H.M. enjoyed himself for three months and twenty-nine days in this country. When the rainy season occurred, it rained here 734 also. The sovereign had varied pleasures and accomplished his devotions to God. His idea was to spend the winter in this delight­ful locality, but from the beginning of Mihr (10 September) it became very cold. The inhabitants of hot countries became somewhat inconvenienced, and out of graciousness, H.M. announced that his design of remaining was abandoned. He resolved on going to India by the old route of Pīrpanjal, after he had seen the sight of the saffron* -beds (in Pānpūr). He gave money to the officers in order that they might make fitting preparations at every stage. On the 25th (Mihr = about 5 October) he embarked in a boat and pro­ceeded towards the exhibition, on his way to India. Next morning he arrived at the saffron-fields. He stayed there seven days, and every day the flowers were harvested. They* were divided among the officers in order that they might superintend the cleaning. At the time when the peasants were impressed for this work, and when deficiency (in produce) was punished (?), two sīrs were obtained from eleven, and occasionally, from thirteen traks. Owing to the great remission (by Akbar) the same quantity was obtained from seven or eight traks. The gathering was done quickly and well owing to the numerous gatherers and the supervision, nor did the rain do any harm. When H.M. had enjoyed the sight, he resumed his journey on 3 Ābān and halted at Khānpūr. Next morning the solar weigh­ment took place, and he was weighed against twelve articles. There was proclamation of liberality, and a world enjoyed success. At this stage the troops were divided, and the rules for traversing the mountains laid down. The Prince-Royal took leave as he was to be the last this time. Up to Pushīāna* the ladies accompanied. On the 9th H.M. himself set out, and on this day Āṣaf K. returned. On the way there fell some snow and rain, but afterwards it became fine. On the 15th he descended from Bhimbhar to Akbarābād, and crowds of men enjoyed themselves. On the 19th at Gujrāt, Maqṣūd Beg, the paternal uncle of Āṣaf K., arrived from Persia and was admitted to an audience. On the 22nd he mounted an elephant and crossed the Chīnāb while the army crossed by a bridge. He hunted* at Gujrāt, Daulatābād and Ḥāfiābād. On 3 Āẕar, 13th or 14th November 1597, he arrived at Lahore. He spent one month and ten days on the road, and there were 27 marches. He reposed in the new palace and engaged in returning thanks to God. By his orders the Daulatkhāna (hall of audience) and some sacred buildings which had been injured by the fire had been rebuilt.

735 One grievous occurrence was the death of Sulān Rustum, the son of Prince Sulān Murād. The affectionate sovereign loved grand-children more than sons, and he (Rustum) was habituated to exalted love so that the counsels* of father or mother did not become the vesture of his heart. From the beginning of discretion he was indignant at anything improper and any excess of anger made him ill. Great endeavours were made to guard his soul, and the noble* lady of the auspicious family cherished him with much affec­tion. Though his age was (only) nine years, three months and five days by the solar calendar, yet he possessed the wisdom of mature men. The light of intelligence shone from his brow, and his behaviour showed nobility of nature. On the night of the 7th (Aẕar = November), after one watch, his stomach became disordered, and he grew delirious. On the 9th, at the third watch of Sunday, this nosegay of intelligence faded, and a world was plunged into sorrow.


The worthless, love-severing world is for the base;
Yea, 'tis so that you may not cleave to it, or be oblivious.
Many musky tresses has it laid in the navel* of the dust;
Many rose-like (gul) faces has it veiled in clay (gil).

Small and great uttered cries of grief, and there was universal weeping. What can be written of the faithlessness of fortune, and the jugglery of the spheres? And why should anything be written? For this is to measure water in a sieve, and to catch wind in a net. In this sorrow the wisdom of great and small becomes foolishness. H.M. by the Divine strength hasted to the pleasant abode of resig­nation, and from abundant wisdom applied balm to the inner wounds. If Time were really in confusion, as some say, this great one would not have attained to the government of the world!

They say that Kai Khasrū out of grief for his son became recalcitrant to wisdom and fell into perturbation. One of the enthu­siasts and free of heart had friendship with him and had always access to him. Every now and then he would come from the desert to the city and go to the king's private chamber. On this occasion he went according to his custom to his private chamber and opened his lips in order to strengthen him. Why, he asked, was the king disturbed, and his heart sorrowful. The king told of the death of the darling of his heart (lit. the corner of his liver). The other said, “Did* you not expect him to die?” The king replied, “How can such a thought be regarded as wise? but I wished him to get some benefit from the world (to taste some of its pleasures).” The other said, “Did he take with him any of the benefits which he had received?” “No,” replied the king. “Then,” said the other, “Reckon that he got all that he desired seeing that he did not carry anything away with him.”

Likewise Alexander the two-horned with all his insight and fortune became confused on the occurrence of a catastrophe of this kind. The tongue of comfort of his intimates became dumb. Aris­totle, who knew the condition of the world, went into his private 736 chamber and said, “Do not think that I have come to console you. My sole idea was that at this time which is one of distress for the tranquil and the wise I might obtain a regulation about patience from you who are the assemblage of excellent qualities.” He awoke on hearing this and had a meeting of instruction.

On 5 Bahman they let loose a cīta against a clever stag. The latter turned and so smote the cīta with his horns that he ran away. The spectators were astonished. Next morning a letter came from the Prince from the Deccan. Some elephants, swords, hawks and wrestlers were sent, and H.M. had some pleasure in their skill.

One of the occurrences was the death of the ruler of Tūrān, 'Abdullah K. He spent some portion of his life in doing justice, but on account of his worship of his son he could not put down his tyranny. The latter, from the idea that he was Regent, hunted the lives of many innocent people, and ruined families. Unmeasured kindness intoxicated that wicked one. He stretched out his arm against the lives, the property and the honour of men. The first duty of a ruler is to inquire from time to time into the characters of his sons, his relatives and his intimates,—for complaints against them are not soon preferred—and in the administration of justice, to make no difference between them and others. He must not slumber over his kingly duties. He ('Abdullah) from excess of affection could not give him paternal counsel, and after a long time he gave him the advices of a mother. Consequently that slumbrous-witted one increased his insolence. The old age of the ruler and the vogue of flatterers withheld him from acting rightly.* He regarded the remon­strances of the right-thinking and honest-speaking—who were not afraid for themselves—as prompted by self-interest. At last he (the son) gradually conceived the thought of attempting his father's life. He lay in wait for an opportunity. One day he ('Abdullah) was enjoying the pleasure of hunting along with some friends. That wicked one quickly proceeded to execute his project (of killing his father). A good man gave information to the Khān, and he speedily came to Bokhara. The wretch was ashamed of his failure and set himself to invest the city. Honest servants and sincere friends soon gathered together, and the worthless fellow withdrew with failure. The Khān set out to punish him. The latter did not find himself able to resist and crossed the Āmū, and destroyed the boats. At this time Toqal* Qazzāq came out of the desert (dasht) and attacked. The Khān returned to oppose him, and the latter returned without having plundered Samarkand. 'Abdullah fell very ill in that city and Muḥammad Bāqī Beg and some double-faced intimates (of 'Abdullah) sent for that wicked one ('Abdu-l-Mūmīn). He came quickly from Balkh. When the Khān got a little better, he sent him a message to go back. He did not accept it, but came on slowly. Muḥammad Bāqī—who was the prime minister (vakīl)—invited the Khān to an entertainment, and in that house of hypocrisy he died on 14 Bahman, 24 January* 1598. Prob- 737 ably that ingrate administered poison in his food, and so garnered everlasting disgrace. In order to refresh the fountain of my words I here record his genealogy.

By sixteen generations he was descended—through Jūjī—from the great Qāān Cingīz K. 'Abdullah K. was the son of Sikandar K., s. Jānī Beg, s. Muḥammad Sulan, s. Abu-l-Khair K. s. J. Daulat Oghlān, s. Ibrahīm, s. Pulād, s. Sūrānca Sulān, s. Maḥmud Khwāja K., s. Qāan Bāī, s. Rābil Bāk, s. Mangu* Taimūr, s. Badaqul, s. Jūjī Būqā, s. Shaiban, s. Jūjī, s. Cingīz K. Jūjī died before the Qāān (Cingīz), and no great sovereign sprang from him, though some were rulers of Dasht Qipcāq. Among these Abū-ul-Khair attained some distinction. Sulān Abū S'aīd M. with his help took, after a battle, Samarkand from M. 'Abdullah, s. of Ibrāhīm M., s. of the great ruler Shahrukh M. When he died, there was a great confusion in the Uzbeg tribe. After some time Shaibak K., s. Budāq K., s. Abu-l-khair, took shelter at the court of Sulān Aḥmad M., s. Sulān Abū S'aīd M., and was rescued from the hardship of fate.

When Sulān Abū S'aīd M. died, he raised up the head* of independence in Tūrān and after Sulān Ḥusain M.'s time Shaibak K. came to Khurāsan, and fought with his sons and took the country. Near Merv he fought with Shāh Ism'aīl Ṣafvī and was killed along with many others. The rule of Transoxiana then fell to Kotchkimji K., s. Abu-l-khair, who is also called Kocam K. When he died, his son Abū S'aīd K. succeeded him. After him came Ubayd-Ullah K., s. Maḥmūd K., s. Shāh Budāq, s. Abū-l-khair K., and Tūrān became somewhat civilised. He had two sons, 'Abdu-l-'azīz K., and Muḥam­mad Raḥīm Sulān. But the sovereignty went to Ubaid K., the son of Kocam K. Afterwards his brother 'Abdu-l-laīf mounted the throne. When he died,* Borak K., s. Soncak K., s. Abu-l-khair K., became ruler. He prevailed over Turkistan, Transoxiana, and some parts of Khurāsān. When his destiny was accomplished, there were provincial kings (Mulūk awāīf). Darvesh K. and Baba K., his 738 sons, ruled in Turkistān, and Burhān, grandson of 'Abdullah K., in Bokhārā. In Samarkand there was Sulān S'aīd K., s. Abū S'aīd K., s. Kocam K. In Balkh there was Pīr Muḥammad K., s. Jānī Beg K. 'Abdullah K. (his brother's son) was spending his days in his service. By skill and courage he prevailed over his kindred, and he said to Pīr Muḥammad K., “As there is no one in the tribe older than my father, it is fitting that in accordance with the ancestral laws, the proclamation and the coinage (khuba-u-sikka) should be in his name. Pīr Muḥammad was obliged to agree, and for a while the govern­ment was in his (Iskandar's) name while the real power was with 'Abdullah K. In the 27th Divine year Sikandar K. died and his son 'Abdullah K. had the proclamation and the coinage made in his own name. When he died, his son Abdul-Mūmīn succeeded him.

On the 28th Bahman the lunar weighment took place, and there was a great feast in the quarters of Miriam Makānī. H.M. was weighed against eight articles, and various conditions of men obtained their desires.