The* canon of majestic sovereignty and the principles for just rulers, who have charge of spiritual and temporal affairs, require that just as contentment with their position is fitting for good subjects so that they should not be distracted by trying to grasp what they cannot get, and should not extend the foot of desire beyond their condition, so should justice-loving rulers not be satisfied with the countries of which they are in possession, but should set their hearts upon conquering other countries and regard this as a choice form of Divine worship. This is a very important point and one which the 87 far-sighted should keep before their vision. The wise and judicious who understand the spirit of the age have said that if this civilised world, which has been split up owing to the inattention of great souls, were under one able and just ruler of extensive capacity, the dust of dissension would assuredly be laid and mortals find repose. Hence it is that the Adorner of fortune's parterre in our age is continually engaged in the conquest of other countries.

When the arrangements for the expedition had taken shape, Shihābu-d-dīn Aḥmad Khān who was the Vakīl of the Diwān-Khālṣa, and had full control of that department, was left in Agra. At the same time aiyīb Khān was set aside, and Rai Bhagwān Dās was made Mustaufī* of the whole of the imperial dominions and Rai Purukhotam* received a robe of honour and was made Bakhshī. On the day of Dībāẕar 8 Tīr, Divine month, corresponding to Tuesday 29 Ṣafar (15 June 1574), H.M. embarked in company with the august princes and the veiled ladies.


The skill of clever workmen
Made a house to go round the world
'Twas a wondrous device of the master-sage,
A moving house while the inmates stood still
All the travellers went on it
They journeyed with it, seated, while it travelled.

The names of the renowned companions who went with H.M. on this auspicious expedition are as follows:—

1. Rajah Bhagwant Dās.
2. Rajah Mān Singh.
3. Zain Khān Koka.
4. Shahbāz Khān.
5. Ṣādiq Khān.
6. Qāsīm Khān Mīr Baḥr.
7. Rajah Bīr Bar.
8. Jalāl Khān.
9. Mīrzāda 'Alī Khān.
10. Saiyid 'Abdulla Khān.
11. Mādhū Singh.
12. Naqīb Khān.
13. Qamar Khān.
14. Mīr Sharīf.
15. Niyābat Khān.
16. Saiyid Muḥammad Khān Maujī.
17. Ḥakīm 'Aīn-al-mulk.
18. Maliku-sh-shu'arā S. Faiẓī.
19. Peshrau Khān.

Of the Ahl s'āādat (the learned men) there were Shaikh 'Abdu-n-nabī the Ṣadr, Ḥakīm-al-mulk, Qāẓī Y'aqūb* and other distin­guished men.

One of the wonderful things was that H.M. took along with him two mountain-like, swift-as-the-wind elephants. The first one was Bāl Sundar, who was put into one boat with two female elephants. The merits of this elephant are beyond description. Together with rank-breaking might, and strength to cast down mountains he was perfectly sedate and quiet. He showed discretion even when in the height of being mast. He did nothing immoderate without the hint of his driver. The other elephant was called Saman and was a fit companion for the other. He was in another boat along with two females. The spectacle was an astonishing one. The numerous boats of various kinds, the hoisting of sky-high masts, the tumult of the waves of the river, the force of the wind, the rush of the clouds and the rain, the roar of the thunder, and the flashing of the 88 lightning produced a strange appearance. On the day of Mihr 16 Tīr, Divine month, when the fleet halted at Etawah there was a storm in the Jumna, and many of the river-houses were sunk by the waves. On the day of Rām a halt was made at Kālpī; on the day of Anīrān, the 30th Tīr, Divine month, in the village of Cakūr a wicked brah­man,* who from excessive lust had intercourse with his own daughter, was capitally punished. On the day of Shab H.M. halted at Ilahā­bās (Allahabad). On the day of Ormuz, the 1st Amrdād, Divine month, when he left that pleasant station, the river was very bois­terous. There blew a hurricane, and eleven boats were sunk. The orchestra too was damaged, but was saved by the Divine help. As H.M. wished that the baggage (aghrūq)* and the large camp should stay at Jaunpūr, Muḥasan Khān who had charge of that city in accor­dance with orders arranged equipages for a journey by land, but H.M. did not approve of the sacred pavilions being sent on from where he was. Near Ilahābas, Qāsim 'Alī Khān came from the Khān-Khānān and had the bliss of doing homage. He brought reports of the suc­cess of the army. On this day H.M. the Shāhinshāh remembered Ḥusain Khān and inquired why he was not in attendance during this auspicious expedition. It was represented to him that atrabiliousness (sauda) had overcome him, and that he was spending his days in attacking subject-people and in plundering the peasantry. H.M. was displeased on hearing this report, but as the grand expedition was going on, he did not send anyone to chastise him. On the day of Bahman 2 Amardād, Divine month, he set up his standards in Benares. On this day, too, the river was boisterous. Especially this was the case near the fort of Cunār, so that the naval authorities were alarmed. A large number of persons left the boats and came on by the dry land. H.M. put his trust in God and went on by boat with the same open brow and cheerful heart, and he sent on Sher Beg Tawācī-bāshī in a swift skiff to the Khān-Khānān to give him the news of his near approach. He remained three days in that pleasant city (Benares) and on the day of Khirdād cast anchor at the village of Godī which is a dependency of Saiyidpūr and where the river Godī* joins the Ganges. On that day the great camp arrived in the vicinity of the royal stan­dards, and M. Yūsuf Khān and several officers paid their respects.

Though the Shāhinshāh was according to his custom always in appearance engrossed in the great matters of the state, yet by virtue of the principle of seclusion in the midst of society he ever kept up communion with the incomparable Deity, and never for a moment abandoned spiritual contemplation. In order to strengthen this con­nection and seclusion (parda ārāī), sweet, heart-entrancing minstrels 89 whispered in the precincts of his quarters strains of detachment and of increase in ecstacy. On many occasions of his presence Mīr Sharīf* the brother of Naqīb K. read with a beautiful* voice about spiritual love, and H.M. emerged many a time from behind the veil and showed tender-heartedness (riqqat mīfarmūdand) and had wetted eyelashes. O God! this sea of wisdom and ocean of enlightenment would left fall drops of sorrow on account of the blasts of the strong gales of ignorance, and of the deviations of men! Or perhaps it was to teach softness of heart and humility to stony-hearted worldlings that this rosewater of tears was poured forth. Or from the rush of spiritual things he felt cramped in the gilded parlours of externality and so expressed his sorrow. Or from his wide capacity and the shorelessness of the ocean of Divine excellence he regarded his spiri­tual treasures as of small amount, and while possessing a mine of wisdom let trickle forth the regret of non-attainment!


I call for a pilot in Noah's ark
I call for an acquaintance in a kinsman's house
I'm not Jacob, none of mine is in the well
Yet I'm wondering whom I should call (to help).

Before H.M. had left the capital, reports used to come from the Khān-Khānān and the other great officers to the effect that it would be well if H.M.'s army came as far as Jaunpūr, and that Dāūd would inevitably become a wanderer in the wilderness of ruin. The holy lips, which are interpreters of the Divine secrets, remarked thereon that such language was not good, and that the game would not be captured till the humā of his majesty had spread his shadow over the province, and the falcon of his might spread his wings in the atmosphere of that land. But his genius—from a regard to the education of his servants—was willing that the victory should be obtained by them. So by his order the boats were taken up the river Godī in order that they might stay for some time at Jaunpūr, and that what the officers had requested, and what the court had replied, might be impressed upon all high and low. Accordingly, on the day of Mirdād 7 Amardād, Divine month, the standards of for­tune halted in the village of Bahirāj which is a dependency of the pargana of Karākat.* On the day of Dībāẕar when they were stationed at the village of Yaḥyāpūr,* one of the dependencies of Jaunpūr, reports came from the officers to the effect that the difficult knot would be easily untied if H.M. would speedily cast his shadow over them. On the day of Āẕar the princes and the ladies were sent to Jaunpūr by the river Godī. Ḥakīm-ul-mulk, S. Aḥmad, Ikhlāṣ K. and others were left in charge of them and H.M. proceeded to Patna.