It is truly wonderful to think on what a cele­brated line of ancestry the members of this family can show; whose forefathers, from Adam downwards, have been kings and emperors of great fortune and dignity. Such have been the habits of justice and equity, of beneficence and liberality, with which they have been endowed by the great Giver of all things, that, if inquirers into history will diligently search, they will find that the kings, princes, and potentates of the seven climates have derived their power from them. From them, also, contrary to the cus­toms of other kings, every one travelling hither from Irán, Túrán, Rúmelia, Assyria, Arabia, and Abyssinia, obtains his desires. But, not­withstanding the amazing extent of their pos­sessions, their power and opulence, it can never be said that they have either been so proud or arrogant as to treat with contempt the meanest of their servants; whilst they have also sup­ported the usages of our exalted religion. It is related, that Sahíbi Kirán II., or Sháh Jahán Pádsháh, on the commencement of his reign, after seating himself on the Peacock throne, which cost one krore of rupees, equal to several years' revenue of Egypt, gave thanks to God, after having twice knelt, saying, “though Pha­roah in Egypt, when on his ivory throne, claimed equality with the great God of truth, and said, ‘I am thy God the highest,’ yet, master as I am of such a country, I dare not address to him such language.” How proper and becoming is such a faith!—and, by thus continuing to glorify God, we trust that he will continue to support this noble family on the throne. Wherefore, it has come to pass that, amidst the disturbances and revolutions which have hap­pened throughout the world, both in Irán and Túrán, the princes of this family are still lords of Hindústán: for which we ought to be thankful.

As must be generally known, Amír Taimúr Sahíbi Kirán captured the capital of Hindústán,

A. Hij. 801,
A.D. 1399.

in the beginning of A. Hij. 801, A.D. 1398-9; and, after subduing the whole of the country in the course of a year, marched for his capital of Samarkand, at the end of that very year. Sultán Mahmúd Toghluk, who was then king of Dehlí, being defeated by Taimúr, fled to Gujarát, where Muzaffir Khán had assumed the style and title of a king; and, as Mah­múd Toghluk met with no encouragement in Gujarát, he went from thence to Málwa, as has been already detailed.

His Highness Firdaus-Makání Zahíru-d-dín Mohammed Bábar, who was the son of Omar Shaikh Mírzá, the son of Abú Saíd Mírzá, by Mírán Sháh, the son of Taimúr, having left Kábúl for the conquest of Hindústán, in the year of the Hijra 932, A.D. 1525-6, captured Dehlí and Agra, with several other cities in the East. This happened about the latter part of the reign of Sultán Muzaffir II. of Gujarát, who was suc­ceeded by Sultáns Sikandar and Bahádur; and, in the fifth year of the latter's reign, Bábar having departed this life, at Agra, on the 6th

A. Hij. 937,
25th Dec.
A.D. 1530.

of Jumádá-ul-awal, A. Hij. 937, A.D. 1530, was carried to Kábúl and buried there. Bábar therefore reigned about six years.

His son, Nasíru-d-dín Humáyún Pádsháh, named Jannat-Áshiání, succeeded him; and commenced his reign at Agra on the 9th of Jumádá-ul-awal, A. Hij. 937. The date of this event is contained in the words “Kheir-ul Mulúk;” and at this time Sultán Bahádur was reigning in Gujarát. As Humáyún was vexed with the latter, on account of the affair of Mohammed Zamán Mírzá; he brought an army against him in A. Hij. 941, A.D. 1534-5, while the latter was besieging Chitore; and, after defeating him, captured the fort of Chámpánír. These transactions are partly detailed in the Mirát Sikandarí, and more at length in the Akbar-Námah.

After a lapse of some years, Humáyún went to Irán; and, on his return from thence, in the middle of the month of Zú-l-hijjah,

Zú-l-hijjah then
began 17th Sept.
A.D. 1555.

A. Hij. 962, A.D. 1555, took the coun­try a second time from those who had rebelled against him, and made it wholly his own. In the mean time, Sultán Bahádur of Gujarát had been removed, Sultán Mahmúd II. killed, and Sultán Ahmad II. placed on the

13th Rabí-ul-awal,
26th Jan.
A.D. 1556.

throne: when, on the 13th of Rabí-ul-awal, A. Hij. 963, Humáyún himself died, at Dehlí, and was buried there in the mau­soleum, now called Humáyún's. His reign, from the time he was first enthroned in Hindú­stan, lasted twenty-five years, two months, and two days.

After the decease of Humáyún, his son Arsh-Áshiání Jalálu-d-dín Mohammed Akbar com­menced his reign, at the ídgáh, in the city of

14th February,
A.D. 1556.

Kalanúr, about midday of Friday, the 2d of Rabí-us-sání; at which time Sultán Ahmad

14th Rajab.
18th November,
A.D. 1572.

II. was reigning in Gujarát. On the 14th of the month of Rajab of A. Hij. 980, when thirteen complete years had elapsed from the beginning of the reign of Muzaffir III. the whole of the country of Gujarát came into possession of Akbar, as detailed hereafter, among the affairs of Hindústán. Akbar died

15th October,
A.D. 1605,

on Wednesday, the 12th of Jumádá-s-sání, A. Hij. 1014; and was buried in the mau­soleum, which exists at Sikandrah. His reign lasted fifty-one lunar years, two months, and nine days; during which time nine persons were appointed to the government of Gujarát.

His son, Jannat-Makání Núru-d-dín Moham­med Jahángír, succeeded him; and commenced his reign at Akbarábád, or Agra, on Friday the

17th Oct. O.S.

14th of Jumádá-s-sání of the above year. He died on the afternoon of Sunday the

28th Safar,
29th Oct. O.S.
A.D. 1627.

28th of Safar, A. Hij. 1037, at the sta­tion of Jannak Hattí, when returning from Kashmír to Lahore, which was the seat of government. He was buried in the mausoleum near Lahore, after having reigned twenty-one years and a month. During this period eight persons were honoured with the government of Gujarát.

Sháh-Jahán Pádsháh, otherwise named Firdaus-Áshiání, and Sahíbi Kirán II., succeeded

13th Jumádá-s-sání,
A. Hij. 1037,
11th Dec. O.S.
A.D. 1627.

22nd Jan. O.S.
A.D. 1666.

his father Jahángír, on Friday the 12th of Jumádá-s-sání, A. Hij. 1037. He died on Monday the 26th of Rajab, A. Hij. 1076, A.D. 1665-6, and was buried in the mausoleum which exists at Akbarábád (Agra), after having reigned thirty-two years. For the last seven years of his life, he was kept under restraint, in the fort of Agra; during which time there were twelve persons who held the government of Gujarát.