This division has already been described as bounded on the east by the Kara-tāgh mountains dividing it from Hissār; on the south by the Amu or Oxus; and on the north and west by the Késh hills, which divide it from Yār-ailāk and the valley of Soghd.

The chief cities now, and they are the same that existed in the time of Bābur, are Késh, also called Shahr-i-sabz (or the Green City), and to the south Karshi, also called Nakhsheb, and by the Arabs Nasef. Khozār also has always been a place of consequence, and lies south-east of Karshi, in a desert tract. The country round Késh is uncommonly fertile, full of streams, and rather marshy, but degenerates as it approaches the Amu, and becomes a perfect desert, insomuch that the rivers of this district disappear before reaching that great river. The famous Pass of Kohlūgha (the Iron Gate), or Derbend, lies in the hills between Késh and Hissār. Fazlullah* pretends that it was cut in the rock, which only proves that it was narrow and difficult, and perhaps improved by art. Near Késh, the native town of the great Taimūr, is the plain of Akiār, where, close by the river Koshka, were held the Kurultais or annual reviews of his armies, and what have been called the diets of his states. It was celebrated for its beautiful verdure and the rich profusion of its flowers.