(The chapter begins with some unmeaning praises of Akbar, which do not occur in the Lucknow edition.)

The account of this is briefly as follows: Some trustworthy 177 people arrived from the eastern provinces and announced that the light of daily-increasing fortune was continually shining in the vic­torious camp, and that Ism'āīl by name, an Afghan, to whom Dāūd had given the title of Khān Jahān, had been killed at the entrench­ments of the Qāqshāls. They also reported that the leaders of the army were of opinion that without the arrival of the standards of world-conquest the lights of victory would not fully shine forth, but that out of respect they could not freely state this. H.M. ordered that preparations for an expedition should be made, and that the army should go thither by land and water. Qāsim Khān was sent to Agra to arrange for the stations on the river. In a short time the managers of the business accomplished the work of several years.

As the pillars of knowledge and the Sultans of wisdom never approve of the work of to-day's being postponed to the morrow, and think this especially bad in the matters of administration, the Shāh­inshāh, in reliance upon the Divine bounty, left Fatḥpūr in the height of the rains,—a season when many energetic men refrain from exertion,—starting on the day of Ābān 10 Amardād, Divine month— corresponding to Sunday 25 Rabī'-al-akhir (22 July 1576).


The Shāh rode off from the abode of glory,
Bakhtiyār (his elephant ?) became the abode of glory (?).
The standards (Kaukaba) were of heavenly splendour,
The moon of his ensign rose to heaven,
The forms of the elephants bent the earth,
There was a shaking in the universe.

His sublime intention was that he should proceed by the river with a few of his courtiers, while the army should go by land. Though the season was not suitable for the movements of an army, yet as the world's Khedive was looking to the settlement of a coun­try, he considered that the repose of the soldiers would consist in the quelling of the enemy. On the way he said to some of his intimates, “Last night a window opened into the mystic world while I was in a state of dream, and I learnt that in a short space of time news would come of the conquest of the eastern provinces, and that the inhabitants thereof would enjoy repose and daily-increasing justice.” On that day, when he had reached the village of Birār, which is a dependency of the district of Agra, at the beginning of night, Saiyid 'Abdullah Khān, having accomplished a long journey in eleven* days, brought news of the victory of the imperial servants, the discomfi­ture of the haughty rebels, and the conquest of the country of Bengal. And in order to teach mankind he threw down in the jilaukhāna 178 (shed) of the courtyard the head of Dāūd. A cry arose from the spectators, and mankind rejoiced. Though in the eyes of the super­ficial, a great victory had occurred in the outer world, yet in the eyes of those of profound vision it was the spiritual world which had been conquered. Guidance was furnished to the weary of foot in the wilderness of search. Seekers who had lost their way and who used to search for the night-illuminating lamp (of direction) in the dark abode of covetous wearers of rags (i.e., from the ascetics and beggars) obtained the prince of the horizons for their guide, and commenced work anew, and had the candle of their vision lighted by two great marvels—to which intelligence had no access, and for which conjecture and reasoning had no capacity. The blind of the rose-garden of existence were made joyful by the fountain of vision and the acquisition of thousands of eyes of awakening and partook of the feast of witnessing (shuhūd). The lame of the field of recognition had the foot of knowledge restored. The blear-eyed obtained the antimony of vision. Those who were tottering on the high­way of search received into their hands a staff* of firmness. The first (of the two marvels) was that at the time of giving Saiyid 'Abdullah his dismission there had come from the lips of that cream of creation (Akbar) the words “You will bring news of victory and conquest.” The second was that on that same day H.M. had while en route given the interpretation of his dream and conveyed the tid­ings of victory and conquest.

H.M. the Shāhinshāh returned thanks to God for the two glori­ous victories. Though the untying of this hard knot (the conquest of Bengal) was in reality the result of the blessing of the holy influence of the world's lord, yet the external cause was the wide capacity, skill, and continuous efforts of Khān Jahān and Rajah Todar Mal, and the exertions of the irrepressible (be ru ?) sazāwals.* When the heaven-aided army was in Ākmaḥal opposed to Dāūd there could be no pitched battle on account of the rugged nature of the ground, and the brave men on both sides were continually coming out and making trial of their courage. The whole idea of the presumptuous wretches was that when the rainy season set in, the camp would be broken up. The officers of the victorious army were for the most part Caghatāīs, and did not wish that so great an enterprise should be headed by the Khān Jahān, who was a Qizilbāsh. They had not such fidelity as to disregard, on account of their master's work, differences in religion and custom, and to endeavour for carrying out his objects. Necessarily such unrighteous thoughts were an obstacle in the path of the auspiciousness of this faction. Also the Bengal army had their hearts turned against the country on account of the prevalence of the plague, and their whole energy was devoted to pre­vent the prosecution of the work. Where is that splendour of wis­dom which can comprehend that time and place do neither good nor ill towards filling the measure of life? That amount will appear which is in the Divine knowledge, whether one spends one's days in a tiger-jungle 179 or on the verges of the fountain of life! And where is that loyalty which asks for the sacrifice of life in the service of his lord? And also they were disinclined to combat, because in the eyes of the superficial the enemy was increasing in quality and quantity. They did not possess the far-sightedness which could see the armies of the daily-increasing fortune of the Shahinshah. Also they did not like the prospect of fighting on account of the strength of the enemy's position. They had not the magnanimity to find the equivalent of the strength of position in the might of H.M.'s fortune. Also the vehemence of the rains and the violence of the rivers withheld them from engaging. From total irrecognition of the Truth, they did not weigh spiritual aids against the calamities of the skies, and also the difficulty about grain and the high rates of articles caused weakness in their ardour. From want of trust, and from self-conceit they did not regard the Causer of Causes, and occupied themselves with secondary matters.

Khān Jahān and Rajah Todar Mal from their loyalty and knowledge of the world did not listen to men's idle talk, but exerted them­selves greatly to hearten and encourage them. They bought over at a high price the disaffection of their companions, and submitted the jewel of service to exquisite tests. As they could not read the letters of the word of conquest in the forehead of these men's disposi­tions they set themselves to the bringing down the army of Bihar, and wrote letters to this effect. They besought the help of the sub­lime court in this matter. Moaffar Khān was spending his time in the petty anxieties of men of small minds, but when the strenuous and irrepressible (be rūī) sazāwals* came from the court, he was obliged to act, and together with Shujāát Khān, Muḥibb 'Alī Khān, M'āṣūm Khān Kabulī, Mīr M'uizzu-l-mulk, Samānjī Khān, Mīrzāda 'Ali Khān, Tarkhān Dīwāna, he put the army in order and set his face to service. In the territory of Bhagalpur* Moaffar Khān returned to his first opinion, and after eloquent discussions with his officers he decided that “The rains were a season of commotion, and that to go at this time to Bengal and fail was to ruin oneself. The proper thing to do was to remain where he was till the end of the rains. Khān Jahān, who was distressed from his long facing of the enemy, and excessive hardships, must return; when the star Canopus arises, the rivers begin to fall, and the air to be pleasant, the imperial ser­vants shall proceed with unanimity to the conquest of Bengal and the extirpation of the Afghans.” At this time Muḥibb 'Ali Khān* arrived, and replied to this commotion by saying, “This idea cannot be weighed in the balance of loyalty or even of practical wisdom. When the wise ruler has sent a decisive order that we should hasten to Bengal and deliver battle, it is improper to think of any other plan or to indulge in delay. Let us hold fast to the command and go for­ward with our heart and soul to perform our service, and let us bring this long business to an end by the help of God and the fortune of 180 the Shāhinshāh.” Inasmuch as this encouraging idea came from the fount of devotion and loyalty, it appealed to every one. Willingly or unwillingly, the crew of slingers of stones of delay assented to the proposition and suggested that before they joined the army (of Khān Jahān) trustworthy messengers should be sent to assure it that when the two forces were amalgamated the battle would not be delayed, and that they would bring the great work to a termination; for they feared lest the officers of the advanced force (K. Jahān's) should not be inclined to fight and would wish to wait for the arrival of the Shāhinshāh's cortégé, and that their camp might in such a season become broken up. Accordingly Mīr Mu'izzu-d-dīn and Wazīr Jamīl were sent to reassure them.

When the writing of delay had been thus erased they were obliged to move towards the province. On the day of Mārisfand 29 Tīr, Divine month (10 July), the armies of Bihar and Bengal joined. The Khān Jahān met the chief officers (of the Bihar force) and treated them with honour. He brought them into his quarters and gave them a great feast. Next day he went to the quarters of Moaffar Khān and had a private interview with him. After much talk of little moment he (Moaffar) set his heart on fighting and they pro­ceeded to draw up their forces. Khān Jahān commanded in the centre; the Bihar army had the right wing; in the left wing were Rajah Todar Mal, Jabbāri, Bābā Khān Qāqshāl, I'tmād Khān Khwā­jasarā, Rajah Gopāl, and others. In the van were Shāham Khān, Murād Khān, Jān Muḥammad Bahsūdī, Isma'īl Beg Uzbeg, and others. In the altamsh were Ism'aīl Qulī Khān, Qiyā Khān, and others. The enemy's forces were arranged as follows: in the centre was Dāūd; Kālā Pahār had the right wing, Junaid the left; in the van were Khān Jahān the ruler of Orissa, and Qatlū. On the 31st Tīr, Divine month, corresponding to Thursday 15 Rabī-'a-ānī (12 July) the battle took place. Though the whole country was under water and there was no way of crossing it by a bridge, the gallant men of the victorious army kept the slope of the hill before them and made, by the help of daily-increasing fortune, efforts to gain fame and jeopardised their lives. A suitable path was found, and when the news of this success arrived they raised the pæan of joy. They arranged themselves in order and sought for victory. When they had gone some distance there appeared before them a deep, black stream. There was no way of crossing it, and they could not think of turning back. A flood of apprehension seized the superficial and shortsighted whilst the profound of vision opened the eye of instruction and waited for some wonderful effect of Fortune. In a short space of time the mystic rays lighted up their faces with joy and that difficult stream became fordable. The able and intelligent took this as a pre- 181 sage of victory. When the enemy perceived what had happened they prepared for battle. Bābā Khān Qāqshāl and all the heroes of the left wing crossed the stream and behaved with activity. Kālā Pahār and the other brave men among the enemy stood firm and brought the jewel of courage to the bazaar of battle. The battle-field became glorious.