Letters addressed to Sultan Mahammad Muazzam,
Shah Alam Bahadur, the Crown Prince.*


Eldest son of sovereignty, happy son, Mahammad Mūazzam, may God protect and save you. His Majesty, having his abode in paradise (Sháh Jehán, Aurungzebe’s father), had a great desire to conquer the provinces of Balkh, Badakhshán, Khorásán, and Hirát which were the ancient possessions of our ancestors.* He often sent there the royal forces under the command of Mūrád Bakhsha.*

Most of the provinces were conquered; but owing to impatience, that unfortunate man (Mūrád) returned (to the capital) without having been recalled by His Majesty and thereby lost the favour of the people and the grandees of those provinces. The kingdoms conquered and possessed were lost; and money was wasted on them. It is for this reason that it is said that “A daughter is better than an unworthy son”. Attend to this (verse) that “If a father is unable to finish a work, the son must carry it out to completion”. This mortal creature (Aurungzebe) has a wish which is still unfulfilled. It was the desire of Sháh Jehán that I should send a grandson of His Majesty’s to those districts with a grand army and sufficient equipment. What more can I do? When you were here, I had insisted upon you to take Kandahár;* but you have not conquered it. What of other cases, then.? Evidently you have not done the work entrusted to you by me. One who pro­fesses to know a thing must know it fully. This my perishable life is now like the sun (setting) on the top of a mountain. What does it concern me if I have these provinces or not? How will you shew your face to your rivals in this world and to the Holy, High, and Exalted God in the next world?