The adorner of the throne of sovereignty never passes a year or a month without devising good institutions or without tranquil­lising and decorating the world by the gleams of his far-seeing wisdom, which is the mirror of things earthly and Divine. At this time he cast far-reaching glances and established great principles for the regulation of the army and the peasantry and for the prosperity of the country; among them was the institution of Branding (gh). It is not hid under the veil of concealment from judicious observers that man is continually dominated by cupidity and anger. The power of lust or wrath covers with dust the bright lamp of the understanding of the wise and mature, whenever there comes a little carelessness or neglect, so what can happen in the case of those who are sunk in folly? When too justice and humanity are rare, or rather are non-existent, and when the lord of horizons (Akbar or other sovereign) is behind the veil of inattention, assuredly there will be the commotion of avarice and the typhoon of faithlessness among many of the masters and servants. The commander* (tābīn bāshī) withholds from the followers what he has received from the court, and becomes more greedy, and the follower sprinkles the dust of disloyalty on his head and acts on all occasions as if he were his own master (?).

Whoever turns away from such wickedness and from the crowd of the unjust and from such improper courses and out of self-respect 117 and observance of equity takes the path of just dealing, and chooses contentment and honesty, becomes stained with the dust of sus­picion. Though in the beginning of this year, before the com­motion in the eastern provinces, H. M. had applied his mind to this subject, and his officers had begun to work, yet the organisation of this great task took shape while the standards of fortune were at the capital. The inquiry was made then, and the grades of offices were settled. The Shāhinshāh in order to arrange the foundations of the kingdom, and for the peace of the subjects, made the imperial territories crown-lands. At the time when the sovereign was under the veil and was testing men, the imperial clerks increased immoderately the assessments on the territories, cities, towns and villages and opened the hand of embezzlement in raising and diminishing them. Whoever acquired their good graces gained his ends, and whoever's heart was not in the quarter of giving became a loser. Also whoever was well-treated, was from his unfairness and avarice, ungrateful, and whoever was less suc­cessful was on account of his discontent and disloyalty a grumbler. At the time when the beams of fortune's morning were brighten­ing, and the throne-adorner was engaged in casting away the veil, he gave some of his attention to this subject and began by making the imperial territories crown-lands. The officers and other servants received money-salaries and their ranks were determined in accordance with their merit and the extent of their commands.

Able and trustworthy men were appointed to survey the spacious territories of India and to determine the amount of produc­tion and to substitute payments* in cash so that the market of the embezzlers might fall flat. The provinces of Bengal, Bihar, and Gujrāt were from foresight and appreciation left as they were; Kabul, Qandahār, Ghaznī, Kashmīr, Tatta, the tracts of Bajaur and Tīrā, and Bangash, and Sorath and Orissa had not been conquered. 182 collectors ('āmil) were sent off to take care of the crown-lands (Khālṣāt), and as every collector was appointed over an extent of territory which yielded a kror of tangas,* they were popularly known by the name of krorī. At this time the head-officers were Shahbāz Khān, Khwāja Ghīāud-dīn 'Alī Āṣaf Khan, Rai Purakhotam and Rai Rām Dās. By these measures the equipment of the army was provided for, and the country was well governed, while at the same time there was a safe-guard against trickery and embezzlement. H.M. also gave his attention to the regulation of measurements in order that cultivation might be increased. In former times measurements were made by a rope, and thus a difference arose according as the rope was wet or dry. This gave an opportunity for dishonesty. The Shāhin­shāh introduced poles* made of a reed which in Hindi is called 118 bāns (bamboo)—and which poles were joined by iron rings. By this device men's minds were quieted and also the cultivation increased, and the path of fraud and falsehood was closed.

One of the great institutions was that of a Record-office.* It was at this time of smiling fortune that the idea occurred to H.M. An order was issued and it was decreed that whatever proceeded from the court should be recorded so that the officers might have a valuable assistance, and that the administrative orders might be preserved. God be praised! for that what was formed in the hidden chamber of the holy heart was carried into effect. By this excellent device the religious service suitable to the condition of society was performed! The details of these great laws are given in the concluding volume.*

One of the occurrences was that the cupola of chastity Qasīma* Bānū, the daughter of 'Arab Shāh, entered the royal harem. A great feast was given, and the high officers and other pillars of the State were present at it and rejoiced.


Gardens on gardens (of flowers) were scattered in joy.
Caps were flung to sky upon sky.