Among the events which happened in this year, we may mention the disturbances excited by Sultán Muzaffir, of which the account is briefly this. When Mírzá Azíz Koká arrived in Gujarát, the Jám, who is the great landholder in the district of Sorath, was bent on rebellion and war, and only waited for a suitable oppor­tunity. About this time, Sultán Muzaffir, who quitted his place of concealment, made exertions to collect together a crowd of discontented vagabonds; and was joined by Daolat Khán, son of Amín Khán Ghorí, and by Khangar, Zamín­dár of Kach. Mírzá Azíz Koká, after making the necessary preparations, marched to quell the disturbance; though the brothers of Kalíj Khán (who were the children of Ismael Kalíj Khán, and had a jágír at Sorath,) would not accom­pany him. After his arrival at Víramgám, he had a meeting with Fat'h Khán, son of Amín Khán Ghorí, Chandar Sen, Zamíndár of Hal­wád, and Káran Parmál, Zamíndár of Morbí; while Sayyid Kásim and Khoájah Suleimán Bakhshí, were sent with a force in advance. The troops came to Morbí, distant twenty-five koss from the enemy, where they halted: and, at this time, some proposals for peace passed between the imperial commanders and the latter. This endeavour to treat made them more arrogant; and, having resolved on war, they advanced to battle. Mírzá Azíz Koká, who was much enraged at their conduct, prepared to receive them; not pausing to consider that the enemy's strength was thirty thousand, whilst his own was only ten thousand cavalry. Muzaffir, who advanced, was accompanied by a great crowd of Gujarátís and Rájpúts.

At this time it rained heavily, and continued to do so without intermission for two days and nights. The enemy encamped on an elevated plain, while the imperial troops were on a low spot of ground; and, as the severity of the rain prevented large quantities of grain being brought into the camp of the latter, the men were strait­ened for provisions. Khán Azíz Koká, not thinking it advisable to offer battle, marched towards Nawanagar, in order that his soldiers might more easily be supplied with provisions and grain, and that dissensions among the enemy might spring up in the mean time. The Imperialists took up their position within four koss of a flourishing town, where the troops obtained much grain and other things by plunder; many of the enemy, in the mean time, went to their homes and families.

Muzaffir had encamped at the edge of a river which divided the two armies; and one day, soon after, an engagement having taken place between them, each bravely contended for vic­tory. The Rájpúts, dismounting from their horses, formed a compact line, and advanced with their knives and daggers; but the right of the Imperialists having driven back the enemy's left, threw them into confusion; and Khán Azíz Koká, who, with a reserve of chosen men, was watching an opportunity, having made a rapid advance at this time, broke their line. The brother and two sons of Jasá Bábá, with five hundred Rájpúts, were killed on this occa­sion. Muzaffir and the Jám, not knowing what to do, took to flight; and Daolat Khán, who was wounded, went to Júnagarh. The enemy had two thousand killed and wounded, and the Imperialists only seven hundred.

Subsequently to this victory, Mírzá Azíz Koká marched to Nawanagar, where he obtained large booty; and, as Muzaffir and the Jám had taken refuge in the defiles of the mountains, he lin­gered for some time in that neighbourhood. Naorang Khán and Sayyid Kásim were sent from thence with a force to take Júnagarh. As Daolat Khán, who had been wounded in the late engagement, died at this time, the people in the fortress asked for quarter, and agreed to come out; but, when Muzaffir soon after joined them, they changed their intentions. On this account, Mírzá Azíz Koká went in person to capture the place; and Muzaffir, thinking it unsafe to remain there, abandoned it, and spread a report that he had gone to Ahmadábád. Mírzá Azíz Koká sent his son with a force to follow him; while he himself invested Júnagarh. Intelli­gence was at this time brought to the former that the Jám was passing in the neighbourhood of the imperial troops to his hereditary estate; and, though every possible expedition was made in pursuit of him, the latter fled like a wild beast before his pursuers.

In consequence of the length of the march and the privations experienced by the troops, Mírzá Azíz Koká did not take Júnagarh in that year, but returned to Ahmadábád, when the nobles were for once permitted to remain quiet on their own estates.


In the year of the Hijra 1000, A.D. 1591,

A.Hij. 1000.
A.D. 1591.

Mírzá Azíz Koká, after having equipped another force, marched with the determination of capturing Júnagarh and punishing the enemy; at which time, the son of the Jám, Jalál Khán, Ghazí Khán, and Malik Husain, came and met him. The ports of Gogar, Manglúr, and Somnáth, with sixteen others, were taken possession of without a blow; and from thence Mírzá Azíz Koká marched against Júnagarh, then in possession of the sons of Amín Khán Ghorí. After having established his entrench­ments for capturing the place, he sent Naorang Khán to take up a position on the high road, from which provisions and supplies were brought into the fortress. At this time, a fire broke out in the latter, by which a great part of the provi­sions and implements of the besieged were con­sumed. During this conflagration, the enemy kept up a sharp fire on the besiegers, who, after taking possession of a small hill in the vicinity of the fort, threw up a breastwork and brought up a gun. From this position, the latter ascer­tained the exact range of their shot, and occa­sioned great annoyance to the besieged; who, when at length straitened, asked permission to treat, and delivered up the keys of the place. The sons of Amín Khán and Daolat Khán, with five other persons of consequence, came out and waited on Mírzá Azíz Koká, who conferred on each, according to their rank, a horse, honorary dress, office, or jágír.

As this fortress, in the district of Sorath, came into the power of the imperial govern­ment, the author will here insert what is neces­sary to be known regarding this country, and the appellation of Júnagarh. This territory is bounded on the south and west by the sea; on the east by the Zillah of Jhalawár; and on the north by the boundaries of the provinces of Thattah, where the black soil of the hills and stony grounds become so swampy after a little rain that one can with difficulty walk over it. It is generally destitute of wood, though the mango, khirny, tamarind, and mimosa trees are to be found in the hilly parts. The inhabitants are a mixed race of Kúlis and Rájpúts, who, being for the most part armed horsemen, wear a quilted cotton jacket as armour, and carry a spear. They are addicted to robbery, and will not pay the revenue without the presence of troops to enforce it. This country is divided into five Zillahs, which are named Hallar, Kathiyáwar, Golwár, Babrewar, and Jaitwar; comprehending several ports, rivers, fortifica­tions, and places of Hindú worship, such as Dwarka, Somnáth, and Shatrinjáh.* A greater produce is obtained from the spring than the autumnal crop; and such is the natural strength of the soil, that it requires no manure previously to being sown. After the rainy season, the wheat and nukhod* are sown, and do not require to be irrigated, but are brought forward by the natural moisture of the soil and the assistance of the dews, which are heavy in this quarter. The species of wheat called kath, which is very fine, is a product of this country. In the collected revenue of Sorath, that of Islámnagar is included.

Sultán Ahmad, who founded Ahmadábád, made two separate attempts to gain possession of this country, but without success. At length, Mahmúd Bígarrah having taken the Rájá Ráo Mandalik, as before detailed, built a fortified city, and named it Mustafábádb .

In regard to the appellation of Júnagarh, the people of Sorath generally relate that the Rájá of the country, who was named Mandalik, and was contemporary with Mahmúd Bígarrah, was the last of a race that had possessed dominion there for nineteen hundred years. His ances­tors had succeeded each other in the Ráj during that time, and had their seat of government at the town of Bhantullí, distant from Júnagarh five koss. Formerly an impenetrable forest existed in this neighbourhood, and had not been explored. One day, however, a woodcutter penetrated so far as to discover the fortress, and, returning, informed the Rájá of what he had seen. The latter, after having caused the trees to be cut down, went in person to view the place, and beheld a wonderful fortification, con­structed on the western side of Mount Girnar, whose walls had been scarped from the sur­rounding rock, above which a kind of battle­ment had been erected. It was entered by three doors, one of which is on the east, the other on the west; but within the latter there was a third door, towards the north, which cannot be passed without first entering the outer one. The water of the fortress was supplied by two deep wells and two smaller ones. During this visit, the Rájá Mandalik, having asked his followers regarding the name of this place, and the time of its construction, received for answer they did not know. He therefore called it Júnagarh, or the ancient fortress; the first part of the appellation signifying old, and the last a fort, according to the language of the country. The place has ever since retained this name.