§ 7. Battle of Khajwa.

In the night preceding the day which had been fixed for the battle with Shuja, when about 7 1/2 hours of the night had worn on, the Emperor learnt that Rajah Jaswant Singh, who had been given the command of the Vanguard, had determined to go over to Shuja with his own troops who numbered 14,000 cavalry and infantry, and that during his journey he had laid a severe hand on (i. e. looted) the followers and animals of the imperial camp, so that the orderly arrangement of the army had been broken up, and a great panic had seized the men, many of whom had joined that wretch's (Jaswant's) force and were advancing with him in the path of misfortune. The Emperor was then engaged in the tahajjud prayer; on hearing the report he made a sign with his hand [as if to say] ‘If he has gone away, let him go away,’ but gave no other reply. After finishing his prayer, he summoned Mir Jumla and said, “This incident, too, is a mercy from God, for if the hypocrite had taken this step in the midst of the battle, it would have been hard to remedy the mis­chief.”

Then he ordered the kettledrums to be beaten and his mount to be got ready. Riding an elphant, he passed the rest of the night in that condition.

When the sun rose it was found that the army of Shuja was coming on from the left side firing its artillery. * A number of men, whose day of death had arrived, were slain. Aurangzib ordered the driver of his elephant, “Make my elephant reach Shuja's elephant by any means that you can.” Just then Murshid Quli Khan, who was the Emperor's counsellor and close companion, said, “This kind of audacity is opposed to the practice of emperors.” Aurangzib replied, “Neither of us has yet become emperor. Men become emperors only after showing this sort of daring. And if after one has become emperor his courage decreases, his authority does not last. (Verse)

“That man [alone] can tightly clasp in his arms the bride of kingship
Who plants kisses on the keen sword's lip.”

Text.—Ir. MS. 4b—5a; MS. N. 33a—34b.

Notes.—The battle of Khajwa took place on 5th January, 1659, and ended in the utter rout of Shuja. For a full account of the battle see History of Aurangzib, ch. 19. Murshid Quli Khan, Khurasani, (Masir-ul-umara, iii. 493—500), the able revenue administrator of the Deccan during Aurangzib's viceroy­alty, was slain in the battle of Dharmat, and so could not have been present at Khajwa. The other Murshid Quli Khan, Nawab of Bengal, entered the imperial service long afterwards. Tahajjud, the last prayer of the night, is usually said after midnight.