A. Hij. 997,
A.D. 1588-9.

Mírzá Azíz Koká, who, in A. Hij. 997, A.D. 1588-9, had been promoted from the government of Málwa to that of Gujarát, arrived the following year, and carried on the important concerns of the country.

While Khán Khánán was at this period leav­ing the neighbourhood of Jalore, Ghazní Khán Jalorí, who had come with an intention of join­ing Sultán Muzaffir's insurrection, not being able to effect a junction with the latter, com­mitted many acts of folly. The Khán Khánán, on the 9th of Muharram, A. Hij. 998, A.D. 1589-90, sent a force against him; but the latter, on learn­ing this, and perceiving that he was not in a fit condition to offer opposition, went submissively to Court. The Emperor, at this time, taking compassion on him, confirmed to him his hereditary patrimony of Jalore, as a subsistence.

A.D. 1590-1.

In A. Hij. 999, A.D. 1590-1, an imperial order was issued abolishing transit duties in all the countries of Hindústán; and the fol­lowing is an exact copy of the same.


Be it known to all government writers, both now and hereafter, and to all executive officers, in every part of Hindústán, that, in this auspi­cious period, being the seventh year of the second cycle from the commencement of the imperial reign, an order has been issued to this effect. “As the divine government of the glo­rious and blessed God has, in conformity with its greatness and purity, and with a knowledge exalted as eternity, deemed it necessary that the dominion of countries, and the government of cities, (which must provide for friend and stranger, and must arrange the affairs of the merchant and trader,) should be accomplished by means of just kings, a tax was therefore established on all articles brought into the market; that from this source of revenue, troops might be kept up, and proper guardians appointed to protect the property of the State and of indi­viduals. But, as such tax, when not justly col­lected, must be a source of confusion, and detri­mental to business, (though, praised be God! since the Emperor's just reign commenced, the attention and consideration of his heart have ever been exerted for the necessary comfort of the common people, and the encouragement of his subjects,) an order is hereby issued exempt­ing from taxation and registry the following articles: all kinds of grain, or seeds; herbs, whether edible or medicinal; oils, sugar, essences; cotton and woollen cloths; things made of leather; copper articles; madder, wood, reeds, and grass; with such like things and effects as are in common use among the people: except­ing, however, horses, elephants, camels, sheep, goats, military arms, and silken stuffs, the taxes on which, besides one per cent., are claimed, as vested rights, toll, or for benevolent purposes.* The government writers, and other executive officers, are hereby commanded to give effect to this order, so that the powerful may not oppress the weak, nor the tyrannical commit aggres sions on those who are at their mercy; and, now that respect for the imperial greatness and magnificence exists in every breast, and that the light of justice and clemency has appeared; let us give thanks for all these presents to Him who is the beneficent author of truth.

“It is therefore necessary that all executive officers and commanders, all provincial writers and governors of cities, with all Jágírdárs, administrators of government lands, custom-house officers, keepers of the highways or passes, landholders, and all other government authori­ties, should attend to this order, and use their utmost efforts to obey it; without attempting in any way to evade the same.

“Finally, during the government of Mírzá Azíz Koká, the Desáyas, Mukaddams,* and inhabitants of several parganahs, made a complaint at court that the agents of the Názims and Jágír­dárs were possessing themselves of all revenue dues; and that the Rájpúts, Kúlis, and Moham­medans of these villages, which they had been in possession of, previously to the country becoming tributary to Dehlí, were in rebellion, and squandered the land revenues, so as to occasion the ruin of the subjects and a deficiency of the government collections. Wherefore, it was ordered that the Díwán of the province, with the approbation of the Desáyas, Mukaddams, and Amíls, should set aside two and a half per cent. from the collections of the Khalsah, or govern­ment lands, and those of Jágírdárs, as a per­quisite for the Mukaddams of villages; and on this account, nothing more than the above was to be demanded. It was further ordered, that the Kúlis should be permitted to retain one fourth of the land, with its revenue, on produ­cing good security for their conduct, and that all landholders of villages should put the government mark on their cavalry contingents, in order that they might attend the provincial governor on all necessary occasions. One half of the usual collection was also to be taken from the purchaser of all saleable lands, and, while the province was managed agreeably to the above regulations, it continued to increase in prosperity.

“The Rájpúts and Kúlis before mentioned originally possessed the country. But, when the Sultáns of Gujarát had completely subdued the same, they continued to punish these people, and forcibly to exact the tribute from them; till, at length, the original possessors consented to perform service and to pay a quit rent,* for retaining one fourth of their villages and heredi­tary estates, which portion is called Banta; whilst the other three-fourths were given up as the government share, and named Talpat lands. An agreement was also made with the greater landholders, who possessed several parganahs, that they were to serve the State in war time with infantry and cavalry, according to the size of their jágírs, and extent of their means; till at length the Kúlis and Rájpúts, who possessed the Banta of different villages, in consideration for the military services they performed, made themselves masters of this share, and presented in the harvest time a free gift to the Jágírdárs.

“In the course of time, the Rájpúts and Kúlis, who had become powerful, excited disturbances, carried away the cattle from towns, and mur­dered the inhabitants, during the harvest season. The people, having no means of redress, purchased exemption from these evils, by giving the authors of them a yearly payment in money, or by yielding up possession of one or more fields fit for cultivation; and such claim for exemption is called Grás, or Dol. This custom, gradually established, has been so matured through the weakness of the provincial governors, that there are very few places in the parganahs where some of the Rájpút, Kúli, or Mohammedan inhabitants do not possess the right to Grás.

As these people are naturally disobedient, addicted to theft, highway robbery, and sedition, they therefore excited insurrections, whenever the government of the provincial rulers indi­cated the least weakness. On this account, several of the governors, both in past and present times, after strengthening the fortifications of the province, stationed a sufficient party of soldiers therein: and these posts are named Tahnahs. The payment of each Tahnah has been fixed by government, and certain lands are set aside for this purpose, in order that the party of men may never leave the post, lest dis­turbances might be set on foot. Now that the unsettled state of the province goes on increas­ing, the seditious tribes already mentioned have levelled the small forts, where there were for­merly Tahnahs, and, by establishing themselves in others, have obtained possession, in many towns, of the Talpat government share instead of Grás.

“Many of the great landholders, who were Jágírdárs, performed the usual services until the time of Aurangzíb; but, at present, the provin­cial governor raises a force, and collects a tribute from the Bantútárs, in possession of the Talpat, in proportion to the capability of each place; while he takes security from his own Ámildárs. But, when the great landholders refuse to pay the tribute, what power has the provincial governor to enforce it? and so faithless have they become, that he cannot pass the city gate with­out an escort from them.”

In fine, Mírzá Azíz Koká, in A. Hij. 999, A.D.

A.Hij. 999.
A,D. 1590.

1590, gave the Emperor an introduc­tory present of elephants and fine things.