Be it known to the way-farers of the climes of travels and histories that the Ṣūbah* of Bengal is in the second climate.* From Islāmābād,* otherwise known as Chittagong, to Telīagadhī,* that is, from east to west, the length is 400 Karoh,* and its breadth from north to south, that is, from the mountains in the north to Sarkār Madāran,* which is the southern limit of this Ṣūbah, is 200 Karoh. And since in the period of Jalāl-uddin Muhammad Akbar Pādshāh Ghazī, the Ṣūbah of Orissa was conquered by Kālāpahār* and annexed to the Empire of the Sovereigns of Delhī, and made a part of the Ṣūbah of Bengal, the extent of the latter Ṣūbah became extended by 43 karoh in length and by 20 karoh in breadth. In the southern limits of this Ṣūbah is the sea, and towards its north and east, are high mountains, and on the west, it adjoins the Ṣūbah of Behar. During the rule of Emperor Akbar, ‘Isā Khān* Afghan conquering the eastern provinces struck coin and recited Khutbā in the name of Akbar, and annexed it to the Ṣūbah of Bengal. There* are twenty-eight Sarkārs with eighty-seven mahals in this Ṣūbah*. In past times, the fixed revenue of this Ṣūbah was fifty-nine kror eighty-four lak, fifty-nine thousand and three hundred and nineteen dams, which is equal to about one kror forty-nine lak, sixty-one thousand four hundred and eighty-two rupees and fifteen annas in sicca Rupees. Twenty-three thousand three hundred and thirty cavalry, eight lak and one thousand and one hundred and fifty-eight infantry, one hundred and eighty elephants, and four thousand two hundred and six guns, four thousand and four hundred fleet of boats, con­stituted the standing army. Adjoining to the northern limits of Chittagong, is the tract of country ruled by the Rajah of Tipperāh. It is an extensive country. The rulers of that country enjoy the title of Mānīk, for instance Nyā Mānīk. The nobles have the title of Narāin.* The Rājah of that place had one thousand elephants and two laks of infantry in his service. Riding horses are not available. Between the north and the west of Bengal, pointing more towards the north, is the province of Kūch Behār. Its length from east to west, from the beginning of Parganah Bhitarband,* which is included in the conquered provinces, to Pātagāon,* which is the limit of the tract of the Mūrang, is 55 kos, and its breadth from south to north, that is, from Parganah Nājhāt, which is included in the conquered country, to Pūshakarpūr,* which adjoins Khontāghāt,* is fifty kos. This tract of country, in point of the sweetness of its water, and mildness and salubrity of its air, and the comfort of its inhabitants, is superior to all the eastern tracts of Hindustān. Large oranges thrive here, and other fruits also grow in abundance. The tree of pepper grows there, its root is thin, and its branches creep over ponds. Its ear, like the ear of grape, hangs down from the branches. Its inhabitants belong to two tribes, namely, Makh and Kūj,* its Rājah is of the first tribe. They mint gold coins, and the coins are called Nārainī. Notable Rājahs have ruled there. One lak and one thousand infantry are always in the service of the Rājah.

And the country of Kāmrūp which is also called Kāmrū* or Kāmtāh is subject to those Rājahs. The inhabitants of Kāmrūp are good-looking, and in magic raise the standard of mastery; and many incredible stories are related regarding them. In respect of the flora of that place, it is said that the scent of the flowers continues as fresh as before, some months after their being plucked, and that with these necklaces are made, and that by cutting trees a sweet liquid is obtained, and that the mango-tree trails like a climbing vine over ponds, and produces mango-fruit; and other similar stories are related.

And the mountain of Bhūtān, which is the abode of the Bhūtiahs, lies to south of Kūch Behār. Tāngan* horses and Bhūt and Barī horses and the musk-deer are found in this mountain. In the centre of this tract, a river runs between two rocks, its breadth is small, but it is very deep, and its current is strong. An iron-chain is put across the top of the river, and its ends are affixed to pieces of rocks on the two sides of the river, and a second chain is put over the first chain at a distance, equal to the height of a man. Pedestrians cross the river by placing their feet on the lower chain, and seizing with their hand the upper chain. And what is stranger is that horses and all other loads and bag­gages are ferried across this river along this very chain. The people of this tract are ruddy-complexioned and fat; their hairs fall hanging down their heads and necks. Their dress consists of only one rag, just sufficient to cover the private parts. Men and women of this place dress in the same manner. The pronuncia­tions in their language resemble those of the people of Kūch Behār. It is said that mines of turquoise-stone also exist in this mountain.

Between the north and the east of the country of Bengal, bordering on the tract of Kamrūp, is the vilāyat or province of Āshām (Assam). In its middle, the river Brahmāpūtrā flows from east to west. Its length from west to east— that is, from Gowahatī to Sadiāh— is about two hundred karoh or kos, and its breadth from north, that is from the rocky fastnesses of the tribes of Marī, Majmī, Daphla and Valandāh,* to the hills of the Nāngā tribe, is approximately seven or eight days’ journey. Its southern mountains adjoin lengthwise the mountains of Khasia, Kachar and Kashmir,* and breadthwise they adjoin Auṭān or Aṭwān, the abode of the Nāugā tribe. Its northern mountain skirts length­wise the lofty ridges of Kāmrūp, and breadthwise it faces the mountains of the Valandāh tribe. The tract in the north of the river Brahmapūtra, from Gowāhātī to the abodes of Marī and Majmī tribes, is called Ūttarakūl; and the extent of the Dakhinkūl is from the country of Naktīrānī* to village Sadiāh. The climate of the lands bordering on the Brahmapūtra is for foreigners poisonous. For eight months the rainy season prevails, and the four months of winter are not free from rain. And the flowers and fruits of Hindūstān and Bengal are available here; and besides these, others are found which are not to be had in Hindūstān. Wheat, barley, and pulse are not grown, but the soil is fit for cultivation of all kinds. Salt is scarce and dear, and what is procurable from the defiles of some of the rocks is bitter and brackish. The fighting cocks of that country do not turn back face from enemies; though the adversary may be strong and big, they fight so much that the brain of the head becomes dis­turbed and they die. Large well-formed elephants abound in the wilds and the mountains. And plenty of deer, wild-goats, and wild-cows, and the horned fighting rams are also to be found. In the sands of the river Brahmapūtra, gold is found; twelve thou­sand Assamese are employed on this work. Every year one tola of gold per head is paid into the Rājah’s treasury. But the gold is not quite pure, so that one tola of gold sells for eight or nine rupees, and silver and gold coins are minted in the name of the Rājah, and shells are current, but copper pice is not in use. Musk-deer is found in the mountains of Ashām. The bladder of musk is large, and full of large pieces of musk, and is beautiful-looking. The aloes-wood, which grows in the mountains of Kāmrūp and Sadiah and Lakhūgirah, is heavy and full of scent. No tax is levied from its subjects. From every house, out of every three persons, one person has to serve its Rājah, and in serving him, shows no laxity, and if laxity is visible, he is killed. The Rājah of that place dwells in a lofty building, and does not put his foot on the ground, and if the places his foot on the ground, he is deprived of his rāj. And the people of this country have a false notion that their progenitors were in heaven, and that at one time fixing a ladder of gold they came down to the earth, and that since then they have dwelt on earth. Hence the Rājah is called Sargī— and ‘Sarg’ in the Hindī language means ‘heaven.’ And the Rājahs of that country are powerful and notable. It is said that when the Rājah of that place dies, his servants, male and female, with some conveniences and necessaries, and carpets and clothes and victuals together with a chirāgh full of oil, are placed with him in a sepulchral monument, securely covered over with strong logs of wood.*