Boundless thanksgivings are due to the Initiator who, by the marvels of His eternal power, has by so many glorious sciences, that is, the categories of His Wisdom, brought forth the varied universe from the privy-chamber of secrecy to the Court of mani­festation, and has subdued, disciplined, and soothed the tribes of mankind and bestowed on them unity* of sentiment; at one time, by spiritual rulers, that is, the holy spirits of prophets and of our great apostles—upon whom be peace—and at another, has by the dread power of temporal monarchs, who are the princely pillars of the courts of His Majesty, given them the adornment of external unity. Therefore, let worlds of blessings be given to the spirits of the caravan-leaders on the highway of purpose who have conveyed spiritual travellers and worldly pilgrims from the desert of misery and the wilderness of contrariety to the metropolis of right direction and friendship, and have then departed to the privy-chamber of eternity. And may universes of sublime aids and celestial succours attend those great men who preserve the present time from the dis­turbance of strife and the accidents of fortune and expend al?? their lofty genius in keeping the whole of mankind, whether home or foreign, in peace and tranquillity, and in improving this evi?? dwelling-place (the world).

At the time of enjoyment when the season was auspicious and our heart glad and we were in the pleasant country of Kabul we read with delight those choice pages of friendship, which were the masterpiece of the pinacothek of concord, … (Here follows a string of compliments about 'Abdullah's letter and his expression of amity. They occupy about seven lines.)

705 What you have written with a pen perfumed with brotherhood on the subject of our mutually exerting ourselves to strengthen the foundations of Peace, and to purify the fountains of concord, and of making this Hindu* Koh the boundary between us, has most fully commended itself to us. Clearly, there is no nobler thing in the outward universe and social state than Love and Harmony, for the due ordering of the classes of human beings is linked and bound up therewith. Whenever this idea is manifested in the ranks of sovereigns—who are pillars of the courts of Majesty—it shall assuredly be fruitful of blessings, and procreant of beauties here and hereafter. By it thousands of souls and tribes shall take their rest in the cradles of safety! It* would have been fitting for us to begin the exposition of the ways of peace, and the demonstration of the rights of friendship, seeing that since the commencement of the unfolding of the morning of auspiciousness, the whole of our righteous practice has been—contrary to the ways of most of former rulers —to follow the path of amity and association with the various nations of mankind. As* your Highness has entered upon this subject, it is proper that at this time you should give your attention to instances of such conduct. For example, when at this time the ruler of Īrān, relying upon former ties, sent Yādgār Sulān Shāmlū to us and asked for help, we did not consent. Also, when Shāhrukh M. petitioned that he might have a fief in Kābul, or Kashmīr, or Sawād, Bajaur and Tīrāh—which are cold* countries—we did not grant his request, having taken into consideration the proximity (of 'Abdullah), but gave him a fief in the province of Mālwa. Also we summoned the Mírzās of Qandahār to court and committed the charge of that country—which belonged from of old to the imperial territories—to old servants of ours, lest the Tūrān troops should attack that quarter under the idea that it appertained to Persia, and also* that there might be a great commingling of your territories and ours. Also a wicked vagabond raised the head of disturbance in the hill-country of Badakhshān and claimed to be the son of Shāhrukh M. and was joined by the landholders there. Though he sent petitions and asked for help, we did not attend to him, and at last he became a vagabond in the desert of ruin.

As the keeping of one's word is indispensable to a great mind, we desired that when proposals of peace had once been made, they should be carried into effect. In fact, if the cordial expressions conveyed by messengers and letters be acted upon, what could be better? Or let a place be fixed and let us there have a feast of con­cord, and let us there discuss, without the intervention of any go-between, matters of religion and state, and things temporal and spiritual! It has come to our hearing that a number of fly-like creatures have made our being in the Panjāb their text and have spoken things contrary to the foundations of friendship. Alas, that things which never entered into our minds, should have been men­tioned! or that actions should be contrary to one's avowals! Although the climate and the hunting in this country are agreeable to us, we have determined* to proceed to Agra the capital, in order that the mouths of praters may be closed. What you have written about there being a cloud on your heart with reference to the matter of Shāhrukh M. is a thing which gives rise to meditation, for if in the souls of great rulers who are the contemplators of divine lights, and the exponents of the ways of purity, the dust of rivalry settle, what can be the case with other classes of mankind? Espe­cially when the cause of them is his (Shāhrukh's) youth and igno­rance. Why should these not be obliterated by the waters of pardon? He by his self-will had committed faults against our family, and in retribution therefor became a bewildered one in the desert of exile. When he took refuge with us, and signs of repentance were visible on his forehead we passed over (his offences). As to what you have hinted, seeing that the coming of Shahrukh M. and the sons of Muḥammad Ḥakīm to our court are merely instances of our love for the noble family, why should you regard their approach in this light? What, on account of love and friendship, you have detailed about your victories has pleased us for we have considered these successes as the result of your good qualities. As to what you have written in the letter brought by Maulānā Ḥusainī to the effect that your son in consequence of tender years had made improper requests, and about your being vexed at this lest it should cast dust on the skirt of our friendship, and with reference to your lengthy apologising on his account—the courier was drowned on the way before his arrival and so the purport of the letter did not become known. We were sorry for the catastrophe. The ties of ancient relationship and the associations of renewed love are not such that, if it be granted that something should occur, any dust of vexation should settle on the skirt of friendship. Children are sportive with their real fathers, especially with your Majesty; if they behave in the same way to those who stand towards them in a similar relation, what marvel is it? Auspicious children who make the pleasing of their father their object, exert themselves to preserve the relationship. The glorious compacts and agreements—which have been ratified by skilful ambassadors, one after the other, are fixed in our mind. In the code of Islām and the rules of generosity one-hundredth part of them would be sufficient for making per­manent the pillars of friendship and concord, and still more in the case of the liberal and the choosers of truth. What you have written about certain expeditions having been postponed till the arrival 707 of Aḅmad 'Alī Atālīq has been understood. You will have heard of his death which occurred after we had given him leave to return. He was intelligent and active-minded. If he had returned to you, you would have heard from him many secrets of affection. May every desire of your heart be accomplished! Every assistance that is due from friendship shall be shown (by us), so that praiseworthy endeavours may be manifested.

God be praised that from the beginning of our ascending the throne of rule till now, which is the tenth year of the second* cycle, and is the dawning of the morning of fortune, and the opening smile of the spring of dominion and glory, the whole righteous aim of this suppliant at the Divine court has been to disregard his own interests, and to work always for the healing and ordering of mankind. By the blessing of God, the vast territory of Hindustan,* * * * * * * *

When Maulānā Ḥusainī presented himself, an order was given to the officers to allow him to depart quickly. Meanwhile some ill-fated wretches in Kashmīr began strife and sedition (fitna u fasād) and contended against God-given dominion. The army 710 of fortune assembled, together with a number of courtiers, under the guise of hunting, when the eyes of instruction of the beholders of the Divine power were opened, and the report of the distur­bances was heard. In spite of the violence of the rains, we hastened thither, and before the holy warriors had passed through the defiles, some right-thinking persons who, out of necessity, had become involved in the tempest of indiscretion, obtained their opportunity, and brought the head of their leader. As the army had nearly arrived, we went on to that autumnless garden, and tasted spiritual and temporal abundance in that bounteous rose-garden. The dis­patch of the ambassador was delayed, and when the royal army returned, news was received by the way of the catastrophe of Maulānā Ḥusainī, who had passed away owing to a stomach-attack. This was a cause of much sorrow. Accordingly, we sent some loving words by means of that high officer Khwāja Ashraf,* who is an old servant of our family, in order that he might show the matter to your Highness, and also confirm the friendly ties which are based on correspondence. We hope that tidings of love and unity may ever refresh the garden of the heart. The end.

On the 30th* the privy chamber of wisdom was illuminated by a ray from the Shāhinshāh's glory, and some special intimates received joy. Suddenly there arose the noise of a marriage and H.M. ordered that the music should be stopped, as a foreign sound did not suit the banquet of enlightenment. The spectators received collyrium on beholding his mildness, farsight, fewness of words, and acceptance of remark.

At this time the Prince Royal became violently enamoured of the daughter of Zain K. Koka, and meditated marrying* her. H.M. was displeased at the impropriety, but when he saw that his heart was immoderately affected, he, of necessity, gave his consent. There was a great feast, and a new law for joy.