The learned and observing well know that a cause for the decline of every empire, which has existed since the beginning of the world, may be found in the animosities of its nobles, assisted by rebellious subjects, whose mutiny and endeavours, thank God! generally revert on themselves, so that some more fortunate rival steps in and profits thereby.

Such was the end of the kings and nobles of Gujarát, as will be here explained. Fate having decreed the destruction of the government, its servants, by disregarding all sacred ties in the midst of rebellions, went to war among each other; so, under the semblance of friendship, they openly committed acts of hostility, until, at length, those parties being set aside, the powers and seals of this kingdom were transferred to the hands of the illustrious descendant of Taimúr Jalálu-d-dín Mohammed Akbar.

To be brief, Mohammed Hussein Mírzá, Masúd Hussein Mírzá, and Aligh Hussein Mírzá, sons of Mohammed Sultán Mírzá, a descendant of Taimúr, after raising disturbances in the country of Hindústán (whilst their father, on account of old age, remained at his jágír of Sambal, in the Panjáb), were obliged to leave that quarter, in consequence of the advance of the imperial troops. They subsequently plun­dered several places; and, having put to death some Jágírdárs, invested the city of Dehlí. These proceedings gave rise to insurrections in the country, and many people were consequently oppressed. Akbar, on hearing what had taken place, advanced for the relief of Dehlí; and the Mírzás, after desisting from their attempts against that city, hastened into Málwa, which they subdued as far as Hindíah, taking the country from the Imperial Governor, Moham­med Kúli Bírlás. The Emperor now sent his victorious troops from Dehlí to exterminate the Mírzás; at which time the rebellious nobles of Gujarát, subsequently to the murder of Mah­múd II., had conferred the throne of that country on a child, said to be a grandson of Sultán Ahmad I., and who had no just claim to the government. The nobles, who gave him the title of Ahmad II., had retained all the power in their own hands; but, as he at this time arrived at man's estate, they completed his business, and elevated to power another child, who was said to be a son of Mahmúd II. The latter was entitled Muzaffir III.; and, though many knew the story of his birth to be a lie, they only talked of it, without doing any thing, as the nobles were then in absolute power. At this time, the latter divided the country among themselves, when Ahmadábád, with the port of Khambáyat, and much more of the country, was possessed by Itimád Khán; the sirkar of Patan by Músá Khán and Shír Khán Faoládí; the districts of Súrat, Bhroch, Chámpánír, and Baroda, by Jangíz Khán; Dhandúka and Dholka, with other parts, by Sayyid Hámid,* the grand­son of Sayyid Mubárak; and Júnagarh, with the country of Sorath, by Amír Khán Ghorí.

After these powerful but unworthy rulers had governed for some time, and had introduced every species of oppression and injustice, they began to quarrel and attack one another. As the Mírzás saw no prospect of being able to hold out against the imperial army in Málwa, they came into Gujarát during these disturbances, and sought an asylum with Jangíz Khán, at Bhroch. The latter was then carrying on war with Itimád Khán, in the neighbourhood of Ahmadábád; and, being afraid that the Mírzás would plunder him, he conferred on them the district of Bhroch in jágír.

After this, Shujár Khán,* having imprisoned Jangíz Khán at Ahmadábád, put him to death: on which the disturbances in Gujarát increased. The Mírzás, who deemed this a fit opportunity, captured the forts of Chámpánír and Súrat; and, having also taken possession of the fort of Bhroch, thus acquired power. Itimád Khán had at this time taken on himself the responsi­bility of governing, when Sultán Muzaffir III., at the instigation of Shír Khán Faoládí, flying from Ahmadábád, joined the latter at Patan. After effecting this junction, Sultán Muzaffir advanced against Ahmadábád, with an army; and Itimád Khán, now besieged, formed a union with the Mírzás: but, sending a message at the same time to Akbar, representing the state of affairs, entreated him to enter Gujarát, and take possession of the country.

Akbar, who now resolved on quelling these disturbances, commenced his preparations, for an expedition against Gujarát, on Tuesday the

A. Hij. 980,
A.D. 1572.

20th of Safar, A. Hij. 980, A.D. 1572; and appointed Khán Kilán, Sayyid Mohammed Barhá, Kúlí Khán, Sádik Khán, and Sháh Fakhru-d-dín, with several other great chiefs, to command the army, sent in advance. The Emperor himself left Ajmír for Gujarát, on Monday the 22d of Rabí-us-sání; and, on the arrival of the troops at the station of Nagore, Khán Kilán, with the other commanders, went as ambassadors to Sirohí. The mad Rájá of this place, named Mán Singh, being intent on treachery, sent a friendly message to Khán Kilán. The deputation of Rájpúts who brought it had been received, and were about to take leave, when Khán Kilán, as was the custom in Hindústán, called each of them up, in order to receive the betel nut. At this time, a Rájpút, advancing to Khán Kilán, struck him so forcibly with a dagger, on the back of the shoul­der, and at its lower part, that three fingers' length of the instrument appeared from below the shoulder-blade. One of Khán Kilán's attendants, named Bahádur Khán, seized the Ráj­pút, and threw him on the ground; when Sádik Khán and Mohammed Kalíj Khán finished his business with a sword, and put all who were with him to death.

The Emperor's army soon after joined the advance; and, as it was known how improperly the people of Sirohi had behaved, several brave men were ordered to go there, and extirpate the people. In consequence of this order, many of the Sirohí people were brought to ruin; and some took shelter in the defiles of the moun­tains; whilst several of those, called in Gujarát “Machators,”* were put to death, at the Hindú temples.

The army had, at length, encamped in the neighbourhood of Patan; when Sháh Fakhru-d-dín was ordered to go and offer words of assurance to Itimád Khán; who, having written a friendly letter, requested that he might be permitted to come into the imperial camp. On the arrival of the troops near Dísa, it was reported that Shír Khán Faoládí, who invested Ahmadábád, had abandoned the siege of that place, on learning that the imperial army approached; and that, after hastening into the country of Sorath, he had sent his sons, Mohammed Khán and Baddar Khán, in order that they might station his family and domestics in a place of security. In the mean time, his sons, having sent his family and domestics in advance, turned towards Ídur; and Ibrahím Husain Mírzá, who had accompanied Itimád Khán's troops, returned to that part of the country which owed him allegiance: as the latter wished to submit. After this, the Emperor ordered Mán Singh to proceed, with a body of troops, and seize the family of Shír Khán Faoládí; but, although the Rájá came up with his baggage, and plundered it, the Khán's sons, who had pre­viously received information of this movement, threw themselves into the defiles of the moun­tains, and escaped.