The best worship by a sovereign is the choosing of right think­ing men and the appointing them to look after the weak, especially 598 when the former adorn high birth by good qualities. Such is the conduct of our sovereign lord. He is always testing friends and strangers, and exalting the humble. He looks after the neighbour­ing rulers. If they sympathise with mortals by administering justice, etc., no harm comes to them, and he encourages them. Other­wise entreaties do not prevent him from inflicting retribution. But he begins by giving advice, and holds forth both hopes and fears. When the rulers of the Deccan took to behaving ill, he sent able men to advise them. He also exalted Prince Sulān Murād, who was adorned with fitting qualities, and gave him a standard, a kettledrum, an umbrella and a togh (banner), and appointed Mālwa as his fief. On the night of 4th Mihr, 14th* September, 1591, after the lapse of two hours, he was sent off there after receiving weighty counsels. H.M.'s idea was that if the rulers of the South were not impressed by the good advices, punishment should be prepared for them. I record here some of the weighty advices which he hung on the ears of that honoured son, and thereby communicate the materials of wisdom.

“The first step is to enquire into what is God's Will, in order that right actions may be performed. After that, outward purifi­cation is to be pursued. Food and clothing are not to be made ends. Profundity of view is to be exercised. Tyrannous actions are to be abstained from. The rules of moderation and of fitting season are not to be departed from. Every member (of the body) is to be kept to its proper office. Much speaking and laughing are to be avoided Sleep is not to exceed one-third part of the day and night (nychthe­meron). There must be an endeavour to improve the army, and the country, to provide for the safety of the roads, and the obedience of the refractory; and thieves and robbers must be put down. Then attention is to be paid to internal improvement. Lust and wrath must be subjected to the commands of Wisdom, for the Creator has placed two* sentinels in the palace of the body. The one sees that proper things are done; the other that evil things are abstained from. The children of men out of somnolent intellect have given these two a loose rein, and have made what should be the adornment of life the supplier of death. Do not neglect the knowledge of what is right, and support the power of the ruler (Reason). Preserve the equability of the four humours, and keep far from excess and defect which constitute evil. Use justice and discretion in this daily mar­ket of hypocrisy and double-facedness. The worship of the choosers of bypaths who have severed the links of association is one thing, and that of those who are bound in the improvement of the world is another. Though* the idea of both is development, yet the former never departs from awakedness, while insouciance is suitable to the latter. Study the actions of every one, and be not disturbed by seeing improprieties. Let not love or hate, or threats or encourage­ments, transgress bounds. A frown will effect with many, what in other men requires a sword and dagger. Let not difference of reli­gion interfere with policy, and be not violent in inflicting retribution. Adorn the confidential council with men who know their work. If apologies be made, accept them. Be not stiff in your own opinions. 599 Do not consider any one suitable for this employment (the giving of advice) except a far-seeing, right-thinking and disinterested per­son. Do not make ease* your rule, and do not reject help in the day of (your) distress. Do not be dismayed by much ill-success. Choose the observance of your promises above all advantage to your self, and live so that the crowds of foreigners be not distressed. Especially see to it that merchants have a good opinion of you for their report carries far. Expect* from every one service in pro­portion to his ability. Be not deceived in your inquiries by glozing words. Love is produced by one of four things. 1st. The idea of worldly advantage. This is slow to come and soon goes. 2nd. Spiri­tual advantage. This is the opposite of the first. 3rd. Goodness of disposition. This lasts throughout life. Its permanency or its non-existence depends upon wisdom.* 4th. Loyalty (Ikhlāṣ). One must by the route of this fourfold stream look narrowly into the condition of followers, and regulate his actions according to such knowledge. You must study instructive books, and apply your knowledge to practice. Secure the affection of contented hermits and of the matted-haired and barefooted. Be not uplifted by beholding those who have been robbed of splendour. Apply yourself to sympathising with the soldier, and give him his pay in due season. Demand from every one suit­able horses, arms and tents for him. Reward good service. Do not lose sight of an old servant. Fail not to encourage the husbandman. For every employment secures truthful and active-minded men, so that they may do good work without desire of money,* or of greatness or praise. Do not withhold your own supervision from them. Exalt the right-thinking, and admonish and punish the foolish. Be not satisfied in the administration of justice with oaths and witnesses. Make various inquiries and study the book of the forehead (the physi­ognomy). Do not introduce new customs which yield little advan­tage and much evil. Make over the Passes to brave and experienced men and neglect not the security of the roads. In prosperity remem­ber adversity, and prepare remedies for everything. Choose a good companion, and be not offended at his truthful speech. Obey wis­dom and refrain from ebullitions of temper.” He gave him many delightful counsels. It is to be hoped that fortune will favour him, and that something of what has been said will lead to action. Ismāil 600 Qulī K. … (here follow 7 lines of names) and many others accompanied that nursling of fortune. The fief-holders of Mālwa were also appointed to choice service. From among them Ism'aīl Qulī K. was made Vakīl and Mukhtār Beg, Bakhshī. Next day the writer of the noble volume was sent to expound some of the admonitions, and represent that there was spiritual union (with Akbar) though there was physical separation. I was also to ascertain and report the wishes of the prince, and to endeavour to carry them out. There was a confidential meeting. The pearl of the kingly diadem (Murād) uttered pleasing words, and the sovereign was delighted on hear­ing them, and said “I hope that prosperity will not produce somno­lence and that the society of the good will act as a guard.

On the 21st H.M. went out to hunt, and some ladies accom­panied him. He went as far as the Cenāb, and he enjoyed himself. Though hunting was the object, yet many oppressed persons obtained justice; and many refractory persons were chastised. On the 25th near Shāham 'Alī he received the news of the disaffection of Naar Be and of his death. He and his sons had received high rank and been given a jāgīr, in Handīa. As the wine of self-will does not agree with narrow capacities, they soon became oppressors. When Burhān-al-Mulk went to the Deccan … Naar Be's sons accompanied him without orders. He himself, thinking that Gujarāt was empty, went off there. On hearing this, M. Koka made peace with the Jām and returned. When that crooked-minded one (Naar) saw that fortune was not in his favour, he represented that he had come in order to see how things were going on. When the Kokaltāsh heard this, he did not expose* him, but politely dis­missed him. He did not go to his jāgīr, but went to the Deccan. When he came to Khāndesh, Rajah 'Alī K. gave him a warm welcome for a time, but had the prudence to send him back unsuccessful. Near Sāwal* the Kūlīān (a tribe) blocked his path, and in the fight he was killed. At this time his sons left Burhānu-l-Mulk, and stirred up strife in Mālwa. Khwāja Muḥibb 'Alī Dīwān gathered together Jamālu-d-dīn Ḥusain and other fief-holders of the province, and set forth to remedy matters. The wicked men dispersed there­upon, and near Bījagarh* fought with the landholders and were defeated. Qambar* Be was wounded, and died. Shādī Be and some followers came to Nadarbār (Naẕarbār). The agents of Qulīj K. bound him and brought him to court. H.M. was kind to him and sent him to Bengal.

On 1* Ābān the festival of the solar weighment was celebrated. In Bādalgarha H.M. was weighed against twelve articles, and the world rejoiced. All got their desires. An order was given to Zain K. Koka, who was the fiefholder of the place, to convert the site of the weighment into a garden. H.M. gave it the name of Zainā­bād. At this time it occurred to H.M. to found a large city on the 601 bank of the Cenāb, and that thus an old idea would be carried into effect. Skilful men pointed out several sites. On the 6th (Ābān) Ḥakim Miṣrī, Ḥakīm 'Alī, Khwāja Muḥammad Ḥusaīn and Mīr āhir were sent to examine both banks of the river. They selected two spots. One was on the other side, between Pargūwāl and Ḥāj­wāl, and was a dependency of Bahlūlpūr.* The other was on this side, and near the town of Sūdhara. An order was given that the Greek and Indian astrologers should ascertain a propitious time. As they fixed one that was somewhat remote, the work was not under­taken.