Arrajān.* —This city was first founded by King Qubād, the father of Chosroes Anūshirwān. It was a great city, with many dependencies, but during the troublous times when the Assassins held sway in the land it fell to ruin. It has a warm climate, and the city lies adjacent to the Thakān Bridge, where it spans the great river called the Nahr Ṭāb, which flows down from the neighbourhood of Sumayram. Further, many other streams flow past near here, with much water, whereby the land in this neighbourhood is most productive, growing all kinds of fruit. Groves of date-palms and of pomegranates abound, especially of the kind called mīlasī,* which is most excellent. There are also many aromatic plants. The districts round and about Arrajān are very numerous, and a mosque for the Friday prayers stands in the city.*

Jallādjān, Nīv, and Dayr.* —These are all districts of Arrajān, with climate and general conditions the like thereto, so that it is needless to say more. Of this district too is the hamlet called Chahār Dīh, “Four Villages.”

Khabs, Furzuk, and Hindījān.* —These are districts lying between Arrajān and the inner districts of Fārs. Khabs was a post for the customs, and all these places in climate and general conditions exactly resemble Arrajān in all points.

shahr.* —A small town lying on the seashore, near by to the castle of the Amīr Firāmurz ibn Handāb.* The climate here is extremely hot, so that the men have, in summer-time, to wrap the inner rind of the acorn on parts of the skin in certain places, otherwise it would chafe into sores by the excess of sweat and the heat engendered there. Further, they have the habit of putting on many shirts, and they wear them very long. By reason of the damp­ness and the unwholesome climate no one who is not a native of the place can stay out the summer here; all others go up to Diz Kilāt* and the castles that belong to the Amīr Firāmurz, and there they remain [during the hot months]. In this district nothing is to be had except sea-borne goods that are brought hither in ships, for nothing except fish, dates, and Rīshahrī flax is to be come by in this place. The people are almost entirely occupied with the sea trade, but they have neither excel­lence nor strength of character, being of a weak nature. The town stands on the frontier line between the Arrajān District and Khūzistān. The men here are honest, occupying themselves with their own affairs, but they have been mishandled by one tyrant after another, fate having been against them. Further, some of the districts near by are far more populous than that round Rīshahr.

Jannābā.* —A small town lying on the seashore, and in Persian they call it Ganfah, which signifies “Stinking Water”. Now, a city that has “Stinking Water” for its name must be described as of an evil stinking character, and therefore there is no occasion to speak of its condition. Nothing that need be mentioned is produced in this place, and all that can be said is that it lies on the road of one going from Mahrūbān to Sīrāf.

Sīnīz.* —A little town lying on the seashore. There is here a small fort. The place lies between Mahrūbān and Jannābā, and they weave linen cloths here which are very thick and soft, and these are known as Sīnīzī stuffs. They, however, do not wear well. Nothing else is produced excepting dates and oil for lamps. The climate is good.

Mahrūbān,* with its District.—Mahrūbān is a place lying so much on the seashore that the waves of the sea beat on the houses of the town. It has a warm, damp, unwholesome climate, worse even than that of Rīshahr. It is a seaport that all ships come into that sail either from Fārs going towards Khūzistān, or that set out by sea from Baṣrah and Khūzistān. Likewise all the ships from the sea that have cargoes from, or for, the districts inland come and go from Mahrūbān, whereby its custom-dues from these ships are very considerable. Except for dates they grow no fruit here. They breed sheep, however, in great numbers, and likewise goats; also they raise calves, which are for size like those they breed in Baṣrah, for it is reported that some weigh as much as 80 to 100 raṭl in weight, or even more.* Linseed and flax are grown here abundantly, being exported to neighbouring parts. In the town there is a mosque for the Friday prayers. The people of Mahrūbān are weak in character.

The Islands which belong to this district of Qubād Khūrah are as follows: Jazīrah Hangām, Jazīrah Khārik, Jazīrah Ram [or Dam], and Jazīrah Balūr.*

The description of the towns and districts of Fārs being completed, we shall now proceed to notice all the great rivers and the lakes, and then the meadow-lands and such castles as are still in good repair. These, therefore, are the great and celebrated rivers other than those of which a part only [lies in the Fārs province].*