Account of Kayús (f. 69a: <Arabic>).

In the time of Qubád the son of Pírúz (A.D. 488—531) the sovereignty of Ṭabaristán was in the family of Gush­nasp-sháh (<Arabic>), and Kayús, “the man of the House of Báwand”, was sent thither by the king to help the repre­sentative of this family to expel the Turks from Khurásán, which was successfully accomplished. At that juncture appeared the false prophet Mazdak the son of Námdárán (sic, for Bámdádán), whose history is fully related in the Nidhámu`l-Mulk’s Siyaru`l-Mulúk (i. e. Siyásat-náma); by whose influence Qubád was ruined and deposed in favour of his younger son Nushírwán, who extirpated the heresiarch and his followers. The Kháqán of the Turks, hearing of these internal disturbances in Persia, advanced with his hosts to the Oxus. Thereupon Núshírwán wrote to his brother Kayús to inform him that he was collecting Persian and Arab levies to oppose the Turks, and that Kayús must be ready to join him in Khurásán to punish the Kháqán’s insolence (f. 69b). Kayús at once collected his troops in Ṭabaristán, marched on Khurásán, routed the Kháqán, crossed the Oxus, took much spoil from the Turks, and established his kinsman Húshang as governor of Khwárazm. Thence he proceeded to Ghaznín, appointing governors over the towns as far as Nahrawála (<Arabic>), and levying tribute on Turkistán and India, after which he returned to Ṭabaristán and despatched one of his nobles to Núshírwán with the spoils of victory, and a letter in which he wrote: “Thou art several years younger than me, and knowest how without thy help or aid I have defeated the Kháqán and exacted tribute from the Turks and Indians. It is not fitting that thou shouldst wear the crown while I am a mere retainer: yield up to me the throne and crown and treasures of our father, that I, according to thy wish, may create a more ample kingdom.” This request was promptly refused by Núshírwán in a letter of which the text is given (f. 70a). Kayús there­upon collected his army and marched from Ṭabaristán on Madá`in (Ctesiphon), but was defeated and imprisoned by his brother, who, on his refusal to repent of his action and promise amendment, caused him to be put to death, and detained his son Shápúr a prisoner at Madá'in until the Kháqán of the Turks again invaded Khurásán and Ṭabar­istán (f. 70b). Núshírwán again marched against him, and in the battle which ensued the tide of victory was turned in favour of the Persians by a mysterious troop of two or three thousand horsemen clad in green and with green standards, who only on Núshírwán’s most urgent entreaty consented to disclose their identity. It then appeared that, in the reign of Qubád’s father Pírúz the son of Yazdigird the son of Bahrám Gúr the son of Yazdigird “the Wicked”, the lands beyond the Oxus and Balkh river were by treaty committed to the care of Khushnuwáz (here <Arabic>, for <Arabic>) the king of the Hayáṭila (or Huns), afterwards called Ṣighániyán (f. 71a), who however, violated his pact and ravaged the country until, when Pírúz marched against them, they treacherously attacked him, defeated his army, took him and many of his nobles captive, and cut off his head. Now he had left at Madá`in Súkhrá the son of Qárin the son of Súkhrá, one of the descendants of Káwa (the blacksmith who headed the revolt against Dahák in favour of Ferídún) as his viceroy. This Súkhrá, on hearing of the disaster, gathered an army and marched against Khushnu­wáz, who, knowing that he could not resist him, restored the captives and spoils he had taken and apologised for his conduct, so that Súkhrá, without striking a blow, returned victorious, and received from the múbads the title of Ispahbad. Now Pírúz left three sons, Qubád, Balásh and Jámásp, of whom the first fled to Khurásán and implored the Kháqán’s help to recover the kingdom, which had been given to the second, with the last-named to assist and advise him. When Qubád, assisted by the Kháqán, had advanced against his brothers as far as Ray, Balásh died, and Súkhrá proclaimed Qubád king, and sent him a message asking him to send back his Turkish allies from Ray, and to hasten himself to Madá`in, which he did. So Qubád became king of Persia, and Súkhrá grew in honour and favour until envious slanderers traduced him to the king, and he, being informed of this, fled with his nine sons to Ṭabar­istán (f. 71b). Súkhrá was treacherously slain, but his sons fled to Badakhshán, where they acquired territory and established themselves. These and their retainers it was who, hearing of Núshírwán’s accession and favourable disposition towards them, had afforded him such opportune assistance against the Kháqán’s troops. He, in gratitude for their ser­vices, bade them choose such lands as they liked for a possession to them and their children. Thereupon the eldest of them, Zarmihr, chose Zábulistán; and the youngest, Qárin, Wandá-ummíd Kúh, ´Amul, Lufúr and Farím, which is called Kúh-i-Qárin (“Mount Qárin”). The latter returned with Núshírwán on his homeward march as far as Ṭabar­istán, and was there installed (f. 72a) as Ispahbad. To the author’s time the nobles of Lufúr and Astarábád, and the people called Qárinwands, represent the descendants of this Qárin; and the author promises to give at the end of his book genealogical tables shewing the descent of the Báwands, Qárinwands, Surḥánwands, Láriján, Marzubán, Ustundár, Dábuwán, Kúlá`ij, Walásán, Sa'ídúhá, Úlán-mihán, Amír Ká, and Kabúd-jáma, and the reasons of their being thus named. Thus was Ṭabaristán divided up between Qárin and the chiefs established in Tammísha in the time of Núshírwán, till he died, and was succeeded by his son Hur­mazd, who reigned twelve years.