IT is held that wisdom is a term for knowledge of the states of things in the aspect really belonging to them; as far, that is, as man’s capacity admits: for neither their conditions nor natures depend on human power or will, and the active wisdom is only the knowledge relating to them.*

Courage is the quality of submissiveness in the vindictive spirit to the reasonable spirit; so that it retain its firmness in situations of alarm and danger; not giving way to agitation; but acting by the dic­tates of right reason.

Temperance is this, that the appetite be obedient to the reasonable spirit; so that it be employed according to the dictate of intellectual prudence, to the manifestation of freedom and deliverance from the bondage of physical desires, and from subservience to their manifold impulses.

“Arise! nor be the subject of thy slave:
The sovereign is thyself; the slave is all beside thee.”

Equity is this, that all the powers agree with each other and shape themselves after the discerning faculty; that contrariety of inclination and conflict of powers cast not their possessor into the gulph of dismay; but rather, that giving what is due, and taking what is due, be the symbol of his actions: on which definition of equity we have discoursed at large.

Further it is to be observed of each of these vir­tues, that till it operates not on other, the possessor of it is entitled to no praise. And therefore it is that one endued with the quality of expensiveness, and that on proper occasions, as long as his influ­ence passes not on to other, is called expensive instead of liberal: he that possesses the quality dependent on the vindictive power, in the same situa­tion, is called irritable instead of courageous: and he that possesses intellectual cultivation is called clever instead of wise. But as soon as he produces an effect on other, he excites the hope and fear of other, reverence and respect take root in the hearts of men, and it then becomes obligatory on their feelings to give him praise. And so throughout this passage; when we say one is entitled to commenda­tion, we mean that the intellect decides for the pro­priety of commending him. Now it is clear, that without feeling hope or fear, the intellect never can decide for the debenture of commendation on the part of others. For be one never so graced with the most varied perfections, as long as advantage is not expected of him nor injury held in store, the under­standing will not hold it incumbent on any one to enter on his praise; but as soon as ever there is either of the two, it holds it meritorious, nay, obliga­tory, as the occasions of hope or fear alternately arise, to approach him with fair report for acquisition of the advantage or rebuttal of the apprehension: and happy is he who can thus command the hopes and fears of his fellow men.*

Under each of the four genera are many species; the most noted of which the treatise shall comprise, and the pen illustrate.*

Of wisdom, according to ordinary repute, the species are seven: penetration, quickness of intel­lect, clearness of understanding, facility of acquire­ment, propriety of discrimination, retention, recol­lection.

For penetration, it is the quality of expedition in educing intents, and facility in evolving conclusions from premises; and the acquisition of it is a conse­quence dependent on the frequency of following premises out.

Quickness of intellect is the quality of passing from the related to the relations, without dwelling on the transition. And here, between these two,* the difference is this, that the first celerity is in the process of thought, whereas the second is without thought; as in passing from things speculatively related to their relations, or from things given to their reverse or converse.

Clearness of understanding is the quality of capacity to evolve an end without looseness or con­fusion.

Facility of acquirement is the quality of perfect attention to objects, so as to master them readily without hinderance from discrepant ideas.

Propriety of discrimination is this, that in rea­soning and investigating we should observe the proper limit of every object, so as neither to admit of neglecting a consideration nor pushing a thing too far.

Retention is when an idea conceived or received makes a firm impression.

Recollection is the quality* of calling up things retained whenever one desires, without inconve­nience.

Under courage we have eleven: magnanimity, collectedness, elevation of purpose, firmness, cool­ness, stateliness, boldness, endurance, condescen­sion, zeal, mercy.

Magnanimity is, that the soul take no note of honor or disrepute, pay no regard to affluence or adversity; but remain entirely unaffected by praise or censure, by wealth or want; from the mutations of human affairs admitting neither alteration, nor transition, nor impression, nor influence:* a spiri­tual eminence whose heights are only attainable to the most advanced on the paths of research; whose summits are not to be contemplated, but by the choicest of the accomplished.

On this subject there is a saying of the principal Sufy Shaikhs: “the last foible to evacuate the heads of the faithful is the love of place; and the luxury of destitution cannot be known till praise and blame have become indifferent.”

Collectedness is the soul’s constancy in its own stability at the moment of entering upon difficulties and dangers; that it give no room to trepidation, and no rise to unsteady impulses.

Elevation of purpose is, that in the soul’s pursuit of real good and spiritual perfection, it pay no regard to worldly interest and prejudice; neither rejoicing at such attainment, nor grieving at such loss; even to being unsusceptible of the fear of death. Many enthusiasts after the commendable in morals, have gone so far as to say —

“If thirst for death be madness, we are mad.
’Tis God’s best gift — the sunshine of the soul.”
“I would not live to dread life’s termination:
No death so dead, as life without cessation.
’Tis but a loan from him who gave us being,
And its best value lies in restoration.”
“Life is a pledge of friendship from our Maker.
Give me the friend, and take the pledge who will.”

Firmness is the power of withstanding afflictions and trials, that they affect not our minds to extremity, nor any prostration be allowed beyond what admits of recovery.

Coolness is a quiescence, in virtue of which one cannot be hastily, or rather cannot be at all, over­come by anger.

Stateliness is this, that into enmities or hostilities which may be necessary to protect the honor of faith or worship, or the dignity of life or feeling, no levity be allowed to enter.

Boldness is an appetite of the soul for under­taking great concerns, for the sake of storing up a good report and holy recompense.

Endurance is the quality of taking pains to exer­cise the bodily organs* for the attainment of such faculties and endowments as are the subjects of repute and approbation.

Condescension is this, that one should arrogate no superiority over persons of lowlier station. And the ruling consideration in the acquirement of this quality is the recollection of the fellowship subsist­ing between individual men in matters of organiza­tion; the signs of weakness and want, the attributes of helplessness and dependence; in regard to that original unity and kindred connexion which, in the Scripture texts, — Fear the Lord, O ye men, that Lord who created ye of one and the same spirit;* — and again, As one spirit he created you, and as one spirit he invites ye to return to him, — is so plainly apparent, as to draw the veil of concealment from the face of truth.

Zeal is to allow of no indifference in preserving the integrity of religion and honor; but to hold it right on such accounts to push exertion to its fur­thest limits. The Prophet has said, God is a jealous God, and for his jealousy it is that he has inter­dicted sin; and again, If Saäd be jealous, I am more jealous than Saäd, and God is more jealous than I.*

Under the genus temperance are twelve species.

1. Shame is the soul’s restraint upon itself when aware of intending to commit any thing odious, that it may guard against deserving censure. One of the Prophet’s sayings is this, Shame is a compendium of every virtue.

2. Good humour is the soul’s submission, by voluntary process, to any thing that may arise.

3. Righteousness is the soul’s exceeding earnest­ness in pursuit of its own perfection.

4. Easiness is to appear unconscious in the con­flict of opposite opinions and differing tastes.

5. Continence is the steadiness of the soul under the emotions of lust.

6. Patience is the soul’s opposition to its own desires, whereby it prevents its engaging in illicit gratifications. God has said, As for him that reverences the dwelling* of his Lord, and interdicts his soul from desire, verily to Paradise shall be his return. Of this virtue some have made two sub­divisions; forbearance from an object, and forbear­ance under inconvenience; of which the second has to do with the vindictive power. Patience is the distinguishing embellishment of prophet-hood and priesthood; for it was said by him whose words are glorious, — Be patient, even as the greatest of the prophets were patient.* Among the most reputed of his dicta is this, “Patience is the key of joy,” and again, “Victory sides with patience.” That brazen tablet which the sages of Fārs* used to suspend in their temples, is said to have borne this inscription: Even as iron turns naturally to the magnet, does victory submissively attend on patience.

7. Content is the inattention of the soul to food, drink, and clothing, &c., and its acquiescence at the limit of strict necessity; and this from a contempt of such gratification; not from the desire of saving money, which is avarice, and under law and reason to be condemned; contrary to the first, which has been noted with the height of condemnation. Thus it is handed down to us among the sayings of the true and tried, Content is a treasure that never spends.

8. Steadiness is a spiritual calmness and avoid­ance of hurry. There is a saying of the Prophet, — Haste is of the devil, and delay is of the all-giving. And in the precepts of the institutes such stress is laid on the interdiction of haste, that Imām Bāverdy, one of the head doctors of the faith, makes it a corollary, that even if in danger of losing Friday’s prayers,* nevertheless one is not to hurry as he walks, nor seek to deviate from the path of deliberateness and decorum.

9. Piety is the servitude of the soul to good deeds and proper actions. God hath said, Be there any great but those who are pious?

10. Regularity is a habit of the soul to arrange matters in their appropriate order, with reference to expedience.

11. Integrity is the acquisition of property by fit and proper emolument, and the application of it to justifiable purposes; with entire abstinence from engaging in blameable occupations, or spending in objectionable ways.