It ought to be known that from the reign of Sultān Qutbu-d-dīn Aibak to the reign of Sultān Ghiāsu-d-dīn Md. Tughlak Shāh, seventeen Emperors ruled at Delhī for a period of one hundred and fifty years, and that in the kingdom of Bengal its rulers exercised authority as Viceroys of the Emperors of Delhī, and that the Khutbah and the coins of the Emperors of Delhi were current in Bengal. If any of the Viceroys rebelling intro­duced the Khutbah and the coins after their own names, the Emperors of Delhī considering their chastisement necessary, swiftly punished them. In the reign of Muhammad Shāh, Qadr Khān, being appointed Governor of Lakhnautī, for fourteen years admin­istered the affairs of that State. Then Malik Fakhru-d-dīn, who was Qadr Khān’s Armour-Superintendent, meddling in administrative matters, obtained much influence, and, resolving in mind to usurp the Viceroyalty, watched for an opportunity. Finding Qadr Khān off his guard, Fakhru-d-dīn revolted, killed his own master, and became Viceroy of the kingdom of Bengal. When the Empire of Muhammad Shāh, the Emperor of Delhī, fell into complete decay, aiming in his mind amongst other things at the Emperor’s capture, Fakhru-d-dīn withdrew his hand from submission to the Emperor of Delhī, and proclaimed himself king.* The Emperor of Delhī, owing to confusion in his own Empire, could not direct his attention towards the kingdom of Bengal. From that time, the kingdom of Bengal became independent and distinct from the Delhi Empire. Fakhru-d-dīn was the first king who had the Khutbah of sovereignty recited after his own name in the Kingdom of Bengal.*


When Sultān Fakhru-d-dīn ascended the throne of the kingdom of Lakhnautī, he sent out his officer Mukhaliṣ Khān with an efficient army for the subjugation of the outlying provinces of Bengal. Malik ‘Alī Mubārik, the generalissimo of Qadr Khān, encountered him with a large army, and after much fighting killed Mukhaliṣ Khān, and routed the latter’s entire force. Sultān Fakhru-d-dīn who had just become king, and was not confident of the loyalty of his officers, did not venture to attack ‘Alī Mubārik. And Malik ‘Alī Mubārik collecting a large army proclaimed himself Sultān ‘Alān-d-dīn, marched with his forces against Sultān Fakhru-d-dīn, and, in the a year 741 A.H., after fighting captured him, and slaying him,* avenged the murder of Qadr Khān.

Ye murdered, whom hast thou murdered, that to-day they have murdered thee?
To-morrow they will kill him who has to-day killed thee!

After this, Sultān ‘Alāu-d-dīn, after leaving an efficient force to garrison Lakhnautī, himself proceeded to subjugate the out­lying provinces of Bengal. The rule of Sultān Fakhru-d-dīn lasted two years and five months.


It is said that in the beginning Malik ‘Alī Mubārik was one of the trusty servants of Malik Fīruz Rajab. And MalikFīruz was a nephew of Sultān Ghiāsu-d-dīn Tughlak Shāh, and a cousin of Sultān Muhammad Shāh. When Sultān Muhammad Shāh ascended the throne of Delhi, in the first year of his reign, he appointed Malik Firuz to be his Secretary. At that time, some misdemeanour came to pass on the part of Hājī Ilyās, foster-brother of ‘Alī Mubārik, and owing to that he (Hājī Ilyās) escaped from Delhi. When Malik Firuz demanded him from ‘Alī Mubārik, the latter searched for him. When no trace of his whereabouts was obtained, ‘Alī Mubārik informed Malik Fīruz of his escape. Malik Firuz remonstrating with him, banished him also from his presence. ‘Alī Mubārik started for Bengal. On the way he saw in a dream Hazrat Shāh Makhdūm Jalālu-d-dīn Tabrizi* (may God sanctify his sepulchre!) and showing submissiveness and humility pleased the saint, who said:“We have bestowed on you the Ṣūbah of Bengal, but you should build for us a shrine.” ‘Alī Mubārik agreeing to this, enquired in what place the shrine was required to be built. The saint replied: “In the town of Pandūah, at a place where thou shalt find three bricks, one over the other, and one fresh hundred-leaved rose beneath those bricks; at that place the shrine should be built.” When he reached Bengal, entering the service of Qadr Khān he stayed there, until gradually he became generalissimo of Qadr Khān’s army. And when Malik Fakhru-d-dīn revolting against Qadr Khān, and killing his benefactor, assumed the reins of sovereignty, ‘Alī Mubārik proclaiming himself Sultān ‘Alāu-d-dīn and drawing his forces against Fakhru-d-dīn, as has been mentioned before, avenged the murder of his benefactor, by slaying Fåkhru-d-dīn. With great promptitude, posting a garrison at Lakhnautī, Sultān ‘Alāu-d-dīn turned his attention to the conquest of other provinces of Bengal. When he introduced the Khutbah and the coin of the kingdom of Bengal after his own name, becoming intoxicated with luxury and success, he forgot the injunction of the saint, so that one night he saw in a dream the saint, who said: “‘Alāu-d-dīn, you have obtained the kingdom of Bengal, but forgotten my bidding.” ‘Alāu-d-dīn on the following day searching for the bricks, and finding them agreeably to the direc­tions of the saint, erected there a shrine, the trace whereof exists up to this time. At that time Hājī Ilyās also came to Pandūah. Sultān ‘Alāu-d-dīn for some time kept him a prisoner, but by the intercession of Ilyas’s mother, who was the nurse of Sultān ‘Ālāu-d-dīn, he released him, and giving him an important position admitted him to his presence. Hāji Ilyās in a short time gaining over the army to his side, one day with the help of eunuchs slew Sultān ‘Alāu-d-dīn, and proclaiming himself Shamsu-d-dīn Bhangrah usurped the provinces of Lakhnauti and Bengal. The reign of Sultān ‘Alāu-d-din lasted one year and five months.


When Sultān ‘Alāu-d-dīn was killed, and the sovereignty of Bengal passed to Hāji Ilyās ‘Alāi, proclaiming himself Sultān Shamsu-d-dīn he mounted the throne in the holy city of Pandūah.* As he took much bhang, he was called Shamsu-d-dīn Bhangrah. In conciliating the people, and winning the heart of the army, he put forth noble efforts. After a while, mustering an army, he went to Jājnagar, and from there obtaining many valuables and presents and large elephants, returned to his capital. And owing to the decay which had set in in the Empire of Delhi from the time of Sultān Muhammad Shāh, for thirteen years the Emperors of Delhi did not turn their attention to Bengal. Sultān Shamsu-d-dīn* with absolute independence devoted himself to the adminis­trative affairs of Bengal, subjugated gradually all the tracts up to the limits of Banāras, and enhanced more than before his pomp and power, until the throne of Delhi passed to Fīrūz Shāh,* son of Rajab, who attempted to re-conquer Bengal. It is said that at that time Sultān Shamsu-d-dīn built a bath, similar to the Shamsī bath of Delhi. Sultān Fīrūz Shāh who was furious with anger against Shāmsu-d-dīn, in the year 754 A.H., set out for Lakhnautī, and after forced marches reached close to the city of Pandūah, which was then the metropolis of Bengal. The Emperor encamped at a place which is still called Fīrūzpūrabad,* and riding from that place besieged the Fort of Pandūah. Sultān Shamsu-d-dīn leaving his son with an army in the fort of Pandūah, entrenched himself in the fort of Ekdālah which was very impregnable. Fīrūz Shāh, not oppressing the people of Pandūah, captured in battle the son of Sultān Shamsu-d-dīn, and marched towards the fort of Ekdalāh.*



On the first day, a bloody engagement took place. After that, for twenty-two days, he besieged the Fort.* Not succeed­ing, Firuz Shāh resolved to transfer his camp to the bank of the Ganges. Then, alone, he searched for a proper camp­ing ground. Sultān Shamsu-d-dīn thinking that Fīruz Shāh had marched to retire, came out of the fort, and mustered his forces.

Owing to the sword and the arrow and the spear and the gun,
The market of fighting became warm on both sides.
The bodies of heroes were emptied of their souls;
Like roses, on their faces, budded forth wounds.

After much slaughter on both sides, a large number of people were killed and destroyed. At length, the breeze of victory wafted on the standard of Fīruz Shāh, and Shamsu-d-dīn being over­powered fled, and sought refuge in the Fort. Forty-four elephants which he had brought from Jajnagar, together with the Royal Umbrella and the standard and other regal chattels and paraphernalia, fell into the hands of the soldiers of Fīruz Shāh. It is said that at that time the Saint Shaikh Rāja Biyābāni* in whom Sultān Shamsu-d-dīn had great faith, died. Sultān Shamsu-d-dīn coming out of the Fort, in the guise of a mendicant, joined the Shaikh’s funeral. After finishing the obsequies, he rode alone to see Fīruz Shāh, and without the latter recognizing him, returned to the Fort. When the Sultān came to know about it, he expressed regret. In short, when the period of siege was pro­tracted, and the rainy season set in, in that in the rains, the country of Bengal becomes one sheet of water, and cause for anxiety arises, Sultān Fīruz Shāh made overtures for peace. Sultān Shāmsu-d-dīn, who was hard-pressed by the siege, partially made his submission, and also sought for peace. Fīruz Shāh, releasing the son of Sultān Shāmsu-d-dīn together with other prisoners of the kingdom of Lakhnauti, raised the standard of return. And in the year 755 A.H., Sultān Shāmsu-d-dīn sent many presents and numerous rareties, in charge of wise envoys, to Sultān Fīruz Shāh. The latter also showing attentions to the envoys, sent them back. And since Sultān Shāmsu-d-dīn had great anxiety from Fīruz Shāh, consequently in 757 A.H. the former sent to Delhī wise and sagacious envoys, and sought for peace. Fīruz Shāh agreeing, returned the envoys loaded with honours. From that time, the boundaries between the Kingdoms of Delhī and Bengal were delimitated; and the Emperors of Delhī adhering to the terms of the treaty, never meddled with the Kings of Bengal, and by mutual exchange of presents on both sides, they maintained friendly relations between the two king­doms. And in the year 758 A.H., Sultān Shāmsu-d-dīn again sent from Bengal Malik Tāju-d-dīn with some nobles, in the form of an embassy, with many presents and gifts to Delhī. Sultān Fīruz Shāh bestowing attentions on the envoys more than before, after some days, sent in return to Sultān Shāmsu-d-dīn Arab and Turkish horses, together with other valuable presents, in charge of Malik Saifu-d-dīn Shāhnafīl. In the meantime, Sultān Shāmsu-d-dīn* had died in Bengal. Malik Tāju-d-dīn and Malik Saifu-d-dīn had approached Behar, when they heard the news of the death of Sultān Shāmsu-d-dīn. Malik Saifu-d-dīn communicated this intelligence to Delhī, and agreeably to the order of the Emperor, he gave away the horses and the presents in lieu of the pay due to the Imperial soldiers stationed in Behar. Malik Tāju-d-dīn returned to Bengal. The reign of Shāmsu-d-dīn lasted 16 years and some months.