IT must be known to discriminating and inquiring men that the country of Gujarát, which is one of the principal provinces in Hin­dústán, is in the second climate. It has a temperate atmosphere, generally; but, in places on the sea coast, the air is variable.

The soil generally is sandy, and produces all kinds of wheat in abundance: though the greater part is cultivated with bajrí, which is the usual food of the horses in Kach,* and even of a great part of the population there. In former times, good wheat was not to be obtained, but it is now generally procurable. In some of the districts, the fruits of the autumnal and spring crops, being blended together, are cultivated at such seasons, either by irrigation or the natural rains.

The fields and villages, for the most part, are surrounded by hedges of the prickly pear; by which they are completely fortified in the course of time. Many fruit and other trees, such as the amba and khirní, cover the face of the country, from the neighbourhood of Patan* to the town of Baroda,* being a distance of a hun­dred koss. Here also we find cucumbers and nashpatis of a good quality, with melons of dif­ferent kinds; which, when sown in the beds of rivers, are produced of an excellent quality and abundance, both during the cold and hot seasons. Such, however, are not procurable in Sorath. There are likewise different kinds of odoriferous herbs, fruits, and vegetables, used in these parts, whose names would occupy too much space in detailing them.

The houses are all built of burnt bricks, and are roofed with teak wood and tiles. In Sorath, however, they use stone instead of bricks.

The Kach horses possess activity; and are so well proportioned in their make as to bear a comparison with those of Arabia and Irák. The cattle of Gujarát, that run well in draught, are of a very white colour and handsome form. The panthers are incomparable hunters; and the buffaloes of this quarter are also very well made. Large elephants were formerly hunted in the territories of Rajpípalah,* but, the passage in the mountains being now closed up, they are no longer found.

In respect to warlike instruments, the swords of Sirohí* are celebrated every where, and there are no better reeds than such as are procured in this country; so that they are carried to Hin­dústán, Persia, and other countries, for the manufacture of arrows.

Rings, like those of Yemen, necklaces, and cups, with handles for knives and daggers, are manufactured at Khambáyat, from cornelian of different colours; and these, with a variety of ivory instruments, when carried into the neighbouring countries, are exchanged for other commodities. Cloths also, like those of Persia, Arabia, Abyssinia, Constantinople, and Europe, are made and coloured here.

Another article of produce is salt. In all the places near the sea-shore, there are enclosed fields, called, in Hindí, kiyarí; which are filled, during the cold season, from reservoirs of salt water near them; and, the salt, when con­creted there, is collected. But that procured at the port of Khambáyat,* resembles coarse sand; and, possessing a considerable degree of bitter­ness of taste, has the virtue of recruiting the strength of debilitated persons. The black salt, named black stone, and which is called sanchal in Hindí, is made at the above sea-port by boiling a grass, called morand, in the manner usually followed in procuring murdar sang.* This salt is then carried into the neigh­bouring countries both by sea and land. There is yet another kind, procured from the saline pits at the town of Junjwárah,* in the parganah of Bíramgám;* and similar salt, when obtained from the water of the wells, is of a white colour and good quality, resembling bits of sugar. It is carried by the merchants into Málwa,* and other places; and all the revenue collected therefrom is included in the settlement of the above-mentioned parganah.

Another article of manufacture here is paper. Although the Daulatábád and Kashmír paper be fine and beautiful, it is not equal to what is made at Ahmadábád, either in point of white­ness or purity. Several different kinds are pro­duced; all of which are faulty in being pene­trated with innumerable small holes, caused by the particles of sand, from this sandy country, which adhere to it during its manufacture, being rubbed off in the process of polishing. Not­withstanding this, it is much prized for its whiteness, and is carried, in exchange for other commodities, to the cities of India, and Arabia, and to Constantinople.

The teak wood here is only used for the ceil­ings and pillars of dwelling houses, or the building of ships; but the black wood, which in quality and appearance resembles ebony, is used in the construction of bullock carriages and other things.

In the mountainous country, about Ídur,* there is a quarry of white stone, which is pro­curable in no other part. The lime made from this is used in stucco work; for the walls or terraces of buildings; and for fine edifices, pleasure-houses, and mausoleums. If employed in plastering, it takes so fine a polish as to reflect the light as a looking-glass. When, in the reign of Firdaus-Ashiáni-Sháh Jahán,* the royal buildings of the citadel of Sháhjahánábád (Dehlí) were repaired, the lime made from this stone was taken from Gujarát, by the King's order, and used in their construction. The mausoleums of the Mohammedan saints, the temples of the Hindús, and other public works (an account of which will be detailed hereafter,) are erected with this lime; as are also numerous canals, water reservoirs, wells, and other like buildings.

Though the water of the wells is salt, yet, were all the other good things of this province made a subject of praise, another volume would be requisite: for it must be noticed, that travellers from all quarters have heard of this country being proverbially good above all others.

In the present time, the settlement of the province is accomplished by five thousand cavalry, mustered by the Názim; in addition to those of the Faujdárs and other vassals, pro­vided no addition be requisite for other services, than those belonging to the usual business of the province.