As it appears that the perfection of men in the individual depends on association and concord, which can only be realized by affection and unanimity, and as we before explained* that where the ties of affection subsist all occasion for equity is superseded, affection must be superior to equity. In fact, it is analogous to unity of nature, whereas equity is analogous to unity of art: now, that the natural is preferable to the artificial has already been ascertained.* Affection suspends the opera­tion of duality, in which view again equity is no longer needful: for equity originally means division into two equal parts; that is, the equitable person divides that on which he determines into equal portions between himself and his friend; — a process plainly derivative from plurality: and where the bond of unity is firmly knit, occasion for such pro­cess exists no longer.*

It was held by a class of ancient philosophers, that the consistence of all things lay in affection only, and that nothing could be void of affection, any more than it could be void of existence and unity.* Thus in the various states of animal bodies as to heat or cold, a repugnance is perceived to the opposite — in the natures of animals and vegetables a resistance may be observed to things hurtful — in the simple elements attractions are discovered to operate on their election of constitutions to organize — nay, in the very heavens themselves an appetent persistance is remarked in circular motion, proceeding from a love of the intellectual essence, and a yearning to resemble it.* Indeed, it is an established maxim in philosophy, that according as the light of affection is emitted or withheld, the differences of things in the several degrees of per­fection or deficiency are determined: affection, which is an effluence of unity, producing perma­nence and perfection; and violence, which is a derivative of plurality, occasioning weakness and collapse. This class of philosophers are called the school of affection and violence. Other philoso­phers, too, as before intimated,* have asserted a circulation of affection throughout the universe.

“The secret current of primæval love
Still moves through all creation: else why mourns
The broken-hearted bulbul for the rose?”

According to the phraseology of the modern school, however, the term affection is not applied to any state into which the intellectual power does not enter. The attraction of the elements towards their natural well-being, and that of the compound organizations towards each other according to their temperamental relation, as of iron for magnet, or their mutual repulsion according to temperamental interval, like that between mineral and the corro­sion of acid and vinegar, and the like, they term not affection and hostility, but attraction and repul­sion. The reciprocal agreement and repugnance of brute beasts they call combination and aversion.

Affection, peculiar to the human species, is of two sorts: the first, natural; as that of parents for their children: the second, arbitrary; as that of a pupil for his preceptor. This arbitrary affection is of four kinds:* 1. That which is quick to arise and quick to depart. 2. That which is long in produc­tion, and long in continuance. 3. That which is long in production, and quick in departure. 4. That which is quick in production, and long in continuance. For the object of this affection is either pleasure, or interest, or good — or some com­bination of one or more. Pleasure engenders an affection quick to arise and quick to depart; for mere pleasure is easily accomplished and speedily disturbed. Interest engenders an affection slow to arise and quick to depart;* for it is difficultly ac­complished and speedily destroyed. Good produces an affection quick to arise and slow to depart; — quick to arise, because between good persons a mental harmony and spiritual concord is sure to prevail; — slow to depart, by reason of that real unity which attends on good. A combination of these will in general engender an affection slow to cement and slow to dissolve: for a coalition of interest and good requires no less; though that of pleasure and interest may be intermediate as to its connexion, and positively tardy in its severance.* The cause of which laws will be evident on an examination of that which results from the ingredients in their simple state; though certainty belongs only to God.

Affection is a more extensive term than friend­ship, for it may prevail among a numerous body; whereas friendship applies to fewer.* Love, again, is the most limited of any; for the love of two per­sons cannot find place within a single heart. The cause of love is excessive eagerness either for plea­sure or for good: the first of which species is culpable, and has been designated, in a previous passage,* by the term animal love: the second species is praiseworthy, and has been designated in a previous passage by the term spiritual love. But it is a maxim with philosophers, that into love interest cannot enter — neither independently nor by participation.

The friendship of the young is generally founded upon pleasure; and this being quick to terminate, their attachment is likewise liable to alter. The friendship of the old, like that of the commercial classes, is caused by interest; and hence their friendship may have some endurance.* The friend­ship of the wise is occasioned purely by good; and this being a stable and unalterable thing, the regard of the wise is defended and ensured against change and termination. Again, since the human body is composed of conflicting natures, bodily pleasure, while it agrees with one nature, will be hostile to another: so that it can never be exempt from the invasions of pain.* The mind, on the contrary, being a simple essence into which no hostile ingredient can enter, the pleasure of which its nature is susceptible is pure and unmixed; and such are the pleasures of wisdom. The affection, therefore, that originates in this species of pleasure is of the most perfect order, and this they call perfect affec­tion and divine love.*

Aristotle quotes a saying of Arklítas [Heraclitus] to the effect that dissimilar things are not suscep­tible of perfect agreement and conjunction; whereas similar things have a reciprocal attraction. On this he further remarks, that simple essence, being similar and reciprocally attracted, a spiritual con­junction and moral unity may at all times be established between them, to the entire merging of separation. For separation belongs to material objects, in which this degree of coalition cannot subsist. A meeting of these, quoad nature and essence, is not to be imagined; but only quoad limits and surfaces: and such meeting reaches not the pitch of interjunction above described. The simple essence, then, which is no other than the human mind, when purified from the perturbing influences of the body, and after the affection of natural pleasures has been expunged from it, is, by the laws of relation, necessarily attracted towards a purer world, where it gazes with the eyes of intel­lect upon the beauty of truth,* merges its own moth-like existence in the absorbing lustre of divine perfection, and gains the stage of unity, which is the highest of all stages. Such is the elevation to which knowledge may aspire: to the attainment of which the incumbrances of the body or the deliverance from it are matters of indiffer­ence. For the exercise of his bodily powers can no longer restrain such an one from contemplating the beauty of Truth; and that privilege which with others is hoped in the next world, with him is enjoyed in the present one.

“Though human life be reason’s dream, rouse thine ere morning wake it,
And offer up thy heart to him who else unask’d will take it;
I blame thee not if youthful shame the guise of coldness borrow,
Yet ill would’st thou neglect to-day, who may’st not see* to-morrow.”

And yet it must be acknowledged that after total separation his pleasure will be purer. For although in this life, by the aid of epithets and attributes, the light of intellect may attain to a certain visual perception of essential unity, this can never be free from that alloy of corporeality* which must attend a state of confinement in the beholder. Vision, perfect and unexposed to the meteoric war­fare of the heavenly out-posts,* is not to be obtained except in the unclouded observatory into which, on our final emancipation, we shall emerge. Wherefore, in anxious expectation of the hour that is to draw the curtain and remove the veil, let him teach his present condition to be vocal with those well-known words —

“My spirit pines behind its veil of clay
For light too heavenly perfect here to shine:
Blest time that tears the envious folds away,
Now dimly darkening o’er that radiant shrine!
Poor prison’d exile from a brighter bower!
Not here, not thus, thy wonted lay can rise:
Burst, burst thy bonds, and let the descant tower
With freshen’d rapture in its native skies.”

Such affection is the extremest degree of love — the absolute perfection — the topmost station of the accomplished — the highest step of the perfected.

“I said that love was all in all,
And they that heard replied —
Such love as thine need only call
To win her to thy side.”

Next to this comes the affection of the good for each other; for this, having good for its object, is inaccessible to corruption: unlike other affec­tions, which are subject to the chance of separa­tion on the slightest cause. As indeed we are taught from the following text of Scripture: In one day may friends turn hostile each to each; saving the pious. As to affection with a view to interest or pleasure, it may take place either between good or bad persons; but must always be quick to terminate, as we have before explained. Such affection is frequently owing to a companion­ship in foreign parts, or in situations of hardship; as on ship-board, on expeditions, and the like. The cause of which peculiarity lies in this, that men have a natural tendency to associate, and hence the name Insān, from Ans, associating. This natural sociality being peculiar to the race, and the perfection of every thing being in the developement of its specific peculiarity, the perfection of man must lie in the developement of this tendency towards his fellow creatures. This, then, is the origin of affec­tion, and affection naturally leads to concord and combination.

But, besides the sanction it obtains from our reason, the sacred Institute has bestowed especial care upon this very point.* Hence its injunction on men to perform their prayers five times daily in a body, in order that by the sacred influence of so significant a gathering the several wards might be adorned with concord. Again, it enjoined that the people of the entire neighbourhood should assemble in one place, and perform their Friday* prayers in a body; in order that concord might be established among the inhabitants of every city. These again were to be convened together with the rustics in the open plains, to perform their prayers at the Eed-days;* that between these parties also, by means of such assembling, combination and concord might prevail. Lastly, it directed the whole body of believers to undertake the pil­grimage once in the course of every life; not con­fining it, however, to any settled time: for this might have proved detrimental. This it did on the same principle of engendering concord among the collective units of the whole religion, and imparting to them some portion of the same advantage so abundantly provided to the members of wards, townships, and kingdoms. As to the selection for this purpose of a country which was the birth-place of the Institute, it was done in order that the view of those regions might remind them of the Institutor, and increase the affection and reverence which they entertained for him. For every ceremonial observance has its use in stimu­lating conformity to his precepts. We may be sure, therefore, that it was here the object of the Institutor to realize the bond of unity, and remove the injurious operation of plurality; nay, that throughout the Institute a similar end is kept in view.* And in like manner as the pretensions to prophet-hood, in respect to theory, lie in the assertion of unity, as respects practice they proceed no less upon the same principle. So, too, as to the efficacy of praying in a body, we are told that it is seven-fold preferable to praying singly. His holiness the Institutor is even said to have declared he once had it in contemplation to direct an ever-burning fire to be kept, for the purpose of firing the house of any person who came not to prayer-meetings. On the same principle rest the promises and denunciations connected with prayers on Friday and at the two Eed-days.