From the time when, by the order of H.M., Shāh Muḥammad 645 Qilāti made over Qandahar to the agents of Shāh ahmāsp and came to India, the Shāh (ahmāsp) had given it to his brother's son Sulan Ḥusain M., the son of Bahrām M. He always behaved respectfully to H.M. and sent presents, and reckoned himself as a servant. As he always kept the chain of obedience in motion, Qandahar was not taken from him in spite of the Shāh's death. He died of drinking in the 21st year, leaving four* sons: Moaffar Ḥusain M., Rustum M., Abū S'aīd M., Sanjar M. From courtesy and appreciation of rank, that populous country was left to them. Shāh Ism'āīl—that blood­shedder—set about, in his distracted brain, the slaying of his brothers and his other relatives. He appointed some persons to put those at Qandahar to death. Those sent got hold of them, but cupidity and the gratification of their wishes led to the preservation of life. When the Shāh heard of this, he became indignant, and assigned Qandahar to Shāh Qulī Sulān Ẕū-ul-Qadr, and the latter sent Budāgh Beg to take their lives and to annex the country. The murderers trembled* for themselves and arranged that on the following morning they would put them to death. Suddenly a report spread that the blood­shedder was dead, and the innocent persons escaped. When the government of Persia came to Sulan Muḥammad Khudābanda, he left them in possession of the country. M. Moaffar Ḥusain, the elder brother, was in Qandahar, while Rustum M. and his two other brothers lived in Zamīn Dāwar. From selfwill and the turbulence of youth, they quarrelled among themselves. Moaffar Ḥusain was defeated and retired to the fort. Rustum M. invested it for forty days, but by contrivances, peace was made and they met one another. When 'Abdullah Khān, the ruler of Tūrān, besieged Herat, Īgān Sulān Afshār, the governor of Farāh, by means of entreaties brought Rustum M. to his aid. He fought with the Turanian soldiers and did not give up Farāh. From not knowing his friends, and from som­nolence of intellect, he (Rustum) killed Īgān Sulān. Sulaimān Khalīfa joined him from Khurāsān in order that he might make the Mīrzā an instrument of strife, but a happy star prevented the Mīrzā from acceding to this. But at his instigation he laid hands upon Sīstān which is commonly known as Nīmroz. Moaffar Ḥusain M. found his opportunity and hastened to make an expedition against Zamin Dāwar. Rustum M. came there, and a great battle ensued. Moaffar Ḥusain M. could not withstand him and retreated to Qandahar. Mercenary and fly-like creatures were continually going from one to the other, and were disturbing the public peace. When the old enmity had got the upper hand, they severed the ancient connection with Persia, and did not attach themselves to the Shāhinshāh's court. At last, the elder brother prevailed, and took Zamīn Dāwar. M. Rustum came to Herat and attacked Qilāt. Meanwhile a report was spread of the approach of the victorious troops, and M. Rustum had the good thought of making friendly overtures to Sharīf K. Atka, the governor of Ghaznīn. He also sent a humble representation to the sublime court, and expressed a wish to pay his respects. A comforting letter was sent to him by Mīrak Jalaīr and Mihtar Ibrāhīm, and an order was given to the fief-holders 646 on the route that they should regard the coming of the Mīrzā as an honour, and show him proper respect. When he arrived within the empire, Qarā Beg, Ḥakīm 'Aīn-ul-Mulk and Bakhtyār Beg were sent one after the other, and when he had nearly approached, Sharīf K. Atka, Shāh Beg K., Āṣaf K. and other officers were sent off (to meet him). On 12 Mihr, which was the festival of the Dasaraha, the Khān-Khānān, Zain K., and others received him and brought him into the presence. He glorified his forehead by per­forming the sijda. Sanjar M., his younger brother, and his four sons, Murād, Shāhrukh, Ḥasan, Ibrāhīm and 400 Turkomans had the honour of an audience. Every one of them was exalted by princely favours. H.M. conferred on him a manṣab of 5,000, Multan and many parganas, and Bilūcistān—which is larger than Qandahar.* On the 18th, Qāsim K. came from Kabul and did homage, and was the recipient of royal favours.

In this year Prince Sulan Daniel was saved by the Divine pro­tection from a sudden danger. A great uproar occurred in the female apartments. The souls of the servants there melted. The world's lord came out to offer prayers. At evening there was some carelessness on the part of the sentinels. A madman thought it was the public hall, and entered the harem. The prince saw him and ran after him. Near the inner pigeon-house he flung him on the ground and got on the top of him. Thinking the man might use a weapon, he held both his arms tightly, and twisted them. The inner servants, who were Circassians, Qalmāqs, Russians (Arūs, text has Ardūs), and Abyssinians, rushed after him, and taking the prince for a stranger they attacked him with sticks and clods (khisht, perhaps bricks). From promptitude, the prince did not let go the man. At this time H.M. came out, and saw the affair. He stated: “When I approached, I thought of using my sword, and so drove off the girls. A beam which had been left at the pigeon-house prevented me from doing what I intended. Thinking that the prince was a stranger I seized him by the hair, and dragged him, and wanted to prick him with the point* of my sword. Suddenly, my wrath subsided, and mighty love seized the skirt of my heart.” At the same time it appeared that the prince had thought the mad­man was an evil-intentioned man in his senses and so was holding him down. The lunatic was let go.

One of the occurrences was the despatch of Prince Sulan Daniel to chastise Burhān-ul-Mnlk. As words of enlightenment did not enter his ears, and he regarded advices as futilities, H.M.'s idea was that he would go to Agra and from there appoint the troops. But as 647 provisions were somewhat high in that quarter his intention was not carried out. He was obliged to send away Prince Sulan Daniel on the eve of the 25th Mihr to carry out the undertaking. He sent with him the Khān-khānān, Rai Rai Singh and many officers, and treasure, a park of artillery, and elephants. An order was given to Shāhrukh M., Shahbāz K. and the other fief-holders of Mālwa to equip troops and to proceed with the prince. An order was also given to Rajah Mān Singh to the effect that if he could turn away his attention from Bengal he should proceed from there to the Deccan. An order was also written to Prince Sulan Murād that he should make preparations for the conquest of the Deccan, and that when the soldiers had been gathered together from every side, near him, he should carry out the order. On the 4th Ābān, the solar weighment took place, and H.M. was weighed against twelve articles. A world had its desires gratified.

At this time the marriage-feast of Prince Sulan Daniel was arranged. For a long time it had been H.M.'s intention that the daughter of Qulīj K. should be united to this pearl of the crown. At this time the idea was renewed, and on the 5th, the grandees were assembled outside of the city, and the marriage was effected. There were various rejoicings and there was a daily market of enjoy­ment. It occurred to Qulīj K. that H.M. might visit his house. In gratitude for this great favour he arranged a feast. His request was accepted, and on the 13th there was a time of enjoyment. On the 20th, H.M. spent some time in the Rāmbārī garden, and M. Yūsuf K. obtained leave to go to Kashmīr. Artificers by the com­mand of H.M. commenced to build four ships. On 7th Āẕar, Sulan Khusrū commenced to learn Indian philosophy. Shīv Dat Brahman, who was famed as the Bhattācārje of the age, and had few equals in science, was appointed to this service. Sulan Rustūm* and Sulan Parvīz were set to learn knowledge, and by H.M.'s orders the writer of the book of fortune taught something of the alphabet. On the 17th, the elephants of M. Koka, which had been left in Gujarat, were brought, and were presented. On 3rd Dai, H.M. went to Sulanpūr to hunt. On the 8th, near Haibatpūr, news came that Prince Daniel was still in Sirhind, and that the army was not mak­ing progress. H.M. did not approve, and his former idea revived (of going in person to Agra, etc.). He summoned the Khān-khānān to come post to him. Near the town of Shaikhūpūr* he had an audi­ence. He represented that “the time for the army to enter the Deccan was after the rains. Water and forage would then be plentiful, and corn cheap. On this account there was slowness of movement.” When a council was held it was unanimously agreed that Prince Daniel should return, and that when the rains were ended, the royal standards should advance, and that the Prince should remain to 648 guard the Panjab. H.M. also said, “Since I ordered Prince Sulan Murād to go on this service, perhaps this sending (of Daniel) may vex him.” Qulīj K. was sent off to turn back the Prince. At this time a large black deer appeared on the hunting ground. The sovereign so struck it with an arrow that it did not move, and when an enquiry was made it was found that the bones of its waist were broken. The head (of the arrow) came out with difficulty. Some persons stated that in the Ajmere expedition a large tiger had been knocked over in this way. The acute of sight were astonished. On the 15th near Sulanpūr the Khān-khānān obtained leave in order that he might assemble the troops in Agra. H.M. returned. On the 17th, near Patīāla, Prince Sulan Daniel did homage. An extraordinary thing was that on this day a petition came from Prince Sulan Murād representing that “he had come to Aḥmadābād on 6 Āẕar, and was preparing for the expedition to the Deccan. He had heard that Prince Sulān Daniel had also been appointed to this service. H.M.'s sublime thoughts were pleasing to God, but he (Murād) feared lest he might have done something improper, or med­dlers might have said something unfitting.” H.M., from his knowledge of secrets, had anticipated his wishes. On the 22nd, H.M. arrived at Lahore, and the world reposed anew.

One of the occurrences was the increase of saffron* in Kashmīr. Formerly each seed yielded less than three flowers, and the amount received by government did not exceed 20,000 traks, but was not less than 7,000. Once in M. Haidar's time it was 28,000 traks. This year when it became khālṣa the ruler's share was 90,000 traks. Though there was more land under cultivation, yet the flowers were also more than usual. Every seed yielded up to eight flowers. On 18 Bahman, the report was received, and thanks were returned to God.

One of the occurrences was the destruction of the Kashmīr porters. Numerous traders were bringing their goods. Near Pīr Panjāl there was a fall of snow, and a hillock was dislodged. 115 men lost their lives under it. In accordance with justice the goods reached the owners and the despairing had their desires gratified.

At this time Rai Patr Dās was sent to conquer the fort of Bandhū. It is one of the famous fortresses of the world. When Rājah Rām Cand and his son died, wicked men made the young grandchild an instrument of strife, and rose up to oppress the peasantry. H.M. on 1 Isfandārmaẕ sent that servant to civilise the country and to punish the evil-doers, and to take the fort. Next day Abū S'aīd M. had an audience. He was the brother of Rustūm M., and had remained behind in Qandahar. At this time he was exalted by doing homage, and was gratified by princely favours. On the 13th, Rajah Mān Singh did homage. After conquering 649 Orissa, he came to Rohtās. H.M. had called him to himself. When he arrived within one stage of Lahore, the Prince-Royal was given leave* from the hunting field. An order was given that as during the mourning for Rajah Bhagwānt Das, condolences had not been sent to the Rajah (Mān Singh, the adopted son of Bhagwānt), the Prince-Royal should proceed from the hunting-ground to his quar­ters. The order was carried out, and that chosen servant (Mān Singh) obtained high honour. Naṣīb, Lodī and Jamāl, the sons of Qutlū, Jalāl K. Khāṣkhel … Yūsuf Kāshī Pānde, Purusotam— who were headmen in Orissa—were introduced by the Rajah. On the 14th, Ismaīl Qulī K. arrived from Gujarat, and did homage On the 22nd, M. Yūsuf* arrived from Kashmīr.