When Murshid Qūlī Khān* being invested according to the former usage with the khilat of the offices of Deputy Nazim of Bengal Dīwān of Bengal and Odīsa (Orissa), reached the Ṣubah, he appointed Syed Akram Khān to be his Deputy Dīwān in Bengal, and Shujau-d-dīn Muhammad Khān, his son-in-law, to be his Deputy Dīwān in Odīsa (Orissa). After his arrival at Makhsusabad, he improved that town, and named it after himself Murshidabad, and founded a mint* there. And separating the chākhlah of Midnipur* from the Ṣubah of Odīsa (Orissa) he annexed it to Bengal. And imprisoning the defaulting zamindars of the Ṣubah, and deputing experienced and honest Collectors of Revenue to their mahals, he attached the rents, and realised the outstanding Imperial revenues. And putting a complete stop to the authority of zamindars over the collection and disbursement of the Imperial Revenue, he limited their source of income to profits of Nānkar* tenures. And the ‘Amils’ (Collectors of revenue) under his orders, sent Shiqdars and Amins to every village of the Parganahs, measured the cultivated and waste-lands, and leased them back to tenants, plot by plot, and advanced agricultural loans (Taqāvī) to the poorer tenantry, and put forth exertions for increase in the produce of the lands. Thus in all the mahals Murshid Qūlī effected not only increase in revenue, but also increase in their areas.

Murshid Qūlī prepared a perfect Revenue-Roll, collected the rents in kind, season by season, and also the land-revenue, sair taxes, and fees from agricultural lands. And effecting retrenchment in the Public Expenditure, he remitted revenue, double the former amount, into the Imperial* Treasury. The zamindars of Birbhūm and Bishanpur, being protected by dense forests, mountains and hills, did not personally appear before the Nawab, but deputed instead their agents to carry on transactions on their behalf, and through them used to pay in the usual tributes, presents, and gifts. In consideration of the fact that Asadullah, zamindar of Birbhūm, was a pious and saintly person and had bestowed half of his property as Madad-i-māsh grants on learned, pious and saintly persons, and had fixed daily doles of charity for the poor and the indigent, the Khān refrained from molesting him. He directed his attention, however, to the chastisement of the zamindar of Bishanpur, whose items of expenditure were heavy, and whose collections of rents from mahals were low. The Rajahs of Tipra, Kuch Behar, and Assam called themselves chatar dhāri and ruling chiefs, and did not bend their heads in submission to the Emperor of Hindustan, and minted coins after their own names. On hearing, however, of the vigorous administration of the Khān, the Rajah of Assām presented to the Khān chairs and palkis of ivory, musk, musical instruments, feathers, fans of peacock feathers, etc., and offered his submission. Similarly the Rajah of Kuch Behar offered presents and tribute to the Khān. The abovementioned Khān sent Khilāts for them; and this practice was observed year after year. The Khān, having intro­duced order in the Financial condition of the Mahals of Bengal, devoted his attention to the improvement of other administrative and internal affairs. His administration was so vigorous and successful that there was no foreign incursion nor internal distur­bance, and consequently the military expenditure was nearly abol­ished. He kept up only 2,000 cavalry and 4,000 infantry, and with these he governed the Province. Through Nazir Ahmad, who was a peon, he used to collect the revenue of Bengal. And the Khān was so powerful a personality and his commands were so overawing, that his peons sufficed to keep peace in the country, and to overawe the refractory. And fear of his personality was so deeply impressed on the hearts of all, both the high and the low, that the courage of lion-hearted persons quailed in his presence. The Khan did not allow petty zamindars access to his presence. And the mutṣadis and ‘amils and leading zamindars had not the heart to sit down in his presence; on the contrary, they remained standing breath­less like statues. Hindu zamindars were forbidden to ride on palkis, but were permitted use of Jawalahs. The mutaṣadis, in his presence, did not* ride on horseback; whilst the Mansabdars attended at State functions in their military uniforms. In his presence one could not salute another; and if anything opposed to etiquette occurred on the part of anyone, he was immediately censured. Every week he held court on two days to listen to complaints, and used to mete out justice to the complainants. Amongst his deeds of justice, it may be mentioned, that to avenge the wrong done to another, obeying the sacred Islamic law, he executed his own son.* In administration of justice, in administration of the political affairs of the country, and in main­tenance of the respect due to his Sovereign, he spared no one. And he reposed no confidence in the mutaṣadis, and used daily to inspect the collection and disbursement papers and the estate ledgers, and to sign them. At the close of each month, he used to seize all the agreements of Khālṣah (crown lands) and Jagirs. Till the dues on account of those agreements were paid up into the Imperial Treasury, he caused mutaṣadis, ‘amils, zamin­dars, qanungos and other officers to remain in duress in the Dīwān Khana of the Chihel Satūn Palace. Setting collecting peons to realise the dues, he did not allow the defaulters leave for eating or drinking or for answering calls of nature, and posted spies over the peons, so that none of the latter, owing to temptations of bribe, might supply a drop of water to the thirsty defaulters. Week after week they had to pass without food and drink, and at the same time he had them suspended, head downwards, to triangles off the ground, and had their feet rubbed against stones, and had them whipped; and in beating with sticks he shewed no quarter. And he converted* to the Muhammadan religion the amlahs of zamindars with their wives and children, who, in spite of being scourged with sticks, failed to pay up the State revenue-collections that they had misappropriated. Amongst these, Andīnaraīn, zamindar of the Chaklah of Rajshahī, who was the descendant of a Hindustani, and who was both capable and efficient, held charge of the revenue-collections of the Khalṣah (crown lands). With him were in league Ghulām Muhammad and Kalia Jamādar with two hundred troopers. Andīnarain demurred to the payment of the demand, and prepared to fight. Murshid Qulī Khān sent his officer, Muhammad Jān, with a force to chastise him. Close to Rajbari,* the contending forces approached each other, and a battle ensued. Ghulām Muhammad Jamadar was killed, whilst Andinarain from fear of Murshid Qulī Khān’s anger slew himself, and his zamīndarī was transferred to two Bengal zamindars on the northern side of the Ganges, named Ram-Jivan* and Kali Kunwar, who were punc­tual in payments of revenue. When that year came to a close, and the new year commenced, in the month of Farwardī (corre­sponding to Asar) weighing the treasures* Murshid Qulī remitted to the Emperor one kror and three laks of rupees on account of the Imperial revenue, loading the same on two hundred waggons, convoyed by six hundred cavalry and five hundred infantry. Over and above this amount, he remitted the profits derived from Jagirs, together with other fees. And also at the beginning of each year he sent to the Emperor elephants, Tangan horses, buffaloes, domesticated deers, and game dressed specially at Jahangirnagar (Dacca), wolf-leather shields, sital pati mats mounted in gold, and mosquito curtains* made of Ganga jali* cloth of Sylhet, through which serpents could not penetrate, together with other rarities, such as ivory, musk, musical instruments, and European manufac­tures and presents received from Christians, &c. At the time of sending the remittance, he used to accompany it on horse­back together with his staff up to the Suburbs of the City, and used to have the fact recorded in the Court-Record as well as in the News-sheet. And the procedure for despatch of remittances was the following. When the waggons, loaded with treasure, passed into the limits of another Ṣubāh, the Ṣuba­dar of that place sending his own men had the waggons of treasure brought into his fort, and relieving the waggons and their escorts reloaded the treasure into fresh waggons, con­voyed by fresh escorts furnished by himself. And the same procedure was adopted by succeeding Subadars, till the trea­sures with the presents reached the Emperor Aurangzeb. And when the Khān’s efficient administration met with the approba­tion of the Emperor, the former received fresh favours from the Emperor, who raised his rank and bestowed on him the title of Moatamanu-l-Mulk’Alau-d-daulah Jā’far Khan Nasīrī Nāṣir Jang. He was also rewarded with the personal Manṣab of a Haft Hazari together with the Insignia of the Mahi Order, and was raised to a higher class of the Peerage. No appointments to offices in Bengal were made without his advice. And Imperial Manṣabdars hearing that the country of Bengal had been turned into a fertile garden without thorns, sought for offices in Bengal. Nawab Jafar Khan appointed the applicants to offices under him. One of these was Nawab Saif Khan* whose application for appoint­ment being received through the Emperor, Nawab Jāfar Khān conferred an office on him. A short account of Saif Khan’s career is mentioned in the body of this History. Nawab Saif Khān was alive till the period of the Nizamat of Nawab Mahabat Jang. As he was the scion of a very noble family, he never visited Nawab Mahabat Jang.* Although the latter sought for an interview, Nawab Saif Khan did not visit him. Whenever Nawab Mahabat Jang whilst out on a hunting excursion went towards Purneah, Nawab Saif Khān advanced with his troops and blocked his progress. But whenever Nawab Mahabat Jang had need of auxiliaries, Saif Khān furnished efficient contingents. After Saif Khān’s death, his son, the Khān Bahādur, succeeded to the office of Faujdar of the tract of Purneah and its environs. Nawab Mahabat Jang gave in marriage the daughter of Nawab Said Ahmad Khān Bahadur Ṣaulat Jang, his nephew, to the Khān Bahadur,* but that lady died four days after the wedding. On account of this, confiscating the treasures and effects of the Khān Bahadur, Nawab Mahabat Jang kept the latter under surveillance. The Khān Bahadur of necessity was obliged to mount a horse and escape to Shah Jāhānābād (Delhi). Nawab Mahabat Jang bestowed the tract of Purneah on Saulat Jang. The latter proceeding there with a large force, devoted himself to its administration, and held sway. After Ṣaulat Jang’s death, his son, Shaukat Jang, succeeded him. Nawab Siraju-d-daulah, who was the latter’s cousin, during the period of his Nizamat, killed Shaukat Jang in battle, and deputing Diwan Mohan Lal, con­fiscated Shaukat’s treasures and effects.

What was I saying? and to what have I digressed?
Where lay the horse? and where have I galloped away?