All government servants, nobles, and other persons, are to observe the following commands, in administering the affairs of cities, villages, towns, and other places.

1st. It is essential that all such endeavour to please God in whatever they undertake; and, as suppliants at his shrine, that they act impar­tially to themselves and others.

2d. They must not seclude themselves from society, as such is the practice of dervishes; nor must they keep company with the commonalty, and be constantly engaged in worldly matters, as such is the way of the market people; but, in following a middle course, let them choose moderation, and be neither too much in society nor too much in solitude.

3d. Let them honour the incomparable God, by watching night and day; and let them more particularly observe his worship at morning, noon, evening, and midnight.

4th. When not conducting the affairs of man­kind, let them study the writings of the good, and books of morality, which are as spiritual medicine, and the essential part of science. Among these, let them use the Akhláki Násirí,* or Morals of Násir; the Munajiát; the Máhu­lákát; the Ahiyá;* the Kímiá;* and Masnaví of Múlá Rúmí;* till, having become acquainted with the various systems of faith, they cannot, by the illusion of impostors, be shaken in their belief that the worship of God is best in this world, and the great object with his creatures.* Wherefore, by making no distinction between friend or enemy, a relation or a stranger, let them act with fearless independence.

5th. Let them be charitable, according to their means, to all religious mendicants, and to all poor, indigent, and naked persons, who will not open their mouths to ask for the means of subsistence, and have secluded themselves from the world.

6th. Bring back the discontented to their duty, by alternative severity and kindness, according to their various ranks; and, when the matter admits not of admonition, let them be fettered, beaten, or put to death in various ways. With regard to the latter punishment, reflect well, and be not too ready to use it: for, accord­ing to the verse, “one cannot restore the head of him who is slain.” Moreover, wherever it is possible, send all such as are worthy of death to court, forwarding along with them an account of their case; and subsequently they will comply with the Emperor's orders. But if, by retaining or sending to court such rebellious characters, there be a chance of sedition, let them be put to death; in doing so, however, abstain from mangling them in any way.

7th. Let them release whosoever is venerated for wisdom or religious opinions; and, if they perceive any thing improper in his conduct, let them warn him of it in secret. As the advisers, however, may be sometimes in error, let them not reproach such a person in anger; since, by doing so, they prevent him offering a reply. Let all those who, by the grace of God, speak the truth, be held in particular veneration, as men who do so are very rare: and many are the evil-disposed who have no mind to speak truth, but have hearts unfortunately inclined to the contrary. Men of good intentions are very cau­tious in what they say, lest he who hears them should be annoyed, and they themselves fall into misfortune. Consider all men, therefore, who are ready to give up their own interests for the sake of others to be precious as the philoso­phers' stone.

8th. They must not befriend flatterers; since, by the advice of such, business is improperly performed. They must not, however, be sud­denly displeased with those who speak in a flat­tering manner, as it is proper for servants to discourse politely.

9th. Regarding those who petition for justice, let their cause be inquired into by yourself in person, and in the order in which their names have been filed; so that those coming first may not have the trouble of waiting in expectation. In this matter let not the inferior agents of business invert the natural order of precedence; but, according to this verse, let them represent the complaint to the master, as from him per­haps the complainant will obtain redress.

10th. Be not hasty in punishing those who speak ill of their neighbours, yet investigate the matter; as there are many who find fault with other people, and those who speak good of them are very rare. In this case do not, through passion, forget what is reasonable, but do what is necessary in a deliberate manner and with patience. In the time of sorrow or anger, let such acquaintances, or servants, as are distin­guished for their wisdom and friendship, have authority over you; and wise men, on such occasions, will confine themselves to repeating the confession of faith.

11th. Become not habituated to taking oaths, as men who do so expose themselves to the sus­picion of telling lies, if at any time they take an oath; and thus obtain a name for bad faith.

12th. Become not addicted to the custom of giving abuse, as such is the practice of mean men.

13th. Let them use their endeavours to increase the cultivation, to conciliate the cultiva­tor, and give him advances in money; so that villages, towns, and cities, may yearly increase; and let them collect the rent from the subjects in an easy manner, in order that all lands may be cultivated and blessed with population. After such, moreover, let them strive to increase the production of useful articles, being strictly guided in their conduct by the regulations which have been separately detailed. In collecting rent from the cultivators, do so piecemeal, and deviate in no degree from the agreement which has been made.

14th. Have a care that soldiers or others take not up their abode in any one's house without his permission.

15th. Be not entirely guided by self-opinion in any matter; and let them consult those wiser than themselves. Though no one wiser may be found, let them still seek for counsel; as the ignorant may discover truth, according to the saying, “it happens that the old and wise man does not always think aright, while the ignorant child sometimes hits the mark by mistake.” Let them not, however, consult every one, as the wisdom fit for business, being the gift of God, cannot be obtained by reading or by length of life. As the ignorant may advise, through enmity, it is necessary to be suspicious in this matter, and to retain good men of busi­ness, who are rarely to be found.

16th. Let them not permit any thing to be done by their children, when it may be accom­plished by their servants: and let them not become accountable for any thing done by the former; since it is difficult to alter it should it miscarry.

17th. Let them readily hear men's excuses, and wink at their faults: as man, who cannot be without faults, sometimes becomes more hardened by punishment, or takes to flight through fear of it. In short, there may be one man who must be punished for one fault, and another who must be forgiven for a thousand: knowing then that punishment is the most important business of a government, let them execute it with mildness and discernment.

18th. Let them entrust the care of the high roads to such as fear God; and, holding these responsible for the good or evil there committed, let them be well informed regarding such mat­ters: for as government, or command, is but another word for keeping watch, such cannot be accomplished without good information.

19th. Punish each man according to his tribe; and, though it may be necessary to kill the proud, a blow to a man of meaner disposition benefits him nothing.

20th. Let them not afflict men on account of their faith, their sect, or their religion; for a wise man does not, in this transitory world, wish for his own destruction; and in the matter of religion, will follow such as he knows or hears of. The truth may be with him or them, per­haps; act not towards him, therefore, with enmity or oppressure: and, if the truth be with them, though he pursues an opposite course, it is fit to pity, and assist such an unfortunate, instead of oppressing and detesting him. In this matter, be friendly to all who are distin­guished for virtuous actions or benevolent opinions.

21st. Indulge not beyond measure, or what is necessary, in sleeping or in eating; so that men may be distinguished from the brutes; and let them watch at night when they can, but not delay till that season the performance of what should be done by day.

22d. In weighing the faults or sins of others, let them do so by the standard of their own; after which, let them decree their punishment. In this matter, however, let them nicely deter­mine what faults it is necessary to forgive, and what it is necessary to punish; for many slight faults require great punishments, and many great faults must be overlooked, and a light punishment awarded.

23d. It is not proper to entertain an inveterate enmity to any one, or to make the breast the prison of revenge. When much annoyed, there­fore, with any individual, let such be discharged: as the foundation of action is the inscrutable God, and to him should be left the investigation of all that relates to quarrels.

24th. Let them be on their guard with respect to spies, and not implicitly trust any individual; as such are very rarely faithful and without avarice. Wherefore, let them have several spies in every business, and station them in such a manner that they may have no communication with each other. By thus comparing their dif­ferent accounts, form an opinion of what should be done, and remove from office such spies in the city as are well known.