimed Qábús ruler of that country.

Bátí b. Sa`íd was dwelling amongst a section of the Jíl-i-Isfandárí, but, though outwardly their ally, his heart was with Qábús. Naṣr b. Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, driven by famine from Daylam, attacked and defeated them, and took prisoner the Ispahbad Abu`l-Faḍl, who shortly afterwards died. Bátí fraternized with Naṣr, and the two agreed to attack ´Amul, whence they drove out the governor, Abu`l-'Abbás the chamberlain. Having occupied ´Amul, Bátí wrote a letter to Qábús, informing him of the victory, and tendering his allegiance. Leaving Naṣr, he then proceeded to Astarábád and easily persuaded its inhabitants to accept the rule of Qábús, who sent the Ispahbad Shahriyár to support him (f. 145b)*. Fírúzán b. al-Ḥasan [b. Fírúzán], hearing of this, marched from Gurgán to attack them, and had almost succeeded in defeating Bátí outside Astarábád when a number of the Kurds and Arabs in his army suddenly raised the battle-cry of Qábús, and deserted to his enemy. In consequence of this Bátí not only put his army to flight, but captured him and a score of his chief officers. The fugitives were opposed and turned aside from Gurgán by the Sálár Khargásh, a kinsman of Qábús; and the latter was soon afterwards crowned at Gurgán in Sha'bán, A. H. 388 (= August, A. D. 998).

The fugitives were received at Ray with reproaches, and the minister Abú 'Alí Ḥamúla* at once proceeded to collect an army of Turks, Arabs and Daylamites ten thou­sand strong, with which he set out for Gurgán, accompanied by Manúchihr* b. Qábús, Asfár b. Kurdúya, Abu`l-'Abbás b. Já`í, 'Abdu`l-Malik Mákán, Músá Ḥájib, Bísitún b. Tíjásaf, Kinár b. Fírúzán, and Rashámúj, all leading men of Day­lam. When they reached the district of Shahriyár, Qábús resolved to oppose them. Abù 'Alí Ḥamúla sent messengers to try to win over to his side Naṣr b. Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, of whose attitude he felt doubtful, urging him, out of regard for the bond of kinship between him and Majdu`d-Dawla (f. 146a), to espouse his cause, and promising to reward him with the district of Qúmish. Naṣr, deceived by these promises, came to Sárí, and, taking the right hand one of the two roads to Gurgán, advanced to within a short distance of Qúmish. Here he made known to his soldiers the real reason why he had espoused the cause of Majdu`d-Dawla. Thereupon they differed in opinion, some being for Gurgán and others for Ustundár, while Naṣr, with the rem­nant which clave to him, advanced to Qúmish, and requested Abú 'Alí Ḥamúla to put him in possession of the citadel. They assigned to him the castle of Júmand, where he placed his family and his baggage and stores.

Abú 'Alí Ḥamúla, leaving Naṣr b. Fírúzán at Qúmish, returned by Sárí to Gurgán, where he encamped outside the city by the Mausoleum of the Dá'í. For two months fighting continued between him and the allies of Qábús, till famine prevailed in Gurgán, and food became hardly obtainable. Rain, floods and storms presently combined with dearth to render the position of the besiegers more and more difficult. Thereupon the soldiers of Qábús made a sortie, and a fierce fight ensued in which some 1300 men were slain. The Daylamites were defeated, and many of their chiefs, including Sipahsálár b. Kúrángíj, Zarhawájastán b. Ashkalí, Ḥaydar b. Sálár, and Muḥammad b. Wahsúdán were taken captive, while Abú 'Alí Ḥamúla retreated to Qúmish, where he urgently summoned Naṣr b. al-Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán to assist him. Fearing the advance of Qábús, how­ever, he dared not remain in Qúmish, but retreated to Ray, while Naṣr marched to Samnán. Here he halted and demanded re-inforcements from Majdu`d-Dawla, who sent (f. 147a) the son of his chamberlain Baktakín with six hundred Turkish horsemen. Qábús, on the other hand, despatched Bátí b. Sa'íd, and subsequently the Ispahbad Shahriyár, against the Daylamites. Bátí, however, suffered a serious defeat at the hands of Naṣr, and his army was annihilated.

Majdu`d-Dawla, greatly encouraged by this victory, sent his maternal uncle, Rustam b. al-Marzubán, with 3000 men to re-inforce Abú `Alí Ḥamúla, appointing him Ispahbad of Shahriyár. Naṣr came out to meet Rustam as far as Damáwand, and helped him to take effective possession of the district assigned to him. The Ispahbad Shahriyár fell back on Sárí to seek aid from Prince Minúchihr, the son of Qábús, and watched his opportunity, until, Rustam having been separated from Naṣr, he attacked him and drove him out of the country back to Ray, and established himself in his place.

After this Majdu`d-Dawla made peace with Qábús, and the two agreed to make an end of Naṣr b. Ḥasan [b.] Fírúzán, who, notwithstanding his ancient and noble lineage, was generally hated for his exactions and oppressions (f. 147b). Naṣr discovered their intention, and, hearing that Sulṭán Maḥmúd’s governor of Quhistán, Arslán Hindú-bacha, had attacked and driven back Abu`l-Qásim [b.] Símjúr, he went to the latter, and, eager to avenge himself on Majdu`d-Dawla, persuaded him to attack Ray. He was, however, easily repulsed; and, while retiring in disappointment, was attacked and routed by the troops of Qábús, whereupon he and his confederate Abu`l-Qásim offered their services to Sulṭán Maḥmúd of Ghazna. Abu`l-Qásim, for reasons set forth in al-'Utbí’s Ta`ríkh-i-Yamíní, was soon compelled (f. 148a) to flee from the Sulṭán’s court, but Naṣr remained in the Sulṭán’s service, and was finally given in fief Biyár and Júmand. These, however, did not satisfy him, and he suffered himself to be beguiled by specious promises to Ray, where he was put in chains and sent as a prisoner to the castle of Ustúnáwand, while Qábús subdued all the sur­rounding strongholds, and bestowed them on his chief offi­cers and nobles.

About this time the Ispahbad Shahriyár, having collected a large army, began to shew signs of restiveness, and Rustam b. Marzubán was sent against him from Ray, followed by Bísitún b. Tíjásf, who defeated and took him prisoner. Rustam, being a partisan of Qábús and ill-disposed towards the ruler of Ray, proclaimed Qábús king, with the acquies­cence and approval of Bisitún. Qábús conferred Gílán on his son Minúchihr, and shortly afterwards reduced the dis­tricts of Ustundáriyya, Rúyán and Jálús, so that his dominions now included, besides these regions, Gurgán, Ṭabar­istán and Daylam to the shores of the Caspian Sea (f. 148b). He also entered into friendly relations with Sulṭán Maḥmúd.

For all his noble qualities, his learning, piety, munificence, magnanimity, wisdom, prudence and intelligence, Qábús was, however, arrogant, harsh, and sometimes cruel. No one was secure against his occasional acts of violence, and many men of condition suffered death at his hands, so that a growing discontent became apparent. Now he had a cham­berlain called Na'ím, a simple and guiltless man, whom he had made governor of Astarábád; and him, on the mere suspicion of his inclining to the Mu'tazilite heresy, he con­demned to death. Na'ím craved a respite, that he might establish his innocence (p. 149a), but his request was refused, and he was put to death by Qábús. This so exas­perated the nobles and officers that they determined to depose Qábús, who had gone for change of air to Janáshk, and knew nothing of their disaffection until one night they surrounded and attacked his camp and plundered his bag­gage, but were driven off by his retainers. They then went to Gurgán, seized the city, and brought thither Prince Minúchihr, the son of Qábús, from Ṭabaristán, threatening him that, unless he would consent to depose his father and accept the crown at their hands, they would find another ruler and cast off their allegiance to his house. Minúchihr, being unable to oppose them, deemed it best to agree to their demands.

Meanwhile Qábús, with his retainers and baggage, came to Bisṭám, there to await the upshot of the affair (f. 149b), and his son Minúchihr was compelled by the rebels to march against him. Qábús summoned Minúchihr into his presence, which he entered with every mark of respect and with tears in his eyes. After bewailing the untoward events which had forced him in appearance to oppose his father, Minúchihr offered, if Qábús wished it, openly to espouse his cause; but the latter, recognizing the hopelessness of his own position, gave Minúchihr his blessing and handed over to him his signet-ring and the keys of his treasuries, and retired to Janáshk, there to end his days in prayer and pious exercises. The rebels, however, could feel no security as long as Qábús was alive, and soon found on opportunity to put him to death secretly (f. 150a)*. He was buried beneath a dome outside Gurgán on the road to Khurásán.

After mourning for three days, according to the fashion of the Daylamites, Minúchihr ascended the throne and assumed the reins of government, while Qábús was soon for­gotten:


Letters of condoleance from the Caliph al-Qádir Bi`lláh, conferring on him the title of Falaku`l-Ma'álí, soon reached Minúchihr, who made it his first business to conciliate, with presents and professions of loyalty, the powerful Sulṭán Maḥmúd of Ghazna, who recognized his sovereignty in Gurgán, Ṭabaristán and Qúmish, and sent Abú Muḥammad b. Mihrán as an ambassador to confer on him a robe of honour and other marks of his favour; while he on his part agreed to pay a yearly tribute of 50,000 dínárs, and, on the occasion of the campaign against Nárdín, supplied a contingent of a thousand picked soldiers of Daylam (f. 150b). Later Minúchihr sent Abú Sa'd Sawák, the greatest noble of Gurgán, to Sulṭán Maḥmúd to pray that he would bestow on him, for the confirming of the alliance, the hand of one of his daughters. To this request a favourable answer was brought back by the ambassador, who was then sent to Ghazna a second time accompanied by the Qáḍí of Gurgán to drew up the marriage-contract and bring back the bride (f. 151a).

Having thus secured his position, Minúchihr prepared to take vengeance on his father’s murderers, which he had hitherto feared to do, and did not rest until he had put most of them to death, save the son of Khargásh, who fled into exile, and none knows what fate overtook him. Abu`l-Qásim Ja'dí, who had been in command of the army of Qábús, long evaded capture, and finally (f. 151b) took refuge with the Sulṭán at Níshápúr, who, however, handed him over to Minúchihr, from whom he met with his deserts.

To return now to Minúchihr’s brother Dárá, who, as we saw (p. 227 supra), escaped from the custody of Abú 'Alí b. Símjúr and joined the Sámánid Amír Raḍí. When his father Qábús had established his rule, Dárá continued for a time in his service, but presently, his fears and suspicious being aroused, he again fled secretly into Khurásán, where he was at first well received (f. 152a) by the Sulṭán, but presently, falling under suspicion, he escaped to Sháh Shár of Ghars, between whom and himself an ancient friendship existed, but who dared not persist in refusing his surrender to the Sulṭán. He was imprisoned by the Sulṭán for some time — more rigorously after he had once succeeded in escaping —, but was finally received back into favour, and sent with Arslán Jádhib* to assume the government of Ṭabaristán and Gurgán, whence, however, owing to the wis­dom of his brother Minúchihr in conciliating Sulṭán Maḥmúd, he was speedily recalled, and attached to the Sulṭán’s per­sonal service. At this juncture (f. 152b) Amír Abu`l-Fawáris, son of 'Aḍudu`d-Dawla the Buwayhid, came from Kirmán to the Sulṭán to complain of the wrongs which he had suffered at his brother’s hands, and a dispute occurred between him and Dárá as to the nobility and antiquity of their respective families in the course of which the latter made use of expressions so insulting and improper that he was again disgraced and imprisoned till Muḥarram, A. H. 409 (= May-June, A. D. 1018), when, at the intercession of the Prime Minister, he was released, and his estates were restored to his stewards.

In A. H. 424 (= A. D. 1033) Minúchihr died, and was suc­ceeded by his son [Abú] Kálanjár, who was the comtemporary of Sulṭán Ma'súd b. Maḥmúd of Ghazna. In A. H. 425 (= A. D. 1033—4) the latter, in spite of the urgent dissuasion of his ministers and nobles, decided to visit the former in Gurgán and Ṭabaristán. Abú Kálanjár answered (f. 153a), “I am thy servant: the king does but visit his own house;” but he retired to one of his castles, and even ventured a remonstrance at the exactions and irregularities committed by Mas'úd’s troops. Finally, as summer advanced and the weather grew warm, Mas'úd retired to Gurgán, where, on the very day of his arrival, he learned that two thousand Seljúq Turkmáns had reached Merv, and had been joined by two of the sons of Seljúq, Yaghmur and Búqá. This was the first revolt of the Seljúqs, and their power continued to increase until Jaghrí* Beg Dá`úd seized Khwárazm, and thence marched to Ṭabaristán and Ray, occupying and annexing most of the realms of the House of Washmgír (or Ziyárids) except the mountains. And in A. H. 441 (= A. D. 1049—1050) Abú Kálanjár died*.

He was succeeded by his cousin Kay-Ká`ús b. Iskandar b. Qábús, chiefly celebrated as the author of the Qábús-náma*, who was contemporary with Rustam b. Shahriyár, and ruled in the mountain districts until A. H. 462 (= A. D. 1069—1070), when he died, and was succeeded by his son [Gílánsháh], to whom there remained but a shadow of power. For Ṭughril the Seljúq had traversed Ṭabaristán and Gílán, levying taxes and appointing governors (f. 153b), and thence had passed on to Ray [and Baghdad], restored the authority of the Caliph al-Qá`im bi-amri`lláh and put down the agents of the Fáṭimid Anti-Caliph al-Mustanṣir, and in return for all his services received the title of Sul­ṭán. Gílánsháh died, and was succeeded by his cousin Anú­shirwán b. Minúchihr b. Qábús, in A. H. 471 (= A. D. 1078—9)*.

[Here follows some account of Alp Arslán’s conquests, and in particular of a wonderful march which he made with 100,000 men from Balásághún to the Euphrates to relieve the Caliph al-Qa`im, who was hard pressed by the Byzantines. This march he is said to have accomplished in sixteen days. The author now turns back to trace the history of the Ispahbads of the House of Báw from the earliest times down to the period which he has now reached.]

(F. 154a). To the Ispahbads of this ancient and noble house was given the title “King of the Mountains” (Maliku`l-Jibál). Their ancestor Báw was a vassal of Khusraw Par­wíz, whom he aided in his wars with the “Romans” and with his rebellious subject Bahrám Chúbína, and for whom he successively governed Iṣṭakhr, ´Adharbayján, 'Iráq and Ṭabaristán. Over the latter province he maintained his sway for 15 years after the Arabs had overrun the rest of Persia, but was at last treacherously slain by Walásh, who struck him from behind with a brick, and usurped his authority, driving his son Suhráb into exile. The latter, however, aided by the men of Kúlá, Khúrzád, Khusraw-isfáhí and Qárin-kúh, attacked Walásh at Panjáh-hazár and slew him, and was crowned at Farím. From that time until the death of Fakhru`d-Dawla, though they were par­tially subdued at different times by the 'Alawí Sayyids, the House of Gáwbára, the Qárinwands, the Buwayhids and the Ziyárids, no king or ruler was able to destroy or extirpate them, or (f. 154b) to take undivided possession of their domains.

Suhráb was succeeded by his son Mihr-mardán, and he, after a brief reign, by his grandson Sharwín b. Surkháb, who was the contemporary of Wandád-Hurmazd, and first took the title of “King of the Mountains”. He and Wandád-Hurmazd united to drive the Arabs out of Ṭabaristán. The sons of these two, Shahriyár b. Sharwín and Qárin b. Wandád-Hurmazd were contemporaries of Hárúnu`r-Rashíd, to whom the former had been given as a hostage by his father.

Shahriyár was followed successively by his two sons Ja'far and Qárin. The latter, in the Caliphate of al-Mu'taṣim, in the year A. H. 227 (= A. D. 841—2) abandoned the Zoroastrian religion and embraced Islám. He was the con­temporary of the Dá'i`l-Kabír, who sent the Ustundár Padhúsbán to ravage his lands until he submitted to the Sayyid, and committed to him his sons Mázyár and Sur­kháb in the year A. H. 252 (= A. D. 866). The latter died young, and was succeeded by his son Rustam. When the Dá'í, who was still reigning, punished the Daylamites for their disobedience by cutting off the hands and feet of about a thousand of them, the remainder of them fled to this Rustam, who led them to Qúmish, captured it, and banished the Dá'í’s viceroy, Sayyid Qásim, to Sháh Dizh in Hazár Jaríb.

Rustam, being on bad terms with the Sayyid Muḥammad b. Zayd (f. 155a) joined Ráfi' b. Harthama, the governor of Khurásán, and with him ravaged Mázandarán, Daylam and Rúyán. After a while Ráfi' returned to Khurásán, and, being routed by 'Amr b. Layth, fled to Gurgán and made peace with the Sayyid, but sent a message to Rustam informing him that this truce was only a stratagem, and inviting him to meet him at Astarábád. On his arrival, however, Rustam was treacherously seized by Ráfi' as he sat at meat, and was cast into prison, where he died in Ramaḍán, A. H. 282 (= October—November, A. D. 895).

He was succeeded by his son Sharwín, who made peace with Sayyid Náṣir-i-Kabír, and was contemporary with Mákán b. Kákí. Sharwín was in turn succeeded by his son Shahriyár, who was contemporary with Ruknu`d-Dawla the Buwayhid and Washmgír b. Ziyár. His son, who predeceased him, bore the name of his grandfather, Sharwín. Shahriyár survived till the time of Qábús b. Washmgír and Sulṭán Maḥmúd of Ghazna.

[Here the author cites from the Chahár Maqála the account of Firdawsí, and how he took refuge from Sulṭán Maḥmúd with this prince, given in that work by Nidhámí-i-'Arúḍí-i-Samarqandí; which account has been published with a German translation by Dr. Ethé at pp. 89—94 of the Z. D. M. G. for 1894, Vol. XLVIII, and criticised by Nöldeke in his Iranische Nationalepos, pp. 21—30 of the tirage-à-part. A full English translation of this passage, which extends from f. 155a, 1. 17 to f. 157b, 1. 12, will be found at pp. 77—84 of my translation of the Chahár Maqála, so that it may be passed over in this place.]

(F. 157b). The Ispahbad Shahriyár was succeeded by Dárá, who reigned but a short time, and was followed by his son Shahriyár, who accompanied Qábús b. Washmgír in his 18 years' exile, conquered Shahriyár-kúh and expelled its governor Rustam b. Marzubán, and, assisted by Bátí b. Sa'íd, in A. H. 387 (= A. D. 997) defeated Fírúzán b. al-Ḥasan, and afterwards Naṣr b. Ḥasan.* But towards the end of the reign of Qábús (f. 158a) Shahriyár rebelled against him, and, being defeated by Rustam b. Marzubán, was imprisoned till his death. After this none of the House of Báwand dared shew themselves or claim any power, until, when the Seljúqs conquered Khurásán, and the power of the House of Washmgír was destroyed, the Ispahbad Ḥusámu`d-Dawla Shahriyár b. Qárin restored in some degree the power and fortunes of his house.

[The author now returns to the history of the Seljúqs at the point where he left it to recount the history of the Báwands, namely the death of Ṭughril and the accession of Alp Arslán. Most of what follows belongs to the general history of Persia from this to the Author’s own time (first half of the thirteenth century of our era), while another hand has carried on the chronicle to A. H. 750 = A. D. 1349—1350.]2

(F. 158b). During the reign of Alp Arslán, Ṭabaristán suffered much from the constant passage of his troops, but the Ispahbad Qárin b. Surkháb of the House of Báwand succeeded in re-establishing his power to some extent in the mountains, while the power of the House of Washmgír continually grew less. Qárin died in A. H. 486 (= A. D. 1093), and was succeeded by Ḥusámu`d-Dawla. About this time began the power of the Assassins. The ‘New Propa­ganda’, begun by Ḥasan-i-Ṣabbáh in Ray, was soon extended to Dámghán, Shahriyár-kúh, Damáwand and Qazwín, till finally the mountain fastness of Alamút, “the Eagle’s Nest”, was surrendered to them by its warden, 'Alawí Mahdí, on Wednesday, Rajab 6, A. H. 483 (= September 4, A. D. 1090), a date which, by a most curious coincidence, is represented by the sum of the numerical values of the letters composing its name*. 'Alawí Mahdí received from Ḥasan-i-Ṣabbáḥ an order for 3000 dinárs on the governor of Gird-i-Kúh and Dámghán, Ra`is Mudhaffar, who, though ostensi­bly subordinate to Amír Dád Ḥabash b. Altúntásh, had secretly accepted the doctrine of, and sworn allegiance to, Ḥasan-i-Ṣabbáḥ. It was a great surprise to Mahdí when, on his presenting this order, it was at once honoured. The growing power (f. 159b) of Ḥasan-i-Ṣabbáḥ aroused the alarm of the Nidhámu`l-Mulk, who, however, was assassi­nated on the eve of Friday, Ramaḍán 12, A. H. 485 (= October 16, A. D. 1092) at Siḥna near Naháwand by one of Ḥasan-i-Ṣabbáh’s fidá`ís named Ṭáhir-i-Arrání, who had disguised himself as a Ṣúfí.

Very shortly after this, Maliksháh (f. 160a) died, and the civil war which broke out between his sons Muḥammad and Barkiyáruq permitted the Assassins to strengthen their position unmolested. On the death of Barkiyáruq, Muḥammad sent his brother Sanjar to attack them in Khurásán. He began by capturing a stronghold named Qal'a-i-´Atash-Kúh (“the Castle of the Mountain of Fire”)* which they had seized at the very gates of Isfahán, and putting several thousand of them to death there. He also ordered the Ispahbad Ḥusámu`d-Dawla Shahriyár b. Qárin to co-operate with him in extirpating the Assassins, under pain of dis­missal, but he, displeased at the peremptory and minatory tone of the message, refused to do so. Thereupon* the Sel­júq monarch sent 5000 horsemen under the command of Amír Sunqur of Bukhárá to Mázandarán, ordering his governors in Láriján, Rúyán and ´Amul to join him and assist him. At ´Amul, accordingly, he was met by a number of local magnates (f. 160b), who proposed to accompany him by the sea-shore to Sárí. The Ispahbad Ḥusámu`d-Dawla, being informed of this, collected to himself Amír Mahdí of Lafúr, one of the Qárinwands, and all the amírs and notables of Shahriyár Kúh, at a place called ´Aram, and together they marched on Sárí, of which they proceeded to repair the fortifications. Sunqur encamped at a place called Atrábin. The Ispahbad promised his black Persian kuláh, round which he had wound a turban, to whichever of his sons would attack and rout the enemy. Najmu`d-Dawla Qárin at once alighted from his horse, took a Gílí shield, opened the gate and went out, followed by his son, Fakhru`l-Mulk Rustam. Ḥusámu`d-Dawla had with him four hundred Gílís, all with shields and white plumes (parcham), and these he drew up in ranks before Sunqur’s army. Then Farámarz b. Shírzád came forth with his horsemen.

Now Husámu`d-Dawla had induced an Amír named Bek­cherí to desert Sunqur as soon as battle was joined; this he did, and was received with honour and sent to the Ispahbad’s palace. Najmu`d-Dawla Qárin then attacked Sunqur; the noise of battle scared all the water-fowl in the surround­íng marshes (f. 161a) and they rose into the air with tumultuous cries, so that Sunqur thought that he was being attacked by another force in the rear. His army gave way, and fled, pursued by Najmu`d-Dawla, who killed and took captive many of them, especially the foot-soldiers of ´Amul. The people of Sárí blackened the faces of the captive ´Amulís, branded on their foreheads the names of Muḥam­mad and 'Alí, and paraded them through the town, after which they were released. Then the Ispahbad divided the abundant spoils which had fallen to their lot, and dismissed the marzubáns and other local chiefs who had helped him with presents and robes of honour.

Sunqur meanwhile fell back on Gurgán, and thence returned to Isfahán, where he told the Sulṭán that by force they could effect nothing in that wild country, but only by political stratagems. So the Sulṭán sent another embassy to the Ispahbad, telling him that Sunqur had exceeded his orders in making this attack, and asking him to send one of his sons to the court at Isfahán. To this proposal the Ispahbad finally consented, on receiving the Sulṭán’s solemn promise, confirmed by an oath, that the son thus sent should be treated with all honour; and, summoning his sons before him, communicated to them the Sulṭán’s proposal, and asked which of them would go. Najmu`d-Dawla Qárin, having taken part in the attack on Sunqur, dared not venture, but his brother 'Alá`u`d-Dawla 'Ali b. (f. 161b) Shahriyár volunteered to go, and was accordingly sent off to Isfahán with a pious Sayyid named Muntahí as his tutor, and an escort of a thousand horse and two thousand foot. His father accompanied him from Sárí as far as Farím, and sent him on his journey by way of Asrán and Samnán.

At this time the castle of Ustúnáwand was in the hands of the Assassins, and also the castle of Manṣúr-kúh. Some of the garrison of the latter had come to Dámghán, and the Amír Qachghuz attacked them and slew many. Then he joined 'Alá`u`d-Dawla 'Alí, and, being under obligations to his father Ḥusámu`d-Dawla the Ispahbad, took charge of him and brought him to Isfahán, where he was most graciously received by the Sulṭán, who was still more favourably impressed when he saw the young Prince’s prowess in polo, hunting, and throwing the mace, which he could throw as far as the Sulṭán could shoot an arrow. The Sulṭán then offered him the hand of his sister in marriage, but he, fearing the jealousy of Najmu`d-Dawla, suggested that this honour should rather be accorded to his elder brother. The Sulṭán approved this suggestion; the marriage contract was drawn up, and 'Alá`u`d-Dawla was sent back to Ṭabaristán with presents and robes of honour to convey the news. At ´Amul he was magnificently received by all the notables, and there he tarried ten days, when he was joined by the chief men of Shahriyár-kúh, who accompanied him to Sárí. His father, after congratulating him on his success, sent him to his brother Najmu`d-Dawla Qárin, who, however, refused to receive him, and, being rebuked by their father the Ispahbad, sought permission to go to Bagh­dad, which he was suffered to do.

On reaching Baghdad, Najmu`d-Dawla, who was a brave and skilful horseman, perfect in all knightly accomplish­ments, was met by the Sulṭán, who soon afterwards took him with himself to Isfahán, where he married him to his sister. Then he set out to return to Ṭabaristán, on hearing which his younger brother 'Alá`u`d-Dawla craved permission from their father the Ispahbad to retire into seclusion, for he feared his brother (f. 162b). Ḥusámu`d-Dawla met his son Najmu`d-Dawla at Farím towards Sam­nán, and gave him the castle of Kúzá. This vexed 'Alá`u`d-Dawla, since it had been given to him, and, though his father sent Amír Mahdí of Lafúr to Zárim, where he was, to pacify him, he retired in anger to Gulpáyagán, and took up his abode in a village called Mírwand-ábád, which was his mother’s property. Najmu`d-Dawla came to Sárí, and, charging his father with being privy to his brother’s with­drawal, threatened him, ill-used his servants, and desired to claim for himself the symbols of authority; and his father, being then 75 years of age, finally gave way to his violent and unfilial conduct, abdicated, and retired to ´Amul. Thither Najmu`d-Dawla, fearful of what men might say of him, followed him, offered profuse apologies, and brought him back to Sárí; but, as his conduct did not greatly amend, Ḥusámu`d-Dawla again withdrew to Húsam into religious seclusion. “I have heard from my father,” says the author, “that when he reached ´Amul, he passed by the gate of a Mosque where was a school for children, and said (f. 163a), ‘O my children, when you grow up, say, ‘Shahriyár, aban­doning his throne, fled to Daylamán from the hands of his own son Qárin.’” All the people of Gíl and Daylam rallied round him at Húsam, but he, wearied of sovereignty, occu­pied himself in building, farming and religious exercises. After a while he fell ill, and his son Najmu`d-Dawla, again repenting of his harshness, sent several notables to ´Amul to bring his father thither. There he met him, fell at his feet and apologized for his conduct, and brought him with him to Sárí, leaving the care of the estates of Húsam to an old servant called Amír Ḥasan.

The Sulṭán, Muḥammad b. Maliksháh, had a young son named Malik Aḥmad, whom he entrusted to the care of an Amír named Sunqur-i-Kúchak, and sent to Ray, making him governor of that town, together with ´Awa, Sáwa, Arrán, Khwár, Samnán, Rúyán, Láriján, Ṭabaristán and Gurgán. But every agent sent by Sunqur-i-Kúchak to ´Amul was expelled by Najmu`d-Dawla Qárin. This continued for some time, till at last Sunqur sent to 'Alá`u`d-Dawla 'Alí, Najmu`d-Dawla’s brother, offering to appoint him governor of ´Amul and Ṭabaristán, if he would come to Malik Aḥmad. So 'Alá`u`d-Dawla (f. 163b) came to Ray, where he was well received, and sent with Sunqur’s brother Jáwalí an army to ´Amul. There the notables came out to meet him, with Amír Ḥassán Bahá`u`d-Dawla the governor of the town, and installed him in the palace called Kúshk-i-Jáwalí, which in the author’s time was razed to the ground by Sháh Arda­shír. Ḥusámu`d-Dawla, on hearing this, came with the army of Shahriyár-kúh to Lák-´Abandán, and made an agreement with Jáwalí, whom he sent with Sháh Ghází Rustam to ´Aram, where he was entertained for a week, and then sent back to 'Iráq.

About this time a quarrel arose between the Ispahbad and the Assassins, because they had killed a certain Abú Ja'far Báwandí. One day the Ispahbad Sháh Gházi Rustam was passing through the quarter of the Mosque of Zanakú when an Assassin sprang out on him and tried to stab him, but failed and was slain by the clubs of the companions of his intended victim. To his father Sháh Ghází made light of this event, but a little later, while on his way from Sárí to ´Amul, two Assassins attacked him while he was out hunting in the plain of Walíkán, at a moment when he had alighted to drink water, and inflicted a deep gash in his side. One of these Assassins was killed by Ḥusayn Shírzíl; the other drew his knife (f. 164a), rushed amongst the Ispahbad’s servants, and wounded several of them ere he was himself slain. Sháh Ghází recovered from his wound, which, though deep, had not involved the intestines. His father the Ispahbad came to ´Amul on hearing the news, and wept bitterly over his son’s misfortune.

About this time Sulṭán Sanjar commanded the Ispahbad to wait on him, but he apologized on the ground of his age, and offered to send his sons. Sanjar was angry at this, and sent his nephew Sulṭán Mas'úd with an army to Astarábád to take Shahriyár-Kúh from the Ispahbad, who, however, defeated him near Tammísha and slew many of his men. He was joined by Kiyá Buzurg ad-Dá'í ila`l-Ḥaqq [b. al-] Hádí with 5000 Daylamites, and soon afterwards by his son Sháh-i-Ghází, who had recovered from his wound (f. 164b); and with their aid inflicted a second still more severe defeat on Mas'úd, who, having lost half his army, together with the Amír Jáwalí, fled to Gurgán. This happened in A. H. 521 (= A. D. 1127).

Sanjar, infuriated at this reverse, invited one of his amírs to volunteer to avenge it. Bazghash offered his services, which were accepted, and came to Dámghán, whence he sent harsh messages to the Ispahbad, who was at the castle of Kúzá, and who received his threats with derision. It was then Ramaḍán, but, as soon as the fast and ensuing festival were over, he moved to Tammísha, while Bazghash came to Astarábád and besieged the castle of Rúhín. The Ispah­bad left his son Táju`l-Mulúk Mardáwíj in Tammísha, and came to Sárí. Mardáwíj remained for eight months (f. 165a) in Tammísha, so that Bazghash could not move, while Qárin b. Garshásf continued to defend the castle of Rúhín successfully. Then news arrived that Qarája the cup-bearer had gone to Baghdad with the army of 'Iráq and was acting as Atábek, or guardian, to Seljúqsháh, and that Mas'úd also had gone to them from Gurgán; and Bazghash, being recalled by the Sulṭán, was compelled to retire.

The Ustundár Kay-Ká`ús and Fakhru`d-Dawla Garshásf agreed together to rebel against the Ispahbad. When each had returned to his own country, the latter first revolted at Gulpáyagán, and ravaged the district of Astarábád. The Ispahbad retaliated by attacking Gulpáyagán, plundering and burning the neigbourhood, and killing several of Fakhru`d-Dawla’s men. Meanwhile the Ustundár Kay-Ká`ús took advantage of the Ispahbad’s absence to attack ´Amul, burn the Ispahbad’s palace of Baqrá-Kaláta, and expel his retainers from the town. Fakhru`d-Dawla meanwhile, being driven out of Gulpáyagán, retired to the castle of Jahína. The Ispahbad despatched his son 'Alá`u`d-Dawla Ḥasan to attack Kay-Ká`ús, who, however, set an ambush for him and defeated him, so that he fled, and, by the help of one Dárgíl, crossed over by boat into Gílán and betook himself to the house of Sulṭán-Sháh-i-Gíl. After a while he desired to return to his father the Ispahbad, who, however, being vexed at his defeat, refused to receive him, and ordered that he should retire to Karkam, and that certain of his officers, Amír 'Alí Sábiqu`d-Dawla, Mudhaffar-i-'Alawí (f. 165b), Majdu`d-Dín Dárá and Abú Háshim-i-'Alawí, should for a period of one year not ride on horseback, and should each retire to a different place, which in each case he specified. But Amír 'Alí Sábiqu`d-Dawla propitiated the Ispahbad with a gift of a thousand sheep, though he was still kept out of his fief-holds for a year. Shortly afterwards the Ispahbad succeeded in surprising and putting to flight the Ustundár Kay-Ká'ús, and plundering his palace.

One of the Ispahbad’s vassals named Minúchihr had embellished his estate of Kuhrúd with all sorts of rare mer­chandise from India, Asia Minor, Egypt and Syria. He had several daughters and eighteen sons, of whom the eldest, Abú Ḥarb, was violent, undutiful, shameless, and without fear of God. One day he fled from his father, who sent sol­diers in pursuit of him. He had reached the dyke called Dar-band-i-Shínúh when they came up with him, and he, to escape, leaped his horse into the river Hurmuz, which there runs like a mill-race. The soldiers, supposing him to have perished, returned, but he reached the shore and made his way to ´Amul, where he was furnished with clothes (f. 166a), and sent to the court of the Ispahbad, who treated him with kindness and sent him back to his father.

His father, meanwhile, had disinherited him in favour of a younger brother, which so infuriated him that one night in Ramaḍán he invited his brothers to a banquet, and caused each one to be murdered as he was leaving the house. Then he came to his father, and, taking him unawares, smote him on the head with a mace and slew him (f. 166b), while his followers cut down one or two servants who offered resistance. He then announced to the people that he had done this deed by order of the king of Mázandarán, and sent a message to the Ispahbad, saying what he had done, and promising to appear before him if sum­moned. So the Ispahbad, who was just setting out for ´Amul from Kajúr, bade him come, and Abú Ḥarb joined him with 300 soldiers, horse and foot. The combined armies marched by way of Daylamán, Kalár, and Gúrshírad to Kajú, which they set on fire. Near this place they were met by the Ustundár Kay-Ká`ús, and a fierce fight ensued, in which 900 of the Ustundár’s men were killed and 400 taken prisoners, though he himself escaped with a few retainers. The Ispahbad (f. 167a) than returned to ´Amul, where he bound the 400 unfortunate captives to the staircase of the Palace which Kay-Ká`ús had burned, wrapped it in reeds and matting, and burned them all. The Ispahbad then set out for Daylamán, but when he reached Banafsha-gún, Kay-Ká`ús came before him with a sword and a winding-sheet to make his submission. He was ordered to collect his army and join the Ispahbad at ´Amul to help him in dislodging Garshásf from his castle of Juhína. There he received, at the Ispahbad’s command, 1000 gold dínárs of ´Amul from the marzubán of that city, whose exactions had, as he declared, driven him into rebellion, and a remission of certain sums of money for which he was responsible….

(F. 167b). The Ispahbad Sháh Ghází Rustam was now sixty years old. On the first of Farwardín, the Persian Nawrúz, he reviewed his army at Sárí, in the maydán of Atrábin, Sábiq of Qazwín being on one side of him, and on the other Abú Ḥarb of Láriján. He bade them bring him a polo-stick and ball, and struck the ball, saying, “O six­tieth year, I know not whether thou art come for sickness or death!” Then he threw down the polo-stick and dis­missed his army; and on that very day he fell sick. He retired to the village of Zínwán, distant one parasang from Sárí, and there died on the 17th of Farwardín, A. H. 558 (April, A. D. 1163), leaving two sons, Sharafu`l-Mulúk Ḥasan b. Rustam and 'Alá`u`d-Dawla, and a daughter, whom Sháh Ardashír gave in marriage to the Ispahbad Naṣíru`d-Dawla Dárá b. Bahman. 'Alá`u`d-Dawla was put to death by Sháh Ardashír near Tarícha. On the death of Sháh Ghází Rustam a poet has the following verses:


The Ispahbad Sháh Ghází was buried by the notables of Ṭabaristán, such as the Ispahbad Majdu`d-Dín Dárá, king of Daylamán, Amír 'Alí Sábiqu`d-Dawla, Sayyid Háshim the 'Alawí and Amír Surkháb, in the college where 'Alá`u`d-Dawla had been buried. After the funeral these notables met in the house of Shahrásán b. ´Asán, and (f. 168a) wrote to Sharafu`l-Mulúk Ḥasan to inform him of his father’s death. He, though ill at the time, at once came to Sárí, and despatched his boon-companion Kay-Ká`ús with fifty horsemen to ´Aba-sar to seize his brother Náṣiru`l-Mulk, who enjoyed the fullest confidence of the late Ispahbad Sháh Ghází, and cut off his head…. The warden of the castle of Ṭabarak sent to the Ispahbad offering to surrender it, as he was a Turk, and could not hold it. “'Iráq also,” he added, “like Mázandarán, is thine: send thy warden to Ṭabarak, and take possession of Ray, for I have business before me.” So, though it was bitter cold that year, the Ispahbad sent 300 men and a warden to take possession of that country, and ordered the marzubán of Láriján and the Ustundár to keep a daily watch on the state of the castle and the Amír ´Inánj.

When the Ispahbad used to sit late drinking wine, none of his servants dared go to his home, for, if he wanted one of them, and did nor find him, he would on such occasions punish him with death. So only when he fell asleep towards morning did they dare to depart to their homes to rest. One night 300 of these servants conspired together to kill him, and those who were on duty, watching their opportunity, fell upon him, and so plied their swords and maces that, when they left him dead, not one of his limbs was whole. Then (f. 168b) they went out, saying that the Ispahbad desired to be left alone, and bade all disperse, which they did. Sháh Ardashír, learning what had hap­pened, desired to pursue the murderers, but was dissuaded; but such as were recognized were arrested wherever they were found and sent to him, singly or in batches, and he caused them to be hung up and shot with arrows, until in the course of a year, all had been taken and killed.

The Ispahbad had four sons and one daughter. Two of the sons, Yazdigird and 'Alí, died before their father, while Ḥusámu`d-Dawla Sháh Ardashír and Fakhru`l-Mulúk Rustam survived him. His daughter was noted for her piety, devoutness and virtue. Náṣiru`d Dín Rúz-Bihán composed the following verses on the death of the Ispahbad:


When the Ustundár Hazárasp obtained control of his dominion, he ordered his son Zar-míwand Máníwand and his brother Shirwánsháh to be put to death. Both fled for protection to king Ardashír, who (f. 169a) sent a message of remonstrance to the Ustundár, saying:


Admonition, however, availed nothing. The Ustundár was abandoned by 'Aynu`d-Dawla Siyáh, Arslán, Ṭanṭiq and the Turkish Amírs, who joined themselves to the King, and were re-inforced by Arjásf, who, having obtained king Ardashír’s permission, raided the marches of Daylamán, and brought in all the inhabitants and the soldiers of that district into ´Amul, on which Hazárasp began to march. King Ardashír collected an army of 14,000 Turks and Tájíks, set out for Rúyán, and came as far as Nátil, where he heard that Hazárasf was engaged in battle with Khwájak. The King sent on his standards and insignia, and as soon as these were seen, Hazárasp’s men took to flight, and many were taken and killed, while he himself fell back on Kajú. The King encamped at Siyáh-rúd, where he remained two days, till the people of Rúyán came in to make their submission to him. Then he marched on to Kajú, ravaging the country as he went, and then returned to Qúr-shírad and Kalár (f. 169b).

In this year Sultan Ṭughril and the Atábek Muḥammad* rebelled, and demanded help from the King, having already received it from the Caliph, the Amírs of Aywa, and the armies of Arrán, ´Adharbayján, Akhláṭ and Marágha. The Ispahbad Bahá`u`d-Dín was accordingly sent to join them, and he came to Lafúr with so splendid an equipment of weapons adorned with gold that he was nick-named “the Golden Amír” (Amír-i-Zarrín). He aided in defeating the Atábek Darkala, and was dismissed to his country with honour and presents, while the Ispahbad was thanked for the aid which he had lent.

In this year a noble, brave and accomplished 'Alawí waited on the king, and was by him given rank and insignia, and assigned the district of Daylamán, which belonged to Kiyá Buzurg ad-Dá'í ila`l-Ḥaqq ar-Riḍá b. al-Hádí. He at once entered into possession, and ruled justly, and put to death the Ispahbad Shahriyár and Rustam, and liberated Bárkala after he had been imprisoned for some years, and imprisoned the governor of the city (shahr-dár) for sixteen years (f. 170a) in the castle of Kúzá….

In this year also Táju`d-Dín Túránsháh b. Zardastán died. Arjásf obtained permission to go to Alexandria (sic!) and raise an army wherewith to invade Gílán, but died there. King Ardashír made his cousin Hizibru`d-Dín Khurshíd commander-in-chief of his army, and made him governor of ´Amul and viceroy of Rúyán. Hazárasp and his brother went to Hamadán to Sulṭán Ṭughril and the Atábek Muḥammad, and prayed these to intercede for them that they might be per­mitted to return home. The Atábek 'Izzu`d-Dín was there­fore sent as an ambassador to ´Amul to the king of Ṃázandarán, who, however, declined to overlook Hazárasp’s previous misdeeds. Hazárasp was told that he must himself go to the king and seek to conciliate him:


(F. 170b). The following verses were also improvised on Hazárasp by other poets:


He left a little son named Sanjar Sháh, born of Turkán Khátún, and one of Ṭughánsháh’s retainers named Manklí-tukuz undertook to be his guardian, or Atábek. He put to death the Qáḍí Burhán, and on this a poet says:


Sháh Ardashír soon afterwards (f. 171a) hanged Mankli-tukuz for this deed. Sanjar Sháh and his mother carried off Qiwám 'Alí and other notables to Khwárazm, and seized the king of Khurásán, Quṭbu`d-Dín Khán, who was his eldest son, and cut off his head, which he sent to the king at the Palace of Dawlatábád at Sárí, on which a poet says:


..... (f. 171) Verses on the untrustworthiness of women:


Qizil Arslán was assassinated at Hamadán by four men, at the instigation of Záhida Khátún*, who plucked the ring from his finger, gave it to the Atábek Abú Bakr, his nephew, and said, “Go, assume control of Arrán and ´Adhar­bayján.” This Abú Bakr did, and reigned in peace for twenty years.

At this time took place the accession and coronation of the Ispahbad Shamsu`l-Mulúk Rustam. Ruknu`d-Dawla Qárin, accompanied by the nobles of Ṭabaristán, came to make him their offerings at the castle of Dárá. The day fixed for the coronation was declared by the astrologers to be unlucky, but the Ispahbad paid no heed to their objections. The coronation festivities lasted seven days, according to the old Persian fashion, and included the usual feastings, rejoicings, and giving of presents, while the notables and Ispahbads and Báwands assembled from all the country-side. When (f. 172a) these congratulations were finished, on the eighth day the Ispahbad ascended the throne, and girded on the royal girdle, and confirmed the governors in their appointments, and caused the Ispahbads and Amírs to cast aside their mourning, and clad them in robes of honour.

Ruknu`d-Dawla Qárin was dissatisfied with the Ispahbad on account of the inheritance of his elder brother Sharafu`l-Mulúk, and appealed to the Sulṭán, who sent 'Alí Sháh, governor of Dámghán and Bisṭám, with some soldiers to bid the Ispahbad, first with gentleness, and, if this failed, with a show of force, to surrender Sharafu`l-Mulúk’s inheri­tance to his brother Ruknu`d-Dawla. He also ordered the Amírs of Ray and Gurgán to help him in this. So 'Alí Sháh came by way of Fírúzkúh to Láriján, and encamped at Rúdbár-pích, and sent his brother-in-law on with a message by way of Mankúl; but the people of Shaláb waylaid him and killed him. There was a certain 'Alawí named Músá, who, before Tukush b. ´Il-Arslán became king*, had fled from Khwárazm and taken refuge with king Ardashír, and had long been a source of trouble and sedition in Tammísha. He induced the Sulṭán to appoint him wazír to 'Alí Sháh, whom he tried to persuade (f. 172b) to seize the Ispahbad and take from him the kingdom of Mázandarán. Failing in this attempt, he strove to provoke the Ispahbad against 'Alí Shah, who sent his head to the Ispahbad, by whom it was paraded for three days in the market. His sons, who were at ´Amul, were also arrested and imprisoned for some time in the castle of Kuhrúd. Peace was then concluded between the Ispahbad and 'Alí Sháh, and the former restored to Ruknu`d-Dawla the estates of his elder brother Sharafu`l-Mulúk. Ruknu`d-Dawla then surrendered the castle of Kúzá to the Ispahbad’s warden Afrásiyáb, and himself waited on the Ispahbad, who received him with all honour.

Shortly after this the Assassins (f. 173a) treacherously murdered Ruknu`d-Dawla, and obtained various signal suc­cesses. Shamsu`l-Mulúk had no son, but he gave his sister in marriage to the Ispahbad Shahriyár b. Kínkhwár b. Rustam b. Dárá b. Shahriyár, who was “the Father of kings” (Abu`l-Mulúk). This sister bore a son named Kín­khwár, who was cousin on the father’s side to king Ḥusámu`d-Dawla Ardashír b. Kínkhwár. Ḥusámu`d-Dawla Shahriyár lived in the reign of Maliksháh the Seljúq, who used to address him as his “father”, as witnessed by the verse of the poet Ráfi'í:


while in another verse he says:


At this period Sulṭán Jalálu`d-Dín Muḥammad Khwárazm­sháh, taking advantage of the growing weakness and dis­ruption of House of Báwand, took possession of sundry castles and lands outside Tammísha, and garrisoned them with his own men. Abú Riḍá Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad Abu `l-'Alawí al-Mamṭírí, on Shawwál 21, A. H. 606 (= April 1, A. D. 1210) treacherously murdered Naṣíru`d-Dawla Shamsu`l-Mulúk. This caused further confusion and disorganization, and many of the nobles of Ṭabaristán submitted to Muḥammad Khwárazmsháh. But in a little while this dynasty in turn was brought to an end by the terrible Mongol Invasion (f. 173b). The destruction and devastation resulting therefrom included Ṭabaristán as well as other provinces of Persia, and for thirty years it was without a king or ruler, while the armies of destroying Mongols traversed it to and fro.

At last, after this period of anarchy, the people of Mázandarán and Ṭabaristán met in council at Sárí, and chose as their ruler Malik Ḥusámu`d-Dawla Ardashír b. Kínkhwár (or Kíkhwáz) b. Rustam b. Dárá b. Shahriyár, who for some time revived the glories of his ancient house and kingdom. But soon he too was overtaken by misfortune, even as Shamsu`l-Ma'álí Qábús b. Washmgír says in well-known verses:*


(F. 174a)

On his accession, Ḥusámu`d-Dawla Ardashír transferred the capital from Sárí, which the House of Báwand had always hitherto made its metropolis, to ´Amul, where he made his palace at Qará-Kaláta on the banks of the river Hurmuz. Once, says the author, when he was walking through it, he read, amongst the paintings on the wall a long bilingual (mulamma') qaṣída by Siráju`d-Dín Qumrí, beginning as follows:


His father Kínkhwár (or Kíkhwáz) was the nephew of Sháh Ardashír b. al-Ḥasan, while he himself was the nephew of Jalálu`d-Dín Ḥasan b. 'Alá`u`d-Dín Muḥammad [Khwárazmsháh]. But in the year A. H. 647 (= A. D. 1249— 1250) he died, having reigned fifteen years.

[It is not clear at what point the record written by Ibn Isfandiyár ends, and the continuation supplied by another hand and carried down to A. D. 750 (= A. D. 1349—1350) begins, but it seems unlikely that Ibn Isfandiyár continued the history beyond this point].

At this time Mangú Qá`án (the grandson of Chingíz Khán) sat on the Mongol throne. Ḥusámu`d-Dawla Ardashír was succeeded by his elder son Shamsu`l-Mulúk Muḥammad (f. 174b). Mangú Qá`án sent an army under the Amfr Kat Búqá to subdue the castles and strongholds of the Assassins. Many of these he reduced, but Gird-i-Kúh, Alamút, Tún und Qá`in still held out. Mangú than sent his brother, the redoutable Húlágú, who first took Tún and Qá`in, and cap­tured so many prisoners that Khurásán was filled with slaves. He then laid siege to Gird-i-Kúh and Alamút. Kiyá Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, entitled by his followers al-Qá`im bi-`amri`lláh, was at that time Grand Master of the Assassins, but he was killed by one of his sons, and his son Ruknu`d-Dín Khúrsháh (or Khwaŕsháh), who was but an inexperienced lad, succeeded him. The philosopher Naṣíru`d-Dín Ṭúsí, whom Kiyá Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan had forcibly detained and compelled to act as his wazír, while professing friend­ship for the heretics, was inwardḷy eager to compass their destruction, and when Ruknu`d-Dín Khúrsháh asked his advice as to how he should answer Húlágú Khán, he counselled him (f. 175a) not to give battle, for which the stars were not propitious, but to surrender Alamút, which he accordingly did. He was at once put in chains and sent off to Mangú Qá`án, who, however, on hearing what had been done, sent a messenger to meet him and put him to death. Alamút was destroyed, and its priceless treasures and library delivered to the flames. But Naṣíru`d-Dín Ṭúsí was treated with honour, and retained in Hulágú Khán’s service.

Húlágú Khán now marched on Baghdad, [sacked the city and destroyed the last 'Abbásid Caliph, al-Musta'ṣim bi`lláh, as is well known]. As regards the remaining stronghold of the Assassins, Gird-i-Kúh, orders were issued to all the princes, potentates and nobles of the district to besiege it in turns; and after two or three years the turn came to the King and the Ustundár of Mázandarán. So the King of Mázandarán, Shamsu`l-Mulúk Muḥammad b. Ardashír, and the Ustundár, Shahrákím b. Namáwar, set out to con­duct the siege; and a daughter of the latter had been betrothed to the former. It was spring, and there was in Rúyán (f. 175b) a poet named Quṭb-i-Rúyání who composed a tarjí'-band in the dialect of Ṭabaristán on the spring season and the hunting in Rúyán, as follows:

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[The following additional verses are given only in B.]


[The following additional verses are omitted in A.]


When Shamsu`l-Mulúk was killed, his brother 'Alá`u`d-Dawla 'Alí was made king, and he was aided by his brother-in-law the Ustundár Shahrákím, but a fresh inrush of Mongols reduced his power to nothing and filled the land with ruins. He died in A. H. 663 (= A. D. 1264—5), in the same year in which his brother had been killed, and the devastation of Rustamdár, Mázandarán and Rúyán took place at the same time.

(F. 176). Malik Táju`d-Dawla Yazdigird next succeeded, and in his time such order prevailed that a single officer, armed only with an axe, Ḥasan Qádí Kal by name, used, alone and on foot, to collect all the taxes of Mázandarán from Tammísha to Alísha-rúd, and bring them to the capital. Táju`d-Dawla maintained the most friendly relations with the Ustundár Sháh Ghází. He reigned 30 years, overcoming many difficulties in his relations with the Mongols, and died in A. H. 701 (= A. D. 1301—2). He left a son named Sikandar, who, however, died soon after him, and he was succeeded by another son named Naṣíru`d-Dawla Shahriyár. In his days there were still seventy flourishing colleges in Mázandarán.

Shahriyár, following the example of his predecessors, allied himself by marriage with the Ustundár Sháh Kay-Khusraw. The Mongol dominion, however, left them but little power or security, and Shahriyár, after a reign of twelve years, died in A. H. 714 (= A. D. 1314—1315), and (f. 176b) was succeeded by his brother Malik Ruknu`d-Dawla Sháh Kay-Khusraw b. Táju`d-Dawla Yazdigird. At this juncture Amír Mú`min, Amíru`l-Umará, represented the Mongol government in Ṭabaristán, and between him and Ruknu`d-Dawla there was perpetual warfare. The latter entrusted his women and children to the care of the Ustundár Naṣíru`d-Dawla Shahriyár, who placed them at Twájan in Kalá-Rustáq; but could not prevail against Amír Mú`min, who enjoyed the fullest confidence of the Mongol sovereign Úljáytú Sulṭán Muḥammad Khudá-banda, and who, having obtained authority to that effect from the Mongol camp (urdú), sent his son Amír Qutlugh Sháh to invade Mázan­darán. Several battles took place between him on the one hand, and Shahriyár and the Ustundár on the other. One of the most celebrated of these battles, in which the latter were victorious, and many Turkish amírs and notables of Mázandarán who were with Qutlugh Sháh were killed, took place at Lít-Kúh on the road to Yásamín-Kaláta. At length Amír Mú`min himself invaded Mázandarán, and Sháh Kay-Khusraw, unable to withstand him (f. 177b), set out for the [Mongol] camp (urdú). By chance Amír Tálish Chúbán had been appointed Amír of Khurásán, and was proceeding thither. Kay-Khusraw met him, courted his favour, and promised to bring the Ustundár Naṣíru`d-Dawla Shahriyár to his presence. They journeyed on together to ´Amul, and alighted in the Maydán-i-Rúdbár Báqalí-pazán. There Sháh Kay-Khusraw brought the Ustundár before Amír Tálish Chúbán, who treated them both with honour, and remained that winter at ´Amul. Amír Mú`min’s power was thus checked. Kay-Khusraw, fearing the Mongol Amírs, who were constantly going and coming, conveyed his women and children and baggage to the Ustundár, from whom he bought for them the village of Fímat near Ganjáwarúz, and there abode; and there his descendants dwell to this day. He died in A. H. 728 (= A. D. 1327—8).

He was succeeded by his son Sharafu`l-Mulúk, a handsome and well-dispositioned youth, whose accession was hailed with joy by all the notables of Mázandarán. His reign was peaceful and happy, but short, (f. 177b), for he died in A. H. 734 (= A. D. 1333—4).

He was succeeded by his brother Malik Fakhru`d-Dawla Ḥasan b. Sháh Kay-Khusraw, the last of the Báwand kings, whose accession was nearly contemporary with Sulṭán Abú Sa'íd’s death*. This practically coincided with the end of the Mongol Power in Persia, which lasted about 80 years from the date of Húlágú Khán’s capture of Baghdad in A. H. 656 (= A. D. 1258). The author speaks highly of the order and good government which prevailed during this period, especially during the reigns of Gházán Khán, Úljáytú Khudá-banda, and Abú Sa'íd, which, says he, one might think that the poet Dhahír-i-Fáryábí was describing when he said:

(f. 178a)<Arabic>

On Abú Sa'íd’s death anarchy supervened, each amír striving to seize what he could for himself out of the general wreckage. Amongst those who thus rose to power was Amír Mas'úd Sarbadál [or Sar-ba-dár), who rose up in Sabzawár, killed his brother Pahlawán 'Abdu`r-Razzáq, gathered round him­self a number of rogues and vagabonds, and established him­self in a citadel which he made for himself in Sabzawár. Tughá-Tímúr was nominally Sulṭán of Khurásán, but his wazír, 'Alá`u`d-Dín Muḥammad, had practically (f. 178b) got possession of all the power, and used it most oppressively. His tyranny, and that of a tribe of Turks called Jataz, reduced the people of Khurásán to desperation. The disaffected joined themselves to Amír Mas'úd Sarbadál, whose power thus rapidly increased, so that he defeated many of the Mongol and Turkish amírs, and even Arghún-Sháh and his brothers, until he finally held possession of Khurásán from Jám and Bákharz to Mázandarán. His popularity largely depended on the fact that all spoils of war were equitably shared by him with his followers, and that he in no way distinguished himself from them.

He now marched on Herát and attacked Malik Mu'ínu`d-Dín Ḥusayn-i-Kart. The battle lasted three days and nights, and 7000 men are said to have perished in it, including Amír Mas'úd’s spiritual director Shaykh Ḥasan Júrí; and Amír Mas'úd was finally defeated and fell back on Mázan­darán. At Bayárú-kamand he had another battle with Tughá-Tímúr, whose brother, Shaykh 'Alí Káwán, he killed. He defeated Tughá-Tímúr and took captive Píshín Khátún and other ladies of his house (f. 179a), and pursued, captured and put to death his wazír 'Alá`u`d-Dín Muḥammad at Qal'a Kamín. Tughá-Tímúr fled from him to Lár and Qaṣrán, where he was re-inforced by Malik Fakhru`d-Dawla and the Ustundár.

Amír Mas'úd soon succeeded in re-establishing his power in Khurásán, which, from Herát to Gurgán and Qúmish, fell under his sway, and he placed his governors in each impor­tant town. He then came to Astarábád, intending to subju­gate Ṭabaristán, and sought by all means to win over to him its kings and rulers. Kiyá Jamálu`d-Dín Aḥmad Jál, a powerful, sagacious and experienced noble, obtained per­mission from the King of Mázandarán to go with his nephews Kiyá Táju`d-Dín and Kiyá Jalál, to Astarábád, and try to come to terms with Amír Mas'úd, who received them well, but forced them to accompany him on his onward march to Sárí, whence he sent to the kings at ´Amul (f. 179b) desiring to see them. After prolonged consultation, Malik Fakhru`d-Dawla of Mázandarán and Malik Jalálu`d-Dawla Iskandar the Ustundár determined to resist Amír Mas'úd by force, and sent him a harsh answer. Thereupon, leaving some of his men at Sárí, Amír Mas'úd marched on ´Amul. The two armies met outside ´Amul on Dhu`l-Qa'da 17, A. H. 743 (= April 13, A. D. 1343), in the plain of Búrán, where the Mázandaránís had constructed at Qará-Kaláta by their King’s Palace a temporary stockade, which they prepared to defend with the utmost stubbornness. Jamálu`d-Dín Aḥmad Jál, seeing that battle was inevitable, and that Amír Mas'úd would not hearken to his advice (f. 180a), sent repeated and urgent messages to his friends and kinsmen to “defend the honour of Mázandarán”, and not to concern themselves about his possible fate; “for,” said he, “I am an old man, who have lived my life: if I perish and Mázandarán continue in honour it is better than that ye should submit to subjection and abasement.” The Mázandaránís responded to this heroic advice, and all, from Tammísha to the frontiers of Gílán, forgetting their private quarrels and jealousies, presented a united face to the foe. Amír Mas'úd, alarmed at their firm­ness, requested Kiyá Jamálu`d-Dín Aḥmad Jál and his nephews to extricate him from ´Amul (f. 180b). Amír 'Alí Hawákhún (? Mawákhún) deserted him for the Mázandaránis, which added to his alarm, and he gave Kiyá Aḥmad Jál five kharwárs of dirhams to guide him out of the country. The Kiyá sent this money to his kinsmen, and bade them construct earth­works from the river Hurmuz to Sárí and close the roads. After ten days' sojourn in ´Amul, Amír Mas'úd quitted it with his army. At Yásamín-Kaláta, one parasang’s distance from the city, he was confronted by the Ustundár Jalálu`d-Dawla, while the soldiers of Mázandarán attacked him in the rear. Mas'úd, seeing that he was out-manœuvred, killed Kiyá Jamálu`d-Dín Aḥmad Jál and his nephews, and fled towards Láwích, making for the mountains. The woods and thickets which he was compelled to traverse were swarming with his foes, while the Kings closely pursued him, and one vast battle raged from Yásamín-Kaláta to Rúdbár-i-Núr; until the Khurásánís, after sustaining heavy losses, were finally completely disorganized and scattered:


Finally (f. 181a), after two days' flight, Amír Mas'úd, with a few of his followers, reached the mountains by way of Rúdbár-Bálú, and began to ascend. The path was barred by the scouts of Taju`d-Dawla, the Ustundár’s brother, Malik-i-Mu'adhdham Sharafu`d-Dawla Gustahm, and he was forced to turn back by way of Rúdbár-Uz; but, losing his way, was taken captive.

Amír Mas'úd, wounded and captive, was brought before Malik Fakhru`d-Dawla, who asked him as to the original size of his army. He answered that provision had been made for 4000 horses, 600 mules and 400 camels, from which could he deduced the size of the army. He was then sent on to the Ustundár Jalálu`d-Dawla, who, after two days' consideration, put him to death. His body was buried on the road to Kálíjar under a mill on the east side of the stream.


(F. 181b). His head was cut off, stuffed with straw, and exhibited to all men at the very place where he had, a few days before, encamped with so great and well-equipped an army.


(F. 182a). <Arabic>

The people of Ṭabaristán, except the learned and religious classes, used to wear their hair long and hanging loose — sometimes as much as a yard (gaz) in length; but, some days after the execution of Amír Mas'úd-i-Sarbadál, Malik Jalálu`d-Dawla, seeing that his late foe had his hair shaved, adopted the same practice, together with the wearing of the turban, and first his own kinsmen, and then the rest of the people, imitated him, so that the new fashion became general, and the long locks, called kalálak, and the head-dress called kalá-band, were finally abandoned.

It has been already described how, in the reign of Malik Ruknu`d-Dawla Sháh Kay-Khusraw, Amír Mú`min and his son Qutlugh-Sháh caused dissension in Mázandarán which led to great disorganization, and how Malik Shamsu`l-Mulúk Muḥammad treacherously slew his brother 'Alá`u`d-Dawla 'Alí, and assumed the reins of government*. Malik Ruknu`d-Dawla Sháh Kay-Khusraw went to the [Mongol] camp (urdú) and brought back an order for the dismissal of Malik Sham­su`l-Mulúk, who retired to Gílán for a while, but was presently summoned thence by Ruknu`d-Dawla, who, at the advice of Amír Qutlugh Sháh, put him to death, together with his brother Malik Ardashír and 'Alá`u`d-Dawla 'Alí (f. 182b) in the summer-palace of Ardáshír-ábád.

Thus Malik Sháh Kay-Khusraw, being left alone, was weakened, and Qutlugh Sháh strengthened; and the former, gradually pushed back, conveyed his family and possessions to the domain of the Ustundár, whose people helped and supported him. There his sons, and those of Sharafu`l-Mulúk, Fakhru`d-Dawla, and the other brothers, grew up, honoured and treated in every way like the princes of Ustundár; until, moved by false suspicions, he put to death Kiyá Jalál b. Aḥmad Jál, which caused universal disgust and consternation amongst the nobles who had hitherto supported him, save the rival Kiyás of Chaláp, with whom he was now compelled to ally himself. Of these, Kiyá Afrásiyáb of Chaláp was his principal ally.

In Mázandarán, thus distracted, there now appeared the dervish orders, pírs, and muríds, which had already appeared in Khurásán. Afrásiyáb (f. 183a) and his kinsmen became enthusiastic for this doctrine, and desired to persuade Malik Sháh Kay-Khusraw to it. The Kiyás of Jalál attached them­selves to the chief Ustundár, Malik Jalálu`d-Dawla Iskandar. Malik-i-Mu'adhdham marched on ´Amul and ravaged the surrounding territory. Fakhru`d-Dawla came with two or three thousand men to the camp of the king of Ustundár to sue for peace, which was granted; and the united forces then expelled the Kiyás of Chaláp from ´Amul. These allied them­selves with their former foes, the Kiyás of Jalál. The king of Mázandarán tried to regain their confidence, but could not overcome their mistrust. Amír Sayyid Qiwámu`d-Dín, whom the Kiyás of Chaláp regarded as their saint and spiritual director, disliked Malik Fakhru`d-Dawla on account of his real or supposed heretical tendencies. Finally on Muḥarram 27, A. H. 750 (= April 17, A. D. 1349) Malik Fakhru`d-Dawla was treacherously murdered in the bath at ´Amul by 'Alí Kiyá b. Afrásiyáb and his brother Muḥammad Kiyá (F. 183b). His family, having no other place of safety, again took refuge with the supreme Ustundár Jalálu`d-Dawla Iskandar, who received them with all hospitality and kindness.

Malik Fakhru`d-Dawla left four sons, all of tender years, Malik Sharafu`l-Mulúk, Sháh Ghází, and Malik Ká`ús*, of whom the eldest was but ten years of age. Malik Jalálu`d-Dawla not only protected and cared for them while they were young, but when they were grown up he undertook several campaigns with a view to restoring them to their kingdom. On one occasion he attacked Kiyá Afrásiyáb, the Kiyás of Jalál and Sayyid Qiwámu d-Dín at Marán-Dih near ´Amul (f. 184a), and killed the former, but finally, with his men of Rustamdár, was out-numbered and driven back by the Mázandaránís. In this battle 330 of the men of Rustamdár were slain, and it was the last attempt of the kings of Báwand to assert their power, which had endured in Mázandarán for 705 years; for the founder of the Dynasty, Báw-i-Shápúr, established- his independence in A. H. 45 (= A. D. 665—6), while the last of them, Malik Fakhru`d-Dawla Ḥasan, was killed, as above stated, in A. H. 750 (= A. D. 1349).