Be it not hidden from the bright hearts of the bankers of the treasure of History and the appraisers of the jewel of Chronicles, that the Jewish and Christian communities, before the advent of Islām, used to come to many ports of the Dakhin, like Malabar, &c., for trading purpose by the sea-route, and after acquiring familiarity with the people of that country, they settled down in some of the towns, erected houses with gardens, and in this manner dwelt there several long years. When the planet of the Muslim faith rose, and the bright effulgence of the Muslim sun shone on the East and the West, gradually, the countries of Hindustān and the Dakhin were recipient of the rays of the moon of the Muhammadan faith, and Muslims commenced visiting those countries. Many of the kings and rulers of those parts embraced the Islamic religion, whilst the Rājahs of the ports of Goa, Dābil, and Jabūl, &c., like Muhammadan rulers, gave Musalman emigrants from Arabia quarters on the sea-shores, and treated them with honour and respect.* In consequence, the Jews and the Christians burnt in the fire of envy and malice. And when the Kingdoms of the Dakhin and Gujrāt became subject to the Musal­man Emperors of Dehlī,* and Islām became powerful in the king­dom of the Dakhin, the Jews and the Christians placed the seal of silence on the door of their tongues, and ceased to utter words of enmity and hatred. Subsequently in the year 900 A.H., weakness* and decay set in in the kingdom of the Dakhin. At that time, the Portuguese Christians, on behalf of the king of their own country, were directed to build forts on the sea-shores of India. In the year 904 A.H., four ships of the Portuguese Christians* came to the ports of Qandrīnah* and Kālīkot, and the Portuguese after ascertaining thoroughly the state of affairs* of the sea-board sailed back. And the next year, six Portuguese ships arrived at Kālīkot,* and the Portuguese disembarked, and made a prayer to the ruler of that place, who was called Samrī, to prevent the Musal­mans from trading with Arabia, urging that they (the Portuguese) would yield him more profit than the Musalmans. The Samrī did not listen to their prayer. But the Christians commenced molesting the Musalmans in mercantile business, so that the Samrī* becom­ing enraged ordered the former’s slaughter and massacre. Seventy leading Christians were slain; whilst the rest getting into sloops sailed out to save themselves, and alighted near the town of Kuchīn,* the ruler whereof was on terms of hostility with the Samrī. There they obtained permission to build a fort, and within a short time they erected quickly a small fort, and dismantling a mosque which stood on the sea-shore they built on its site a church.* And this was the first fort which the Christians erected in India. In the meanwhile, the inhabitants of the port of Kanor also leagued with them. The Christians erected a fort also there. Being freed from anxiety, the Christians commenced a trade in pepper and ginger, and obstructed* others from trading therein. Consequently, the Samrī advancing with his forces slew the son of the king of Kuchin, and ravaging that province returned. The successors of the slain ruler collecting again a force raised the standard of sovereignty, re-populated the province, and under the advice of the Ferengis* placed a flotilla of galleys in the sea. And the ruler of Kanor also similarly fitted out a flotilla of boats. The Samrī, getting enraged at this, bestowing all his treasures on the army, twice or thrice advanced with his forces against Kuchīn.* At every time, the Portuguese |helped Kuchin, so that the Samrī did not succeed in subduing it, and without attaining his object retired. Becoming powerless, he sent envoys to the rulers of Egypt, Jiddah, the Dakhin and Gujrāt. Com­plaining of the malpractices of the Christians, he asked for help, and sending out narratives of the oppressions practised by the Christians over the Musalmāns, he stirred up the veins of their zeal and rage. At length, Sultān Qabṣūr Ghurī* despatched to the Indian coasts a General, named Amīr Ḥusain, with a fleet of thirteen war-vessels, containing a naval force with armaments. Sultān Mahmūd of Gujrāt and Sultān Mahmūd Bahmanī of the Dakhin also fitted out numerous ships from the ports of Deo, Sūrat, Kolah, Dabil and Jabūl, in order to fight with the Portu­guese. First, the ships from Egypt arrived in the port of Deo, and uniting with the ships of Gujrāt set out for Jabūl, which was the rendezvous of the Portuguese. And some ships of the Samrī and some ships of Goa and Dabil having also joined them, they kindled the fire of war; but suddenly, one warship full of the Portuguese quietly sailed up from the rear. The Portuguese commenced a cannonade, and converted the sea into a zone of fire. Malik Ayāz, ruler of Deo, and Amīr Ḥusain were obliged to fight with them, but failed to effect anything. Some Egyptian galleys were captured, and the Musalmāns drank the potion of martyrdom, whilst the Portuguese triumphantly steered back to their own ports. Inasmuch as at that period, Sultān Salīm, Khaqan* of Rūm (Turkey), defeated the Ghorīah Sultān* of Egypt, and the empire of the latter came to an end, the Samrī who was the promoter of this war lost heart, and the Portuguese acquired complete domination. In the month of Ramẓān, 915 A.H., the Portuguese proceeded to Kālīkot, set fire to the Cathe­dral Mosque, and swept the town with the broom of plunder. But on the following day, the Malabarese collecting together attacked the Christians, killed five hundred leading Portuguese, and drowned many of them in the sea. Those who escaped the sword fled to the port of Kolam,* and intriguing with the Chief of that place, at a distance of half a farsakh from that town, erected a small fort, and entrenched themselves there. And in the same year, they* wrested the fort of Goah from the possession of Yusaf Adil Shāh;* but the latter shortly after amicably got it back from their hands. But after a short period, the Portuguese offering a large sum of money to the ruler of that place re-acquired possession of it, and establishing their Capital at that port, which was very strong, fortified it further. And the Samrī, from the humiliation and sorrow consequent on this, died in the year 921 A.H., and his brother succeeding him ceased hostility, and estab­lishing peaceful relations with the Portuguese, gave the latter permission to erect a fort near the town of Kālīkot, obtaining from them a stipulation to the effect that he would send yearly four ships of pepper and ginger to the ports of Arabia. For a short while, the Portuguese kept their promise and word, but when the fort was completed, they prevented his trading in the afore­said articles, and commenced various malpratices and oppressions on the Musalmāns. And similarly, the Jews who were at Kadatklor,* being informed of the weakness of the Samrī, trans­gressed the limits of propriety, and caused many Musalmāns to drink the syrup of martyrdom. The Samrī, repenting of his past policy, first proceeded to Kadatklor, and completely extinguished the Jews, so that no trace of them remained there. After this, with the support of all the Musalmāns of Malabar, he advanced to Kālīkot, besieged the fort of the Portuguese, and fighting bravely defeated the latter, and stormed their fort. In conse­quence, the power and prestige of the Malabare se Musalmans grew, and without any pass from the Portuguese they despatched on their own behalf vessels loaded with pepper and ginger to the ports of Arabia. In the year 938 A.H., the Portuguese erected a fort at Jaliat, which is six karoh from Kālīkot; and the pas­sage of ships from Malabar was thereby rendered difficult. Similarly, the Christians* in those years, during the reign of Burhān Nizām Shāh, erecting a fort at Raikūndah close to the port of Jabūl, settled down there. In the year 943 A.H., erecting a fort also at Kadatklor, the Christians acquired much power. At this time, Sultān Sulaimān, son of Sultān Salīm of Turkey,* planned to turn out the Portuguese from the ports of India, and to take possession thereof himself. Accordingly, in the year 944 A.H., he sent his Vazīr, Sulaimān Pāshā, with a fleet of one hundred war-ships to the port of Aden, in order to take it first, as it formed the key to the maritime position of India, and then to proceed to the ports of India. Sulaimān Pāshā in that year wresting the port of Aden from Shaikh Dāud, and slaying the latter, sailed out for the port of Deo, and commenced warfare. He had nearly stormed it, when his provisions and treasures ran short. Therefore, without accomplishing his mission, he sailed back to Turkey. And in the year 963 A.H., the Portuguese became dominant over the ports of Harmūz* and Muscat, over Sumatra, Malacca,* Milāfor, Nāk, Fatan, Nashkūr, Ceylon, and over Bengal to the confines of China, and laid the foundations of forts at many places. But Sultān Alī Akhī stormed the fort of Sumatra; and the ruler of Ceylon also defeating the Portuguese, put a stop to their molesta­tion over his country. And the Samrī, ruler of Kālīkot, being hard-pressed, sent envoys to Alī Adil Shāh, and persuaded the latter to fight with the Portuguese, and to expel them from his kingdom. And in the year 979 A.H., the Samrī besieged and stormed the fort of Jalīat, whilst Nāzim Shāh and Adil Shāh pushed on to Rāikandāh and Goah.* The Samrī, by the prowess of his men of bravery and heroism, captured the fort of Jalīat, but Nāzim Shāh and Adil Shāh, owing to the venality of their disloyal officers who suffered themselves to be taken in by the bribes offered them by the Portuguese, had to retire without achieving their objects. From that time forward, the Portuguese Christians, adopting a settled policy* of molesting and oppress­ing the Musalmāns, perpetrated much highhandedness. Whilst some ships of Emperor Jalālu-d-dīn Muḥammad Akbar, which without a pass from the Portuguese had proceeded to Makkah, were returning from the port of Jiddah, they looted them, and inflicted various molestations and humiliations on the Musal­māns, and set fire to the ports of Adilābād and Farabīn which belonged to Adil Shāh, and ravaged them completely. And com­ing under the guise of traders to the port of Dabil, the Portu­guese schemed by means of fraud and treachery to get hold of it also. But the Governor of that place, Khwajah Aliu-l-Mulk, a merchant of Shīrāz, becoming apprised of their intention, killed one hundred and fifty principal Portuguese, and quenched the fire of their disturbance.