Remainder of the Author's adventures during his residence at Khorram Abâd.— The Turks besiege the Court of Sovereignty, Hamadân.— Their conquest of it, and massacre of its inhabitants.

I WAS at Khorram Abâd, when the fire of the Turkish revolution flamed over those confines, and when the invasions of the Turkish troops began to reach the environs of that town. Ali Mardân Khan, the Amîr Ol Omarâ before-mentioned, came to the opinion, that as a war with the Turks at that time was a matter of great difficulty, the most salutary measure would be to retire with the whole population to a part of the province, which was a mountain of difficult access, and to abandon the town and territory of Khorram Abâd, which was in the vicinity of the Turkish camp, to emptiness and desolation. With this intent he moved with his army and dependents to the remotest district of the province, leaving Amir Hasan Beg Saliverzi, one of the princes of that tribe, in the city, to remove the people, and, hav­ing laid waste the town and citadel, to join him. The inhabitants, however, fell into confusion; and most of them being unable to move away, and having at the same time no security against their terror of the Turks, they raised a commotion like the rising from the dead. Amir Hasan Beg came to my lodgings, and the citizens also came in a body. Much discourse of various kinds passed between us, and I saw that the removal of the people was utterly out of their power. To lay waste such a city, which was the envy of the rose-bower of Irem, and, working the still greater ruin by their own hands of such an immense popula­tion, to turn adrift their old women, their children, and their families into the desert of destruction, was a measure which I did not approve of; and I advised the Amir not to stir, but to adopt some plan for the defence of himself and people. I exhorted the citizens to union, and to the active preparation of ammunition and arms: and I shewed them the necessity of being vigilant and coura­geous. My speech produced its effect and gained the approbation of all. The citizens entered into a treaty and covenant with each other, and every one equipped himself in armour and the accoutre­ments of war. Their exertions to this end being completed, they closed up, as well as they could, all the ways and passages to the entrance of the enemy, and took all the necessary steps for strengthening the fortifications and ramparts of the town and citadel. So powerfully did I employ my encouragement and multiply my exhortations on them, that the most ignorant of their number, within a few days, arrived at perfect skill in the use of arms; and to such a height was their bravery wound up, that if a formidable army had presented itself against them, they would not have hesitated to give it battle. The inhabitants now regained their tranquillity, and the town resumed its busy populousness. Most nights I kept watch with the citizens myself, and in the day accompanied them in their rides. When the Turkish army was made aware of the proficiency in arms and state of preparation of the town's people; and when the name and multitude of the branches of the Feili tribe, the roughness and difficulty of the roads and passages through the province, and the circumstance of there being in the midst of them a governor like the renowned Amîr Ol Omarâ, had been spoken of loudly by the voice of report, the Turks became thoughtful, and no longer setting their faces in that direction, they confined their operations to the remaining districts around them. As soon as the aforesaid Amîr Ol Omarâ perceived, that the people of the town remained stationary at their homes, he repeatedly sent to caution and deter them; but no one paid attention to his messages. After six months' endurance of much hardship and affliction in the mountains, he came down himself also to the city, and approved of the advice which had been followed.

The Turks in the mean time were busied in the siege of Hamadân, one of the largest cities of Irâk, and the capital of one of its most considerable dis­tricts. At that time there was neither governor, nor any body of troops in the town. But the citi­zens and common people stood up in its defence, and the siege was prolonged to four months' dura­ration. A multitude of Turks was killed by the arrows and musket-shots of the besieged; and however much the Turkish General, Ahmed Pâshâ, summoned them to submit, it was of no avail. The Turks, who exceeded one hundred thousand in number, and were renowned throughout the world for capturing forts, began at length to exert themselves in the reduction of the town, and hav­ing blown up with gunpowder one side of the ramparts they entered through the breach. As the Turks turned their hands to slaughter, the people of the town also, taking up arms, as many as they had, made face against the enemy on every side; but they had no longer any hold on their own safety, nor was any advantage to be gained by their useless strife: they were all killed in the murderous conflict. Of the most famous and extraordinary occurrences of the time, one was the abundant slaughter made by the Turks in that city, and the resistance and obstinate bravery of its inhabitants. For three days was the bloody scene enacted; and not one of the Persian com­batants turned his face to flight, but they were all killed; except a very small number of per­sons who obtained quarter, and retired to the neighbouring districts. At that time a consider­able multitude from the districts and confines of Irâk had been also assembled in the town. The number of the slain on this mournful occasion is known only to the great master of secrets; for to guess even the number of noble lords, and eminent men, and grandees, who at that time lost their lives, would be difficult; how much more so that of the common people? One of the slain was the ingeniously clever and incomparably learned man Mirza Hâshim of Hamadân, who ranked among the scientific scholars of the age, and was a true friend to me. Was numbered also in the list of the slain the learned and godly Mawla Abd Arrashîd of Hamadân, who was a just and equitable man, and possessed a high degree of legal knowledge. Among the killed was also that prodigy of the universe Mawlâna Ali Khattât of Isphahan, whom I have had occa­sion to mention heretofore.* He was connected with most of the sciences, and wrote every species of hand-writing in such a manner, as none of the preceding writers up to his time had been able to execute. He was a collector of all perfections, and from the beginning of the revolution had been one of my friends and intimate companions. To conclude, with the report of this terrible calamity of Hamadân confusion spread itself over the affairs of those confines, or rather found its way over the whole of Persia; and the people of Khorram Abâd were scattered and dispersed, the governor him­self also fleeing from that town.