After a cycle* of the Emperor's reign had elapsed, an order to this effect was issued. Be it known to governors of provinces, and govern­ment writers, in their several ranks and depart­ments, that, as the Emperor's endeavour has ever been to make both great and small happy and prosperous, all such should esteem these precious times, and employ themselves in works agreeable to God. And let them, at the same time, beware of adopting this opinion, that the founders of religion and of systems, being per­fect men, and secluded from the world, have completely explained the perfections and imper­fections of faiths;* but let them, on the con­trary, follow the example of philosophers, and never wholly trust their pretensions, without some one as their guide; nor undertake any thing, either great or small, without due consideration; so that, conscious of rectitude, and a desire to attain perfection, they may attend to the truths of theology, and the subtilties of science, till, by the favour and guidance of God, they obtain and are entrusted with the grace of his revelations and designs; and be especially informed of past and future things.

At this time, his Highness, while studying the almanacks of the Hindús, called by them Patra, observed that, according to the Kál-Patra, the commencement of the lunar month is reck­oned from the conjunction, or the time when the darkness is increasing, called in Hindí Kishn-Pach (Krishna Paksha.) But, as these people ignorantly, and from custom, make the month commence with the darkness, and as such practice is not sanctioned by authority, it becomes necessary to demonstrate this to them. Wherefore, the Emperor was informed by the chiefs of their religion that such is their practice; and, their old and celebrated works being pro­duced, it was discovered that the commencement of the lunar month was once reckoned from the time of the new moon's appearance, a period called by the Hindús Shukal-Pach (Sukla Paksha); though, from the days of Vikramajit (Vikramáditya,) this enlightened practice has, through various causes of confusion, fallen into disuse. But, still more wonderful, though these people acknowledge that the month commences with the appearance of the light, they do not practically follow this opinion. Wherefore, it is ordered that all astrologers, and keepers of the calendar, with all other accountants under the government, shall regulate their almanacks on the practice of reckoning from the Shukal-Pach. Moreover, having prepared a calendar with much care and attention, to facilitate the use of this method, and having stamped it with the royal seal, the Emperor has distributed the same that all men may follow it.

The grandees, on this occasion, said—Doubt­less, the Emperor's intention, in establishing this Era, must be to facilitate a knowledge of important events and commercial transactions; so that no one may have the power of wrangling in any matter: for, in the instance of a person agreeing to a contract, a lease, or the payment of a debt, within four years and four months, the period cannot be accurately ascertained, if the commencement of it be not fixed.

The establishment of new eras, moreover, has ever been with a view of facilitating a knowledge of certain events, happening after a con­siderable period had elapsed from the original commencement of some other era. Historians must also be aware, that such has been the practice of former great kings; and that, through their care in fixing new eras, men of business have been relieved from doubt and difficulty. And now, said they, a thousand years of the Hijra having nearly elapsed, while the eras of Sikandar and Yezdijerd, though used in calendars, are not accurately known, the people of Hindústán, therefore, use a variety of eras, such as that in Bengal, dated from the reign of Lakhsman Singh, now in its 465th* year; in the country of Gujarát the era of Sál­báhan (Sáliváhana), now dating in its 1506th year, A.D. 1584; in the country of Málwa and Dehlí, the era of Vikramajit (Vikramáditya), now in its 1640th year, A.D. 1584; whilst the people of Nágrakót date from the government of every individual who rules over that fortress.

As the learned are also of opinion, added they, that the eras of Hindústán do not com­mence from any great event, and have no true foundation, if the Emperor, through his uni­versal clemency and paternal care, would establish a new era to remove such discrepancies, he will be rewarded and blessed both now and hereafter. It is, moreover, ordered in astronomical books, such as the Ílkhání and Gúrkání tables, that the eras should be made to com­mence from some great transaction, either the establishment of a religion or a dynasty: and, though many great and glorious occurrences of the present reign are each suited to this pur­pose, let the Emperor fix the same from the period he came to the sovereignty, (now in its thirtieth lunar year, and the greatest manifes­tation of God's favour and grace,) and he will be certainly repaid with thanks for this good work, as having complied with the wishes of the learned. By having done so, the era of the Hijra, established at the flight of the best of men from the honoured Mekka to the sacred Medina, will lose nothing of its dignity: for, though this, in the time of Malik Sháh, had not reached its present lengthened period of dura­tion, and business had not then become so dif­ficult, the Jalalí era was nevertheless established, in order that, in all affairs of difficulty, mankind might be relieved from perplexity. The same is now used in the calendars of all Mohammedan countries, as those of Arabia, Constantinople, Má-wará-ul-Nahr, Khorásán, and Irák; and all the written obligations of the faithful are drawn up from these almanacks.

In consequence of the repeated requests of these people, and to quiet their importunities, the Emperor, giving his consent, has issued this order: “Let the gates of felicity and rejoicing be opened, by dating the Iláhí Era from the day of the year corresponding with the first of the king's reign.” A command to this effect is also sent to the learned; “Let all compilers of almanacks used in the country of Islám, in which are inserted the Arabí, Rúmí, Farsí, and Jalálí eras, open the door of facility, by therein using the new era; and, in the almanacks of the Hin­dús, let the same be written, that their various eras may fall into disuse, particularly that of Vikramajit, which had its foundation in false­hood.” As the years in the common calendars are solar, and the months lunar, we hereby command that the months of the new era shall be also solar.

The learned of all religions and systems, hav­ing set aside certain days of the year, which are agreeable to heaven and favourable to spirituality, have specially appropriated them for the delight of all men: and named them the days of festival, in order that such may give rise to charity and beneficence. Having more­over pointed out the efficacy of prayer, at such joyful seasons, when men are to observe the customary homage and veneration for the great God, they have thus spread the table of benefi­cence, and opened the gates of gladness, for both rich and poor. Wherefore, agreeably to this order, several festivals, formerly known in this country, which, though long neglected, had been observed for the last thousand years, will be thus fixed: and let all men use their utmost endeavour to observe such; and not disregard the same as here detailed: viz. the nineteenth of the month of Farwardín of the Iláhí Era; the third of Ardíbehisht; the sixth of Khurdád; the thirteenth of Sír; the seventh of Mirdád; the fourth of Sharíwar; the sixteenth of Mehr; the tenth of Abán; the ninth of Azar; the fif­teenth and twenty-third of Dai; the second of Bahman; and the ninth of Isfendiár. Written by order of the Emperor.